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Emily Pauline Johnson bridged the gap between Europeans and Indians by writing and performing Indian themed works in a style that appealed to Europeans.

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Presentation on theme: "Emily Pauline Johnson bridged the gap between Europeans and Indians by writing and performing Indian themed works in a style that appealed to Europeans."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emily Pauline Johnson bridged the gap between Europeans and Indians by writing and performing Indian themed works in a style that appealed to Europeans. (Gridley 72) (Cochran) Born: March 10, 1861 Died: March 7, 1913 (An enlarged copy of E. Pauline Johnsons Signature)

2 Tekahionwake means double wampum or double life. Her mother was English and her father was Mohawk Indian. Her education consisted of a blend of traditional Indian heritage and English literature. Pauline Johnson was one of the first writers to focus on themes surrounding Indian women, their mixed heritage, and their quest for identity. (Roemer 6) Her most popular short story, A Red Girls Reasoning portrays the dilemma of the mixed-blood woman who must choose between her values and her marriage to a man of European descent. (Ruoff 67) You cannot make me come,… neither church, nor law, nor even …nor even love can make a slave of a red girl. (Gilbert and Gubar 1425) Johnson used two costumes during her performances, a buckskin Indian costume and an evening gown, to emphasize her mixed- blood heritage. (Ruoff 61) (This is a picture of Pauline Johnson wearing a very stylish dress) (E. Pauline Johnson)

3 Some critics saw her as a woman watering down her Indian heritage in order to cater to European preferences. She struggled with this herself and wrote to her lawyer in 1894 telling him …I hate and despise brain debasement, literary potboiling and yet I have done, will do these things, though I sneer at my own littleness in doing…the reason is that the public will not listen to lyrics, will not appreciate real poetry, will not in fact have me as an entertainer if I give them nothing but rhythm, cadence, beauty, thought. (Weaver 83) She believed she had to placate to Europeans in order to get her message across, and duplicity was the price she had to pay in order to gain a hearing. (Weaver 83) In the introduction to Johnsons Moccasin Maker, A. LaVonne Brown Ruoff states that she compromised her growth as a writer in order to sell books and tickets to her performances. (Bloom 63) (These young people are posing for the photo in traditional native dress)

4 (This picture was in a booklet) (This native named Pi-A- Pot poses for the picture) (This card was Paulines)

5 (This is a closeup of the Pauline Johnson stamp. It is postmarked for It was the 100th anniversary stamp)

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7 An enlarged copy of E. Pauline Johnson's signature. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept < Bloom, Harold. Native American Woman Writers. Philadelphia. Chelsea House Publishers Net Library. Web. 3 September Cochran, Portrait of poet Tekahionwake (Pauline E. Johnson) Brantford, Ontario. Framing Canada. Web. 4 September http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/framingcanada/ e.html E. Pauline Johnson. Native American Writers of the United States. Ed. Kenneth M. Roemer. Dictionary of Literary Biography v Detroit: Gale Research, Literature Resource Center. Gale. Lake Land College. 28 Aug E. Pauline Johnson. N.D. Photograph. Chiefswood National Historic Site. Web. 3 Sept, Gilbert, Sandra M., and Susan Gubar, eds. The Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Traditions in English. 3 rd ed. Volume 1. New York; Norton, Print. Gridley, Marion E. American Indian Women. New York. Hawthorn Books, Inc Print. Johnson, Emily Pauline (Tekahionwake, Double Wampum) (Mohawk), In Encyclopedia of the Haudenosaunee[Iroquois Confederacy], Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, The American Indian Experience. Greenwood Publishing Group. 3 Sep < 1773&path=encyclopedias/greenwood/#textml > Johnston, Sheila. perf. The Song My Paddle Sings. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. N.d. Web. 3 Sept

8 Weaver, Jace. That The People Might Live. New York. Oxford University Press Print. This card was Pauline's. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept < This is a closeup of the Pauline Johnson stamp. It is postmarked for It was the 100th anniversary stamp. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept < This is a picture of Pauline Johnson wearing a very stylish dress. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept pjohnson/photos.html This native named Pi-A-Pot poses for the picture. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept This Picture was in a Booklet. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept http://www.humanities.mcmaster.ca/~ pjohnson/photos.html These young people are posing for the photo in traditional native dress. N.d. Photograph. The Pauline Johnson Archive. McMaster University. Web. 7 Sept <


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