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Three traditions which fused to create early medieval society in Western Europe: Christianity. Greco-Roman heritage. Non-Roman peoples north of the Alps.

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Presentation on theme: "Three traditions which fused to create early medieval society in Western Europe: Christianity. Greco-Roman heritage. Non-Roman peoples north of the Alps."— Presentation transcript:

1 Three traditions which fused to create early medieval society in Western Europe: Christianity. Greco-Roman heritage. Non-Roman peoples north of the Alps.

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3 Cloisonné Metalworking technique where small metal strips (cloisons or partitions) are soldered edge-up to a metal background. The compartments are then filled with semiprecious stones, colored glass, or glass paste. The edges of the cloisons are an important part of the design. Fibula A decorative pin used to fasten garments. Viking Seafaring Scandinavian empire, pagan pirates and traders (viks means trading places). They conquered much of northern Europe from Ireland, England and France to the Baltic Regions and Russia.

4 Frankish Looped Fibula France 6th - 7th Centuries silver gilt worked in filigree with inlays of garnets and other stones 4 in. long Decorative patterns fitting the shape of the fibula cover the surface, describing and amplifying its structure. Anamorphic elements are deeply integrated into the design, becoming almost unrecognizable.

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6 Purse cover from the Sutton Hoo ship burial Suffolk, England ca. 625 gold, glass and enamel cloisonné with garnets and emeralds 7 1/2 in. long Sutton Hoo A treasure-laden ship in a burial mound, epitomizing the tradition of burying lords with furnishings, as recorded in Beowulf. It contained gold and silver jeweled items such as bowls, coins, and two spoons inscribed Saulos and Paulos indicating a conversion to Christianity. The heraldic figure grouping on the Sutton Hoo Purse Cover communicates the epic struggle between man and beast.

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9 Burial Ship Oseberg, Norway ca. 825 wood 75 1/2 ft. long

10 Animal-Head Post Oseberg, Norway ca. 825 wood approximately 5 in. high The style of the decoration on the panel from Urnes and the Viking ship found near Oseberg Norway: The animal-head post combines the large animal head form itself with patterns of twisting, interwoven animals carved into it.

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12 Wood carved portal of the stave church at Urnes Urnes, Norway ca wood The style of the decoration on the panel from Urnes and the Viking ship found near Oseberg Norway: The panel from Urnes is formed by elongated animal forms intertwining with plant stalks and tendrils in spiraling rhythm. The effect is of natural growth combined with an abstract sensibility.

13 Hiberno-Saxon The artistic style of the monasteries of the British Isles (also known as Insular). Its most distinctive products were the illuminated manuscripts of the Christian Church. Mozarabic Christians living in Arab territories, such as the north of Spain after the Islamic forces conquered the Visigoths. Scriptorium The writing studio of a monastery.

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15 Man (symbol of St. Matthew) Book of Durrow possibly from Iona, Scotland ca ink and tempera on parchment 9 5/8 x 6 1/8 in. A Pentateuch contains the first five books of the Old Testament.

16 Carpet Page Book of Durrow possibly from Iona, Scotland ca ink and tempera on parchment 9 5/8 x 6 1/8 in. A carpet page is a decorative manuscript page containing abstract and zoomorphic forms. zoomorphism 1. Attribution of animal characteristics or qualities to a god. 2. Use of animal forms in symbolism, literature, or graphic representation.

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18 Evangelists symbols page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in.

19 Virgin and Child page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in.

20 Illuminated text from the Gospel of Mark Erat autem hora tercia Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in.

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22 The Lindisfarne Gospels is a manuscript that contains the Gospels of the four Evangelists Mark, John, Luke, and Matthew. The Lindisfarne Gospels begins with a carpet page in the form of a cross and a major initial page, introducing the letter of St. Jerome and Pope Damasus I (Backhouse 2004). There are sixteen pages of arcaded canon tables, where parallel passages of the four Evangelists are laid out (Backhouse 1981, 41; Backhouse 2004).

23 The carpet pages are influenced by early Coptic (Christian Egyptian) manuscripts in their resemblance to Islamic prayer rugs, which were probably known during this time in Northumbria (The British Library Board). Each carpet page contains a different image of a cross (called a cross-carpet page), emphasizing the importance the Christian religion and ecumenical relationship between churches (The British Library Board). The pages of ornamentation have motifs familiar from metalwork and jewellery that pair alongside bird and animal decoration (Backhouse 2004).

24 Cross and Carpet page Lindisfarne Gospels Northumbria, England ca tempera on vellum 13 1/2 x 9 1/4 in.

25 Saint Matthew page Lindisfarne Gospels Northumbria, England ca tempera on vellum 13 1/2 x 9 1/4 in. Differences in the two pages from the Lindesfarne Gospel illuminate The author portrait of Saint Matthew (16-7) must have been inspired by one of the Illiustrated Gospel books a Christian missionary brought from Italy, but with a HIberno-Saxon focus on line and color rather than a classical focus on volume and perspective. The carpet page of 16-6 is a native Hiberno-Saxon masterpiece.

26 Chi-rho-iota page Book of Kells from Iona, Scotland 8th - 9th centuries tempera on vellum 13 x 9 1/2 in. Characteristics of the style utilized on the chi-roh-iota page from the Book of Kells. The holy words are turned into intricate abstract designs. The edges of the designs are emphasized and filled with flat colors, resembling Celtic and Anglo-Saxon cloisonné metalwork. There are human and animal representation embedded in the abstractions: the letter rho ends in a male head and animals are to the base of the h generatio line.

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28 The scribe Ezra Codex Amiatinus Jarrow, England ca tempera on vellum 20 x 13 1/2 in.

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30 High Cross of Muiredach (east side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca ft. high The concave arms of the cross are looped by four arcs that form a circle, a Celtic motif.

31 High Cross of Muiredach (east side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca ft. high

32 High Cross of Muiredach(east side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca ft. high Last Judgment

33 High Cross of Muiredach (west side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca ft. high

34 High Cross of Muiredach (west side) Monasterboice, Ireland ca ft. high Crucifixion

35 Carolingian Art Cloister A colonnaded courtyard, attached to the side of a church. Crossing The area where the nave and the transept cross. Module A basic unit of which the dimensions of the major parts of a work are multiples. Monastery A place where the clergy could be communally secluded in an abbey under the absolute rule of an abbot, who would see to it that each hour of the day was spent in useful work, as prescribed by Saint Benedict. Westwork Western entrance structure of a church (from German westwerck), towers incorporated into the western façade where the upper gallery served as a church within a church.

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37 Equestrian portrait of Charlemagne(?) from Metz, France early 9th century bronze, originally gilt 9 1/2 in. high Charlemagne was crowned by the Pope in Saint Peters basilica in Rome (built by Constantine, the first Christian Roman emperor) and therefore in time came to be known as the first Holy Roman Emperor (a title not adopted until the 12 th century). He consolidated the Frankish kingdom and the Lombards of Italy, reuniting Europe and revived the Roman spirit. The effect that it on the art of Northern Europe Was that it caused the Carolingian Renaissance, a renewal of interest and emulation of the art, culture, and political ideas of Early Christian Rome.

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40 St. Matthew Coronation Gospels Aachen, Germany ca ink and tempera on vellum 12 3/4 x 10 in.

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42 Saint Matthew Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in. Ways in which the artist of the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims has modified the style found in the Gospel Book of Charlemagne: The Ebbo Gospels leaf border is more active than the Coronation Gospels. In the Ebbo Gospels, Matthews face, hands, inkhorn, pen, and book are made the focus of the composition by the energetic line quality, whereas the Coronation Gospels has even stress throughout so that no part of the composition is a focal point. The classical calm and solidity of the smooth contours of Coronation Gospels are replaced in the Ebbo Gospels by frenetic, nervous squiggles that give a sense of urgency to the composition. The manuscript that is most closely related to the style of the Utrecht Psalter is The Ebbo Gospels. Because of the rapid and sketchy quality of line have the same kind of nervous energy as the Utretcht Psalter, where figures are sketched out vividly.

43 Saint John Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.

44 Canon Table Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.

45 Canon Tables Ebbo Gospels Hautvillers, France ca ink and tempera on vellum 10 1/4 x 8 3/4 in.

46 Psalm 44 of folio 25 recto of the Utrecht Psalter Hautvillers, France (near Reims) ca ink on vellum 1 ft. 1 in. x 9 7/8 in.

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48 Psalm 57 front cover Psalter of Charles the Bald Denis, France ca. 865 ivory panel set in silver-gilt with filigree work and precious stones panel 5 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. cover 9 1/2 x 7 3/4 in.

49 Psalm 57 front cover Psalter of Charles the Bald Denis, France ca. 865 ivory panel set in silver-gilt with filigree work and precious stones panel 5 1/2 x 5 1/4 in. cover 9 1/2 x 7 3/4 in.

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51 Crucifixion front cover Lindau Gospels Pierpont Morgan Library, New York ca. 870 gold, precious stones and pearls 13 3/8 x 10 3/8 in.

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53 Odo of Metz Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ca The Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne resembles the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, but is distinguished by: A simpler plan where the two main apselike extensions stand in greater independence of each other. The exterior had two cylindrical towers with spiral staircases flanking the entrance portal.

54 Odo of Metz Interior of the Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne Aachen, Germany ca

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56 Torhalle (gatehouse) Lorsch, Germany 9th century

57 Torhalle (gatehouse) Lorsch, Germany 9th century

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59 Schematic plan for a monastery St. Gall, Switzerland ca. 819 redrawn after a 9th century manuscript

60 The church of the monastery of St. Gall is a three aisled basilica, and it differs from its Early Christian prototypes in the following ways: The cloister (like the atrium) is on the side of the church rather than in front of its main portal. A second apse on the west end of the building. St. Gall had two towers framing the western end of the church, but standing apart from the façade, unlike many other Carolingian basilicas where the towers were integrated into the façade. Modular construction The crossing area is used as the modular unit that determines the rest of the plan, integrating all parts of the church into a rational, orderly plan.

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62 Drawing of the monastery church of St. Riquier Centula, France ca. 800 engraving made in 1612 after a now destroyed 11th century miniature

63 Ottonian Art Bishop Bernward Tutor of Otto III, builder of the abbey church of Saint Michael at Hildesheim, and one of the great patrons of Ottonian art and architecture. Reliquary A shrine or container for keeping sacred relics.

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65 Westwork of the Abbey Church Corvey, Germany ca

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67 Two features of the church of Saint Cyriakus of Gernrode that would be important for later medieval architecture: The nave is one of the first in the West to incorporate a gallery between the ground-floor arcade and the clerestory. The nave arcade is divided into vertical units by alternate piers and columns, mitigating the tunnel- like horizontality of the Early Christian basilicas, and leading the eye upward. Heavy square piers alternate with columns, dividing the nave into vertical units. The division continues into the gallery level, breaking the smooth rhythm of an all-column arcade. Nave of the church of St. Cyriakus Gernrode, Germany ca

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69 Abbey church of St. Pantaleon Cologne, Germany ca

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71 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

72 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

73 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

74 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

75 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

76 Abbey Church of St. Michaels Hildesheim, Germany ca

77 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca

78 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca

79 St. Michael's at Hildesheim The expressiveness of the figures are closer to the Utrecht Psalter than the Gospel Book of Charlemagne. The figures are forceful and clear in their emotions.

80 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca MiddleBottom

81 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca

82 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca

83 Doors with relief panels Genesis, left door - Christ, right door Hildesheim, Germany ca

84 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high

85 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high A possible source for the Triumphal Column in Saint Michaels at Hildesheim was Trajans Column in Rome.

86 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high

87 Column with reliefs illustrating the life of Christ Hildesheim, Germany ca bronze 12 ft. 6 in. high

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89 Crucifix commissioned by Archbishop Gero Cologne Cathedral, Germany ca. 970 painted wood 6 ft. 2 in. high Features of the Gero crucifix (FIG ) that contribute to the expression of suffering: Blood streaks down his forehead. His face is contorted in pain. His body sags under its own weight.

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91 Abbess Uta folio 2 of the Uta Codex Regensburg, Germany ca tempera on parchment 9 5/8 in. x 5 1/8 in.

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93 Annunciation to the Shepherds Lectionary of Henry II from Reichenau, Germany ca tempera on vellum 17 x 13 in. Stylistic features seen in the Lectionary of Henry II that were not apparent in earlier Carolingian illumination; The golden background that reveals knowledge of Byzantine book illustration and mosaic decoration; it is more like the apse of Byzantine church than a Carolingian illumination. The rocky landscape with grazing animals derives from both classical and Early Christian art.

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95 Otto III enthroned Gospel Book of Otto III from Trier, Germany ca tempera on vellum 13 x 9 3/8 in.

96 Tribute of the Provinces Gospel Book of Otto III from Trier, Germany ca tempera on vellum 13 x 9 3/8 in.

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98 Otto III Enthroned Liuthar (Aachen) Gospels from Aachen, Germany ca ink and tempura on vellum 10 7/8 x 8 1/2 in.

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