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به نام پروردگار مهربان In the name of God IRANIAN AMAZING COLLECTION Pack 2 (DVD no. 1)
Classical Persia Artistic portrait of Cyrus the Great Cyrus ( BC) was the first Achaemenid Emperor. He founded Persia by uniting the two original Iranian Tribes- the Medes and the Persians. Although he was known to be a great conqueror, who at one point controlled one of the greatest Empires ever seen, he is best remembered for his unprecedented tolerance and magnanimous attitude towards those he defeated.
Achemenids: (BCE)fought in Persian Wars with Greececrumbled by Alexander Selucidspart of Alexanders empire when divided into 3 ( BCE) Overtaken by Parthians who ruled from 247 BCE to 224 CEput under pressure by expanding Rome, internal rebellion brings down in early 3 rd century CE Then a new empire, the Sasanids reigned from 224 to 651 CE when Arab warriors conquered it and put into an expanding Islamic empire. Persian Empires in the Classical Era Persian Empire at the Time of the Persian Wars
Indo-European languages The first Persians (Iranians) were Indo- European nomads: arrived in Iran around 1,000 BCE; Power came from mounted cavalry Persian nobleman with Persian soldiers. P olitical
First Persian Empire Achemenids – founded by Cyrus the Great (r BCE) created largest known empire He besieged and captured Babylon in 539 and released the Jews who had been held captive there, thus earning his immortalization in the Book of Isaiah. When he died in 529, Cyrus's kingdom extended as far east as the Hindu Kush in present-day Afghanistan P olitical Pasargad, Tomb of Cyrus the Great Cyrus the Great ( BC) "I am Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians. Grudge me not therefore, this little earth that covers my body."
Peoples of Darius Empire Darius: kin of Cyrius: r BCE: extended empire east and west: by far largest empire ever Most imp as an ___________, not a ______: Had to figure out how to rule over a far flung empire, with many peoples (70 distinct ethnic groups)how to communicate, how to administer and tax territories? P olitical
A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized on a geographical basis. A satrap (governor) administered the region, a general supervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a state secretary kept official records. The general and the state secretary reported directly to the central government. The twenty satrapies were linked by a 2,500-kilometer highway, the most impressive stretch being the royal road from Susa to Sardis, built by command of Darius. Relays of mounted couriers could reach the most remote areas in fifteen days. Despite the relative local independence afforded by the satrapy system however, royal inspectors, the "eyes and ears of the king," toured the empire and reported on local conditions, and the king maintained a personal bodyguard of 10,000 men, called the Immortals P olitical Use of Satrapies and eyes and ears
How else to govern an empire? Standardize coins and laws roads and communications –Built the Persian ________ _______ –-Created _______ stations as part of an organized courier service: as the Greeks said This rural sleigh dates to approximately The sleigh is made of tin to keep it light. The rail is detachable and has a set of wheels for the summer. The familiar quote "Neither snow, nor rain, nor heat, nor gloom of night stays this courier" was painted on the sleigh. It is not really the post office's motto but has been long been associated with it
P olitical: Persepolis Persepolis the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenian empire. It was built during the reign Darius the Great ( BC), and developed further by successive kings. The various temples and monuments are located upon a vast platform, some 450 metres by 300 metres and 20 metres in height. At the head of the ceremonial staircase leading to the terrace is the 'Gateway of All Nations' built by Xerxes I and guarded by two colossal bull-like figures.
Map of the Royal Road How is this Political and Economic????? P olitical and Economic
Fall of Achaemenid Cyruys and Daris were __________ in administering a multicurutal regions: Xerxes was a pig Persian Wars and standoff ofr 150 years Then Alex
P olitical Selucid (light brown) was part of Alexs empire- Hellenistic Era: blending of Greek/ Middle Eastern culture after the death of Alexander; cultural arts greatly influenced/ sup-ported by the wealth accumulated in previous years of conquest.
Then The Parthinians' fed their horses in the winter and restored Persia They face pressure from Rome which weakened it then internal rebellion brings it down And we get... The Sassanidswho will be overrun by Arabs in the next unit
Darius revolutionized the economy by placing it on a silver and gold coinage system. Trade was extensive, and under the Achaemenids there was an efficient infrastructure that facilitated the exchange of commodities among the far reaches of the empire. As a result of this commercial activity, Persian words for typical items of trade became prevalent throughout the Middle East and eventually entered the English language; examples are, bazaar, shawl, sash, turquoise, tiara, orange, lemon, melon, peach, spinach, and asparagus. Trade was one of the empire's main sources of revenue, along with agriculture and tribute Economic Gold coins of Darius.
Economic Agriculture was the foundation of the economymost people work in agriculture; Most peasants are free, some own their own land, some work for others Underground canals for irrigating known as qanat A view inside a qanat Most slaves works as domestic servants of skilled laborers in household of wealthy, some worked in fields, state-owned slaves build pubic works, some slaves in Mesopotamia work for temple communities
Economic Trade: location, location, location Middle Man in silk road routes What makes trade possible: political s_______, prosperity of area location, standardized laws and _____, good routes by land and sea
Religion: Zoroastrianism f. by Zarathustra (ca. 7 th -6 th c. BCE) Supreme God: Ahura Mazda, but not monotheistic Priests= magi Emphasis on morality: believe in a cosmic conflict between good & evil …and good will ultimately prevail Believe in good words, good thoughts, good deeds Emphasis on free will Salvation: individuals will be judged/ future rewards & punishments Most popular in Iran; no missionaries but spread thru out SW Asia & Mid East Declined with spread of Islam Influenced Christianity, Judaism, & later Islam
Mani was born in a Persian village during the Sasinid reign (200s CE) Manichaeism thrived between the third and seventh centuries: Manichaean churches and scriptures existed as far east as China and as far west as the Roman empire. Mani banned from Persia (after first favor) b/c growing opposition of Zoroastrian priests; returned to Persia after years in exile spreading faith, Zoroastrian priests had him flayed alive, and the body then decapitated. Religion is based on the concept of an eternal dualism between the Good and the Evil that brought the world into being. Parts of the divine substance Light were stolen by the Demons and used by the Prince of Darkness to build the earth. Man was thus made part of the Devil's realm. But to Adam and to his procreation came the divine message to free the imprisoned Light within themselves, thus helping in the general process of freeing the substance imprisoned in the visible cosmos and of restoring it to the realm of Light
Religion: a crossroads for faiths Missionary Buddhism, Christianity, & Manichaeism in classical era. Christian cathedral in Iran ca. 50 C.E. Cyrus the Great offered religious toleration for Jews & allowed to do pilgrimage to Jerusalem Buddhist statue just across Afghanistan border
Social VERY cosmopolitan & heterogeneous: lots of different ethnicities Originally nomadic society; importance of family & clan relationships Imperial Bureaucrats: educated; shared power & influence with warriors & clan leaders Most people free individuals: artisans, craftsmen, merchant, low-ranking civil servants Free peasants too: some owned land; others landless tenant farmers Royal women (especially kings mother) yielded power within family (independent wealth, traveled, marriage alliances) Families were patriarchal. Polygamy & concubines common. Slavery: cities & rural areas; POWs & debtors; domestic service & public works projects
Intellectual Persepolis: intellectual center too Satraps: government administration Qanats: underground canals Aramaic became lingua franca Early education focused on developing soldiering skills (horsemanship) and ethical guidance (honesty) Advanced education for bureaucrats Bowl from Xerxes the Great with trilingual inscription: such a heterogeneous empire!
Art Made of silver, gold, & lapis Sculpture, jewelry, vessels Animal motifs, mythological animals Reverence to king Bracelet Lion Mug Drinking horn Mastiff statue
Architecture Best Example --Persepolis –Highly organized, proportional planning –Ornamental –Decorative reliefs –Free standing sculptures (sphinxes) –Celebrated king & monarchy
Iranian Amazing Collection در پناه يزدان مهربان همیشه شاد و پیروز و تندرست باشید. Special Thanks to dear creator