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The Cold War: Political and Military Tensions between US and USSR:

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1 The Cold War: Political and Military Tensions between US and USSR: 1946-1991

2 Origins of the Cold War:
1. The Russian Civil War; ( )tension between US and USSR US backed White Army Lenin’s Red Army took control 2. Casablanca Conference: Invasion of Italy 3. Worldwide spread of communism

3 US and USSR both had very different views on the world and their own interests
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. GOAL  spread world-wide Communism

4 USSR: 1. Wanted to rebuild their country
Stalingrad, Leningrad, other cities devastated Stalin believed German reparations were due to his country 2. Wanted to Protect their own interests 3. Wanted to keep Germany weak Established border/satellite nations friendly to Communist goals Under soviet control 4. Believed that Communism was a superior economic system and would replace capitalism

5 US: 1. Wanted democracy and economic opportunities to all nations in Europe and Asia 2. Wanted markets for American goods. 3. Believed that strong economies prevent war US was convinced that the Depression allowed Hitler to come to power and that sealing off nations to trade causes wars

6 Cold War: pitted the US against the USSR for control of World trade and markets
1st World- US and its allies 2nd World- USSR and its allies 3rd World- Developing nations that USSR and US both wanted as allies Competition for these 3rd world nations led to wars and lasting animosity towards the USSR and the US US and USSR never went to war directly against each other Used 3rd world nations to gain ground and push own agendas

7 China to 1960s  Italy Greece to early 1950s: The Philippines s and 1950s Korea Albania Eastern Europe Germany – 1950s Iran – 1953 Guatemala Costa Rica - Mid-1950s Syria Middle East Indonesia Western Europe s and 1960s: British Guiana Soviet Union - Late 1940s to 1960s Italy s to 1970s Vietnam Cambodia Laos Haiti Guatemala – 1960 France/Algeria s Ecuador The Congo Brazil Peru Dominican Republic Cuba to 1980s Indonesia – 1965 East Timor – 1975 Ghana – 1966 Uruguay Chile Greece Bolivia : Guatemala to 1980s: Costa Rica Iraq : Australia : Angola: 1975 to 1980s Zaire : Jamaica : Seychelles : Grenada : Morocco : Suriname : Libya : Nicaragua : Panama : Bulgaria 1990 Albania 1991 Iraq : Afghanistan El Salvador : Haiti Iraq Afghanistan:

8 Yalta Conference: Churchill, Stalin and FDR: Feb 1945

9 Yalta: Problems: Divide up Germany to rebuild
Plan the postwar world Divide up Germany to rebuild Four Zones of Occupation Britain, France, US and USSR Berlin would be divided the same Problems: Berlin was in the USSR’s zone USSR wanted reparations and Germany weakened

10 2. Elections in Poland: US and Britain wanted it free to choose own gov’t USSR wanted it to remain Soviet occupied and set up communist gov’t Compromise: Soviets would set up gov’t but promised to hold free election in the near future 3. United Nations

11 “We must stand up to the Soviets”
Truman becomes president April 13, 1945 Strongly anti-communist Believed that WWII had begun b/c Britain had appeased Hitler “We must stand up to the Soviets”

12 Potsdam Conference: July 1945: Truman and Stalin
Stalin continues to insist on German reparations Truman convinces USSR to accept resources (mainly agricultural) from other Zones instead of monetary reparations Soviets are already stripping their zone of all resources Truman insists on free elections in Poland Let it “slip” that US had successfully tested the Atomic bomb

13 Soviets begin to dominate Eastern Europe:
USSR Begins to establish satellite nations Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania; all dominated by USSR and Soviet-friendly leaders in charge East Germany is controlled by USSR Yugoslavia becomes communist but not a true satellite

14 The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

15 Feb 1946: Stalin predicts ultimate triumph of communism over capitalism
March 1946: Truman calls on Americans to stop the spread of communism Both sides took this as a threat; beginning of Cold War

16 The Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

17 The Early Cold War Years:
Containment Theory: to recognize nations already lost to Soviets but prevent it from spreading further How to end communism: 1. Communist System was flawed; would decay and crumble from within 2. Aggressive actions needed for taking back Eastern Europe

18 Truman Doctrine [1947] Protect Turkey and Greece from
Communists (1st challenge to containment) Britain had been giving aid, but could not continue Truman asked Congress for $400 million to aid Greece and Turkey Wanted to give people a choice in their gov’t, not have one forced upon them “The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.”

19 Marshall Plan [1948] 1. “European Recovery Program.”
2. Secretary of State, George Marshall 3. The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it.This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe; also extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. 5. Goal: help war-torn nations so they might create stable democracies and achieve economic recovery Results: Economies recovered; trade increased; Communist influences dropped off

20 Berlin Crisis: 1948: US, Britain and France combined German occupation Zones: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) They had become convinced that Stalin was not going to re-unify Germany 1949 Soviets created German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Berlin lay in Soviet Zone But West Berlin was considered part of West Germany. 1000s of Eastern Europeans fled to West Berlin to flee Communist control

21 Stalin also convinced that no reparations were coming
June 1948 Berlin is blockaded Stalin hoped Allies would abandon Berlin Truman wanted West Berlin free, but did not want a war Berlin Airlift: 11 months; hourly food and supplies flown into West Berlin. Showed US commitment to containment and to Berlin May 1949, Stalin lifted blockade

22 Berlin Airlift

23 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

24 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain US also joined SEATO, OAS, etc..

25 Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia
East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

26 China falls to Communists:
Civil War between Mao Zedong’s Communists and Chaing Kai Shek’s Nationalists 1949: China becomes communist: People’s Republic of China Nationalists flee to Taiwan and establish the Republic of China US and UN recognize the nationalists as official gov’t

27 Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd } Power!

28 The Arms Race: The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.
Now there were two nuclear superpowers! 1952: US successfully tests Hydrogen bomb

29 US creates the Federal Civil Defense Administration
info on how to survive a nuclear attack

30 The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)
Korea had been occupied by Japan since Russo-Japanese War in 1905. After WWII American and Soviet forces entered Korea to disarm Japanese troops and set up a new gov’t 38th Parallel divided the country: USSR/Communist to the North US/ Democracy to the South Both countries agreed to withdraw from the country and did so in 1949 “Domino Theory”?

31 USSR trained and supplied N. Korean army
June 25, 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea United Nations authorized the use of force to protect the South Korean Government. UN was able to do this b/c USSR was boycotting, could not use veto power

32 N. Korean troops had almost all of Korea when MacArthur and his United Nations troops attacked at two points on Sept 15, 1950 Pusan and Inchon

33 MacArthur quickly pushed N. K
MacArthur quickly pushed N.K. troops back across 38th parallel and swept them back almost to Chinese border China responds by sending 1000s of troops into N. Korea and pushes UN troops back across the 38th parallel

34 MacArthur wanted to attack China directly (use atomic bombs)
Truman did not want to risk extending the war MacArthur called him a coward Truman fired MacArthur War dragged on for 2 more years Neither side gaining advantage

35 The Cold War and American Society

36 The Red Scare of the 1950s Fear that communists had infiltrated the government; later to general fear that communists were trying to corrupt American life Anyone suspected of being communist or a communist supporter could be jailed or forced to leave the country

37 Loyalty Review Program:
Federal gov’t screen all employees, new and old employees over 6 million employees screened Loyalty hard to define @2000 quit under pressure 212 fired for “questionable loyalty”

38 HUAC- House Un-American Activities Committee
Established in 1938 to investigate disloyalty in WWII Now responsible for finding communists in gov’t and Hollywood Movies could influence large #’s of people HUAC claimed that many Hollywood figures had communist leanings that affected their movies

39 Many in Hollywood had been members of the Communist party of America
Some had produced pro-Soviet movies during the war at the gov’t request Now called traitors

40 Hollywood Ten Top Hollywood producers/actors/directors accused of being communist spies At hearings used 5th, held in contempt, served a year, most blacklisted By 1951, 324 actors had been fired and were no longer permitted to work in movie industry

41 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
1950 accused of passing atomic secrets to Soviets Convicted of espionage and executed Many believed they were innocent Project Verona proved they were guilty Documents not released until 1995

42 Are We Losing the Cold War???
1. USSR develops atom bomb 2. China Falls to communism 3. Spies found in America Americans wanted Gov’t to be tough on Communism

43 Senator Joseph McCarthy:
accused Secretary of State in Truman’s cabinet of “protecting” Communists 205 known communists in state department Never produced the documents Fired up Americans that the Democrats were not protecting the US

44 McCarthy’s whole career was based on fear and accusations.
1952 elections: Republicans controlled both houses and the presidency. McCarthy continued his witch hunts; the search for disloyalty based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears Many disapproved of McCarthy’s tactics Feared challenging him would make them look guilty

45 Army-McCarthy hearings:
1954- McCarthy began to look for spies in the US Army Army did own investigations and found no spies McCarthy did not buy it, wanted televised investigation 6 weeks of televised debates showed McCarthy as a bully, own to further his career and destroy others. Lost credibility Senate voted to Censure McCarthy (10) Faded from view, died 1957

46 Eisenhower: Elected in 1952 continue containment
keep distance from major Soviet conflicts end the Korean War

47 Key to winning the Cold War:
Strong economy and strong military Show that free enterprise produces a better and more prosperous economy Maintaining a large standing army was too expensive; build more atomic bombs and not be afraid to use them Contain communism by threatening to use Nuclear weapons= massive retaliation

48 New Military Technology
B-52 bombers Could fly across continents Drop nuclear bombs anywhere in the world ICBMs- Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles Submarines that could launch nuclear missiles

49 Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

50 US Reacts! NASA: NDEA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
research rocket science and space exploration NDEA: National Defense Education Act provided funds for education and training in science, math and foreign languages

51 The Space Race 1957 Oct. 4 - USSR launches Sputnik 1. Nov. 3 - USSR launches Sputnik 2 which carried a small dog named Laika into orbit.  1958 Jan. 31 – Explorer 1, the first American satellite to reach orbit, is launched. It carried scientific equipment that lead to the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt. 1960 Aug The US launches Discoverer XIV, its first camera equipped spy satellite. 1961 Apr. 12 – Soviet Yuri Gagarin orbits the Earth once and becomes the first man in space. May 5 - Alan B. Shepard becomes the first American in space. 1962 Feb. 20 – American John Glenn orbits the Earth three times. 1963 Jun Soviet Valentia Tereshkova becomes the first woman in space. 1965 Mar. 18 – Soviet Alexei Leonov spends 12 minutes outside of his Voskhod spacecraft performing the first spacewalk. 1966 Feb. 3 – USSR Luna 9 becomes the first spacecraft to land on the Moon 1968  Sep USSR Zond 5 is launched. It carried a biological payload (including two turtles) around the Moon and returned to Earth six days later.  1969 Jul. 20 – Americans Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon while crewmate Michael Collins orbits around the Moon alone.

52 Eisenhower’s Foreign Policy:
Brinkmanship: willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down

53 Foreign Hot Spots in Eisenhower’s Presidency:
Asia: Korea- war ends in 1953, but remains divided Taiwan- 1954-China threatened to take two Taiwanese Islands from nationalists Eisenhower threatened; China backed down Vietnam- 1954-Communism gaining ground against the French US begins sending advisors Domino Theory

54 The Americas: Cuba: 1958- Castro overthrows dictator Batista
CIA reports that Castro is pro-communist Eisenhower cuts ties Castro turns to USSR for help

55 Middle East Suez Canal: Egypt began accepting aid and weapons from USSR and other communist nations Britain, France and Israel attacked; wanting control of the Suez Canal Egyptian leader Nasser thought canal should in Egypt’s hands United Nations condemned actions of GB, FR and Israel Britain and France backed down Egypt and other Arab nations began accepting more Soviet aid

56 The Suez Crisis:

57 Israel: Iran: 1948 became a nation Supported by US
Arab neighbors supported by USSR Israel began invading neighboring countries and Palestinian territories Iran: 1953- pro-communist leader was elected in Iran CIA organized an overthrow and restored former leader

58 Eisenhower Doctrine: US would use any force to safeguard the independence of any country in the Middle East against Communist Aggression

59 US/USSR tensions continue
1960 summit btwn Khrushchev and Eisenhower to discuss Berlin, East Germany, Poland, Hungary (uprisings in 1953 and 1956) US U2 Spy plane shot down Summit breaks up

60 U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. Was sentenced to 10 years in Soviet Prison Was exchanged in “Spy Swap” in 1962

61 Cold War Continues………


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