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Black Mathematicians By: Alana Alexander June 1, 2006

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Purpose for Students The purpose of this presentation is to recognize the black mathematicians that achieved great achievements in mathematics during a time when blacks were looked at as inferior. The purpose of this presentation is to recognize the black mathematicians that achieved great achievements in mathematics during a time when blacks were looked at as inferior. Young black students as well as all students need to know that even tough mathematics is looked at as a tough subject it can be achieved with great perseverance. Young black students as well as all students need to know that even tough mathematics is looked at as a tough subject it can be achieved with great perseverance.

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Purpose for Teachers The purpose of this presentation is to make teachers aware of great black mathematicians. The purpose of this presentation is to make teachers aware of great black mathematicians. Teachers can use this information to help their students, especially minority students relate to mathematics and find encouragement from those who persevered in mathematics. Teachers can use this information to help their students, especially minority students relate to mathematics and find encouragement from those who persevered in mathematics.

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Introduction There were many successful black mathematicians who went through great difficulty in trying to attain self-confidence in mathematics. There were many successful black mathematicians who went through great difficulty in trying to attain self-confidence in mathematics. Most of the people in this presentation are professional people who have earned degrees in mathematics and have taught mathematics to other mathematicians. Most of the people in this presentation are professional people who have earned degrees in mathematics and have taught mathematics to other mathematicians. This is a remarkable achievement for people who did not have all the rights and freedoms as other groups of people. This is a remarkable achievement for people who did not have all the rights and freedoms as other groups of people.

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Introduction The history of blacks in mathematics dates back to the 1700s. The history of blacks in mathematics dates back to the 1700s. The first recognized black mathematician recognized was a male. The first recognized black mathematician recognized was a male. It was almost 200 years before women appeared in mathematics. It was almost 200 years before women appeared in mathematics.

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Benjamin Banneker Benjamin Banneker was the first Black recognized as a mathematician. Benjamin Banneker was the first Black recognized as a mathematician. He had little formal education. He had little formal education. He displayed great talent in mathematics. He displayed great talent in mathematics. He produced an almanac and was commissioned to survey Washington D.C.. He produced an almanac and was commissioned to survey Washington D.C..

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Thomas Fuller It has been said that he is the first known mathematician. It has been said that he is the first known mathematician. Fuller was a slave shipped from Africa. Fuller was a slave shipped from Africa. Like Banneker, Fuller had no formal education. Like Banneker, Fuller had no formal education. He possessed remarkable powers of calculations. He possessed remarkable powers of calculations. He acquired these great mathematical abilities from Africa. He acquired these great mathematical abilities from Africa.

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Kelly Miller The first Black mathematics graduate student in The first Black mathematics graduate student in The first African American student admitted to John Hopkins mathematics program. The first African American student admitted to John Hopkins mathematics program. He received a Master of Arts in Mathematics in He received a Master of Arts in Mathematics in He continued his work in mathematics by being a professor of mathematics and sociology. He continued his work in mathematics by being a professor of mathematics and sociology.

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Elbert F. Cox He showed great abilities in mathematics and physics in high school. He showed great abilities in mathematics and physics in high school. The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1925 from Cornell University. The first African American to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics in 1925 from Cornell University. There were only 28 Ph.D.s that were given in 1925 all over the country. There were only 28 Ph.D.s that were given in 1925 all over the country. Cox s achievement of a Ph. D. in mathematics was remarkable. Cox s achievement of a Ph. D. in mathematics was remarkable.

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Dudley Weldon Woodard and William Schieffelin Claytor Woodard (1928) and Claytor (1933) were the second and third black men to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics. Woodard (1928) and Claytor (1933) were the second and third black men to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics.

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Dr. Dudley Woodard Dr. Woodard established the M.S. degree program in mathematics at Howard University. Dr. Woodard established the M.S. degree program in mathematics at Howard University. He helped to establish a mathematics library at Howard University. He helped to establish a mathematics library at Howard University. Woodard taught many of the upcoming black mathematicians to come. Woodard taught many of the upcoming black mathematicians to come.

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William Claytor William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor earned his A.B. and M.A. from Howard University under Woodard. William Waldron Schieffelin Claytor earned his A.B. and M.A. from Howard University under Woodard. Dr. Claytor was the first African American to publish mathematics research. Dr. Claytor was the first African American to publish mathematics research.

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African American Women of Mathematics It wasnt until 1943 that a woman earned a Ph.D. in mathematics. It wasnt until 1943 that a woman earned a Ph.D. in mathematics.

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Euphemia Lofton Haynes She became the first African American Woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics. She became the first African American Woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics. She taught in the public schools of Washington, DC for forty-seven years. She taught in the public schools of Washington, DC for forty-seven years. She was the first woman to chair the DC School Board. She was the first woman to chair the DC School Board. Dr. Haynes established the mathematics department at Miners Teacher's College. Dr. Haynes established the mathematics department at Miners Teacher's College.

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African American Women (contd) There were many women to follow in Dr. Hayes foot steps: There were many women to follow in Dr. Hayes foot steps: Evelyn Boyd Granville Evelyn Boyd Granville Marjorie Lee Browne Marjorie Lee Browne

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Evelyn Boyd Granville The second woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics. The second woman to earn a Ph.D. in Mathematics. She earned her Ph.D. from Yale University in She earned her Ph.D. from Yale University in Evelyn Granville first worked as a mathematician with The National Bureau of Standards and IBM. Evelyn Granville first worked as a mathematician with The National Bureau of Standards and IBM. She became an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at California State University. She became an Assistant Professor of Mathematics at California State University. She taught prospective elementary school teachers new math. She taught prospective elementary school teachers new math.

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Marjorie Lee Browne The third woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics. The third woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics. This was just six months after Evelyn Boyd Granville. This was just six months after Evelyn Boyd Granville. Marjorie Lee Browne received her B.S. in Mathematics from Howard University(1935). Marjorie Lee Browne received her B.S. in Mathematics from Howard University(1935). She received her M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan in She received her M.S. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan in She received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan (1950). She received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from the University of Michigan (1950).

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Marjorie Lee Browne (contd) She authored four notes for secondary school teachers: She authored four notes for secondary school teachers: Sets, Logic, and Mathematical Thought (1957) Sets, Logic, and Mathematical Thought (1957) Introduction to Linear Algebra (1959) Introduction to Linear Algebra (1959) Elementary Matrix Algebra (1969) Elementary Matrix Algebra (1969) Algebraic Structures (1974) Algebraic Structures (1974)

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Conclusion There were many more African American Mathematicians. There were many more African American Mathematicians. These were just the first few African Americans who helped pave the way for pursuing mathematics. These were just the first few African Americans who helped pave the way for pursuing mathematics.

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Conclusion As you can see, the people mentioned in this presentation helped to teach mathematics to others. As you can see, the people mentioned in this presentation helped to teach mathematics to others. This was a great achievement to give back to others, the knowledge that they gained from mathematics. This was a great achievement to give back to others, the knowledge that they gained from mathematics.

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Conclusion Mathematics was and still is a very difficult subject. Mathematics was and still is a very difficult subject. Many people shy away from mathematics. Many people shy away from mathematics. This is why teachers have to get students interested in mathematics. This is why teachers have to get students interested in mathematics. This presentation is just a start to inform students of great mathematcians who went against the odds of achieving in mathematics. This presentation is just a start to inform students of great mathematcians who went against the odds of achieving in mathematics.

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Resources To find out more about great African American Mathematicians, check out these websites and books: To find out more about great African American Mathematicians, check out these websites and books: Newell, Virginia K. Black mathematicians and their works (1980) Newell, Virginia K. Black mathematicians and their works (1980) tCox.html tCox.html tCox.html tCox.html math.html math.html

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