2Levels of WordsThe Meaning of WordsGeneral and specific wordsIdiomsDictionary
3Standard English formal common colloquial Levels of WordsStandard EnglishformalcommoncolloquialNon-standardslang wordsdialectal words
4Formal words (examples in the book) learned wordswords used in encyclopedias, political and legal documentswords used by educated people and scholarly or professional communitieslong, difficult
5Common words (examples in the book) the word people know from everyday communicationwords most often used
6Colloquial words (examples in the book) the word used by people in informal conversationsoralcontractions
7Denotative Connotative The Meaning of WordsDenotativeConnotative
8Denotative meaning the meaning you can find in the dictionary The dictionary gives information about where the word comes from and how to know the difference between the word and other words.
9Connotative meaning the feeling or idea suggested by the word the meaning you can know from popular TV shows, movies, music, magazines and website contentnot an “exact” meaning—the hearer must look at the context to understand the meaning
10Politician (denotative) someone who has power and uses it to do things;usually a person who has a position in government
11Politician (Connotative) someone who likes power and will do wrongful things to gain power (wrongful things like tricks, lies, maneuvers, and pandering);someone who doesn’t care about what is good, and just tries to get as much power as they can
12Rock ‘n Roll (denotative) A kind of musicStarted from jazz in the 1950sElvis Presley, the BeatlesGuitars, drums, singingFastStarted today’s genres like punk, heavy metal, soft rock, hard rock, rockabilly, grunge, etc.
13Rock ‘n Roll (Connotative) A way of livingMy body is art; my clothes are art; my lifestyle is art; and my music is art.Express oneself; don’t worry about the resultsParties, drinking, music for pleasure, free love, no worries, avoid responsibility
14Pessimist (denotative) someone who views some part of life as unworthy;Christian pessimism asserts that this world will be destroyed and all of life’s riches and pleasures will disappear; so people had better store up “treasures in heaven” or they will have nothing—a Christian pessimist will avoid success.
15Pessimist (Connotative) someone who sees the “bad side” of things;An optimist sees the glass as ‘half full’; a pessimist sees the glass as ‘half empty’;someone who has a bad attitudesomeone who expects bad things to happen, doesn’t hope for good things, and doesn’t put their faith in goodness
16Cynic (denotative) The cynical tradition of Ancient Greece The cynics: a group of people who helped people to question their beliefs and find new truths.Cynicism: a kind of critical thinking
17Cynic (Connotative) Someone who thinks people deserve to be cheated. Someone who thinks that someone who does something good really has bad reason for doing it.Someone who has no hope or faith.
18Epicurean (denotative) A person from a group of people in Ancient Greece who believed that one person should take care of themselves before they serve othersEpicureanism: the belief that people should know their own interests, fulfill those interests, and by doing so benefit society
19Epicurean (Connotative) Someone who loves delicious foodSomeone who loves pleasureSomeone who greatly fears pain and will do immoral things in order to avoid it
20No words are exactly the same. 1. Stylistic level: Informal and formalask time risequestion age mountinterrogate epoch ascend2. Emphatica big/large city a big/large houseThe team has got a huge man over two meters tall.3. Emotional Coloringsmall/ little4. Tonemodest /humble (laudatory and derogatory)5. Different Collocationslarge amount/number/quantitygreat courage/ confidence/ ability/ wisdom
21General and Specific Words The more specific, the better.General and Specific WordsgoodniceThe students went out of the classroom.
22Colorful words and phrases walk slowlyfall downpoorhungryredeat a lotweakstrollcrashImpoverishedstarvingscarletdebauchlamemeanderface-plantdestitutefamishedcrimsonstufffeeble
23Colorful words and phrases drinkwetgive upbad smellingcheatbad mannersforgetfast(get) cheatedangrygulpsoakingabandonstinkypull a fast oneact rudespace(in) a flash(get) burnedfuriousdown guzzlewringing wet,water-loggedfoulbamboozleget surlyhave a brain fartbreak-neck speed(get) screwedboiling with rage
25English is rich in idioms. 1. Phrasal verbsput up with / turn out / look forward to / carry on2. N+prep. +n.the apple of one’s eye; like a fish out of water3. Prep. +n.on the air; at length4. V. +n.Kill two birds with one stone; go to the dogs5. As…asas easy as a pie; as poor as a church mouse6. SayingsOne man’s meat is another man’s poison.A stitch in time saves nine.
26Dictionary —Your Lifetime Teachers How to use a dictionarySome dictionaries
271. “common”Common refers to that which is met with most frequently or is shared by all or most individuals in a group, body, etc, and may imply prevalence , usualness, or, in a depreciatory sense , inferioritya common beliefa common hussy
28Any synonyms?General implies connection with all or nearly all of a kind, class, or group and stresses extensivenessgeneral unrest among the peopleOrdinary implies accordance with the regular or customary pattern, stressing commonplaceness and lack of special distinctionan ordinary work day
29More?Familiar applies to that which is widely known and readily recognizeda familiar feelingPopular implies widespread currency , acceptance, or favor among the general public or the common peoplea popular song
302. “obstinate”Stubbornly adhering to an attitude, opinion, or course of action; obdurate.Difficult to manage, control, or subdue; refractory.Difficult to alleviate or cure: an obstinate headache.[Middle English obstinat, from Latin obstin tus, past participle of obstin re, to persist; see st - in Indo-European roots.]ob sti·nate·ly adv.ob sti·nate·ness n.
31Any synonyms?Stubborn refers to innate, often perverse resoluteness or unyieldingnessShe was very stubborn when her mind was made up.One who is headstrong is stubbornly, often recklessly willfulThe headstrong teenager ignored school policy.Stiff-necked implies stubbornness combined with arrogance or aloofnessThe stiff-necked customer blamed the cashier.
32More?Bullheaded suggests foolish or irrational obstinacy, and pigheaded, stupid obstinacyDon't be bullheaded; see a doctor.Mulish implies the obstinacy and intractability associated with a muleObstinate is no word for it, for she is mulish.Dogged emphasizes stubborn perseverance: dogged persistence;The dogged strength in him keeps himself from giving up.
33 3. “but”But is very frequent used in spoken English , where it is often used at the beginning of a sentence“I read it in a newspaper .” ” But newspapers aren’t always right!”But is also used in writing, though not usually at the beginning of a sentence.
34Any synonyms?However is used especially in more formal writing , often with commas before and after it in the middle of a sentenceThis has been reported in a newspaper . One must remember, however, that newspapers are not always accurate.
35What can we learn from a dictionary? cau•tion (ko:shn)n.warning against danger: by way of ~attention to safety: with ~(informal) an alarming or amusing personv.to warn or reprimand. [from Old French caution.]The policeman ~ed the driver about his speed / for speeding.The teacher ~ed him against being late / not to be late.I ~ the children that it is risky.SpellingSyllablesPronunciationParts of speechMeaningsUsageHistory of the word
36the exact meaning Respectful: showing respect to others Be ~ to your seniors.Respectable: considered socially acceptableThe ex-prisoner is now a ~ citizen.Respected: admired by many people for one’s qualities or achievementsProfessor Yang is a ~ teacher.
37what patterns to use to inform inform sb about/of something Please ~us of his arrival.Our teacher ~ed that the class was moved to next Friday.inform sb about/of somethinginform sb that …
38collocations learn knowledge? drop tears? to make achievement? acquire / gain knowledgedrop tears?shed / weep (tears)tears well up in one’s eyesto make achievement?to do well in …to achieve considerable successto achieve good exam results
39Not entirely, fully, completely to lovedearlydeeplypassionatelytenderlyunconditionallywholeheartedlyNot entirely, fully, completely
40Anything else? He kept me waiting. I found him working at his desk. They left me standing outside.I heard him giving orders.
41Dictionaries are lifetime teachers. They are available any time you want to consult them.They are knowledgeable and are capable of helping you solve many of your problems.They are patient and tireless and able to work with you as long as you like.
55The January wind has hundred voices. It can scream, it can bellow, it can whisper, and it can sing a lullaby.It can roar through the leafless oaks and shout down the hillside, and it can murmur in the white pines rooted among the granite ledges where lichen makes strange hieroglyphics.It can whistle down a chimney and set the hearth-flames to dancing.
56On a sunny day it can pause in a sheltered spot and breathe a promise of spring and violets. In the cold of a lonely night it can rattle the sash and stay there muttering of ice and snow banks and deep-frozen pond.
57Sometimes the January wind seems to come from the farthest star in the outer darkness, so remote and so impersonal is its voice.That is the wind of a January dawn, in the half-light that trembles between day and night.It is a wind that merely quivers the trees, its force sensed but not seen, a force that might almost hold back the day if it were so directed.
58Then the east brightens, and the wind relaxes—the stars, its source, grown dim. And sometimes the January wind is so intimate that you know it came only from the next hill, a little wind that plays with leaves and puffs at chimney smoke and whistles like a little boy with puckered lips.
59It makes the little cedar trees quiver, as with delight. It shadow-boxes with the weather-vane.It tweaks an ear, and whispers laughing words about crocuses and daffodils, and nips the nose and dances off.But you never know, until you hear its voice, which wind is here today.Or, more important, which will be here tomorrow.