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The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires Chapters 1 and 2.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires Chapters 1 and 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Civilizations and the Rise of Empires Chapters 1 and 2

2 The First Civilizations: The Peoples of Western Asia and Egypt I. The First Humans II. Agricultural Revolution III. Emergence of Civilization a)Mesopotamia IV. First Civilizations a)Sumeriansf) Chaldeans b)Akkadiansg) Phoenicians c)Amorites / Old Babyloniansh) Hebrews d) Hittites i) Persians e) Assyrians V. Egyptians VI. Conclusion

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4 I. THE FIRST HUMANS CHRONOLOGY OF THE FIRST HUMANS AND THEIR CIVILIZATIONS BC and BCE – religious versus secular, otherwise no difference in usage. BC – Before Christ BCE – Before Common Era Years ago: 4,000, ,000,0001,500,000250, ,000200, ,000 HominidsHomo ErectusHomo sapiensHomo sapiens sapiens Australopithecines"upright human being" Fire used around 500,000 ya "wise human being" 1) Neanderthal (Neander Valley in Germany) "wise, wise human being" AfricaLeft Africa for Europe and Asia Europe, Middle EastBy 10,000 BC, homo sapiens sapiens replaced Neanderthal and had settled around much of what had been settled/found. From 2,500,000 - PALEOLITHICAGE Paleolithic - old stone; JAVA man, PEKING man, Neanderthal man, Cro-Magnon man Neolithic - new stone Bronze - use of bronze

5 Years ago: 10,00010, ,0004, ,0003, ,200 Homo sapiens sapiens Ice Age ends.Agricultural Revolution Systematic Agriculture begins between 8, ,000 BC - writing begins circa 7060 Significant technical developments: tools, metals. Invention of wheel circa 3000 Concentration of people in Mesopotamia and Egypt -emergence of civilization BC Approx BC - Sumerians Approx 3000 BC - Egyptians Approx 2000 BC – Akkadians Approx 1800 BC – Babylonians Approx 1750 BC – Hittites Approx 1200 BC – Phoenicians & Hebrews Approx 700 BC – Assyrians Approx 600 BC - Persians PALEOLITHIC AGE ENDS. NEOLITHIC AGE. BRONZE AGE------BRONZE AGE. IRON AGE ---

6 1st Stage: Hominids FROM AFRICA - East and South Africa 3-4 million years ago Australiopithecines Simple stone tools 2nd Stage: Homo Erectus From same area 1.5 million years ago More tools and more varied tools First to leave Africa and moved into Europe and Asia 3rd Stage: Homo Sapiens (wise human being) 250,000 ya

7 Two branches off of homo sapiens - Neanderthal (Nender Valley, Germany) Dated to 100,000 and 30,000 bce Relied upon variety of stone tools First to bury their dead - Homo sapiens sapiens (wise wise human being) First anatomically modern humans Dated 200,000 – 100,000

8 II. Agricultural Revolution

9 III. Emergence of Civilization -Urban revolution: cities become focal point for politics, economics, social, and cultural Civilization: a complex culture in which large numbers of humans share a number of common elements Basic Characteristics of Civilization : The basic characteristics – writing and cities Languages: Semitic: Assyrian, Akkadian, Aramaic, Babylonian, Canaanitic, Phoenician, Syriac, Arabic, Hebrew Indo-European: English, German, Greek, Latin, Persian, and the languages of India.

10 a)Sumerians Time Period: 3000 BC – 2350 BC Region: Language: Social Structure: 3 major groups – highly stratified Leadership: Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Eridu, Ur, uruk, Umma, Lagash - Notables: Epic of Gilgamesh IV. FIRST CIVILIZATIONS

11 B) Akkadian Time Period: 2350 – 2100 BC Region: Language: Semitic Social Structure: Leadership: Sargon: BC Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Notables:

12 c) Amorites or Old Babylonians: Time Period: 1792 BC – 1750 BC Region: Language: Semitic Social Structure: Leadership: Hammurabi Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Notables: Code of Hammurabi – 282 Laws

13 Code of Hammurabi 282 laws -written so as to not be arbitrary -eye for an eye -standards for professions: public officials had numerous duties, responsibilities. -Consumer protection -sought to protect women and children / focus on family matters -sexual promiscuity permitted – for men. -reorganized and consolidated previous laws in order to maintain the established social / economic order. ALSO devised most sophisticated mathematical system based on numerical system of 1-60 (we use hours and minutes - 60), Quadratic equation (used in computing amounts of materials for bldg) When Hammurabi died, his son lost ½ the kingdom in revolts and thus weakened, fell to Hittites

14 d) Hittites Time Period: 1500 – 800 BC Region: Asia Minor and Anatolia Language: Indo-European Social Structure: Leadership: Sargon: BC Gender Roles: Religion: adopted many of the gods of the Sumerians and Old Babylonians Legal: modified the system of law they inherited from the Old Babylonians Economy: Cities: Notables: Iron

15 e) Assyrian Time Period: 800 – 600 BC Region: Language: Semitic Social Structure: Leadership: Ashurbanipal B.C. Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Notables: iron weapons, Use of terror, lay siege to cities

16 f) Chaldeans Time Period: 600 – 500 BC Region: Language: Semitic Social Structure: Leadership: Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Notables:

17 g) Phoenicians Time Period: Region: Language: Semitic Social Structure: Leadership: Gender Roles: Religion: Legal: Economy: Cities: Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon Notables: traders, alphabet

18 –The United and Divided Kingdoms Solomon (c B.C.E.) –Temple housed the Ark of the Covenant The divided kingdom –Division into the kingdom of Israel with its capital at Samaria and Judah with its capital at Jerusalem –Assyrians destroyed Samaria in 722 B.C.E. and overran the kingdom of Israel –Deported the Hebrews to other parts of the empire –Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians and destroyed Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. –Persians destroyed the Chaldean kingdom –Judah remained under Persian control until Alexander the Great h) Hebrews The Hebrews: The Children of Israel Between 1200 and 1000 B.C.E., the Israelites emerged as a distinctive people organized into tribes

19 Spiritual Dimensions of Israel –Yahweh »Created nature but not in nature »God of mercy and love »Spoke through Moses –Covenant, law, the prophets

20 i) Persians Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 B.C.E. Indo-European people Cyrus ( B.C.E.) Cambyses ( B.C.E.) Darius ( B.C.E.) Civil Administration and the Military Divided into 20 provinces Satraps collected tribute, responsible for justice and security Roads Royal Road stretched from Sardis to Susa All subjects were the kings servants Professional army with a core of 10,000 cavalry Persian Religion Zoroaster (b. 660 B.C.E.) Zoroastrianism Monotheism Ahurmazda, the creator, gave all humans free will and the power to chose between right and wrong Each soul faced final evaluation

21 First settlement around 4000 BC Over 2500 years, most stable civilization the western world had ever known. Included 31 dynasties grouped into four periods Egyptian

22 Divine Kingship The Importance of Religion Inseparable element of the world order Polytheistic Sun gods and land gods Sun god worshiped as Atum in human form Egyptian ruler took the title Son of Re King Pharoh HORUS (sky and falcon god) RA (sun god) AMEN-RE OSIRIS (god of the dead) Mummification – important for return of spiritual ka Hyksos - result was the Egyptian use of bronze for improved tools and weapons, more effective methods of warfare which enabled the Egyptians to establish the New Kingdom and expand their empire, use of horse-drawn war chariots, significant increase in Egyptian imperialism. Ahmose I Empire – Somalia, Nubia, Palestine, Syria Hatshepsut BC Amenhotep IV 1364 – 1347 BC TUTANKHAMEN

23 New Centers of Civilization By 6500 BC, Agriculture had spread into the Balkan peninsula By 4000 BC, humans in what is now France, central Europe, Mediterranean area had domesticated animals Between 3200 – 1500 BC – the druids ended up with very large stones (megalithic constructions) throughout Britain. These megalithic constructions were also evident as far north as Scandinavia and as far south as Corsica and Malta. Role of Nomadic People Herding, hunting, gathering, limited farming Indo_Europeans were most significant nomadic people. Indo-Europeans from somewhere in the steppe region north of the Black Sea or in southwestern Asia


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