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A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project by Gerard Chigona (PhD) Introduction Since the advent of the HIV and AIDS, there.

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Presentation on theme: "A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project by Gerard Chigona (PhD) Introduction Since the advent of the HIV and AIDS, there."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project by Gerard Chigona (PhD) Introduction Since the advent of the HIV and AIDS, there has been a progression in the understanding of the pandemic and its implications.

2 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project It is now understood that its implications go beyond health considerations. There are also socio-economic implications.

3 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project The Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) has taken one step further in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Under this initiative, while taking into consideration the health, and socio-economic implications of the pandemic, NCA notes also an anthropological challenge. What is meant here is that the pandemic presents a challenge to our self-understanding. It questions certain identities that have been taken for granted as part of our definition as men and women.

4 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project Specifically, the pandemic seems to raise critical questions regarding certain assumptions about the male identity in Malawi. This is particularly the case with reference to alcohol consumption. Thus the key assumption of this initiative is that there is a connection between the male image, alcohol and HIV and AIDS in Malawi.

5 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project In other words, it is assummed that somehow, alcohol is one of the constructs of the male identity and that it has implications on the spread of HIV and AIDS.

6 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project Overall objective: The overall of the project is to motivate and inspire men to actively be involved in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Specifically, the project seeks to: a. Review the current male image in Malawi b. Establish knowledge levels on issues of HIV and AIDS and other related issues among Malawian men c. Build capacity in addressing issues of masculinity, alcohol, HIV and AIDS d. Draw relationships between masculinity, alcohol, HIV and AIDS.

7 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project Project Strategies: The following have been identified as initial strategies to be used in the implementation of the proejct: 1. Data collection through research on male identities, male sexuality, and alcohol, and their relationship to HIV and AIDS. 2. Capacity Building of FBOs on the current concepts of masculinity and their relationship to HIV and AIDS in Malawi

8 A Brief Presentation on the Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS Project 3. Awareness raising on masculinity through man to man dialogue and training programmes. 4. Building networks with other stakeholders such as Government (NAC, Local Assemblies) and traditional leaders. Production and use of IEC materials

9 Process The following were the key steps that were undertaken in the process of developing the project: First Consultative Meeting in Lilongwe: September, 2007 Second Consultative Meeting in Salima: October, The second meeting involved experts from Norway and Botswana who shared their experiences.

10 Process Desk research/Literature review. This was done by both NCA and FORUT. Proposal Preparation and submission Approval by the MFA and funding

11 Preliminary implementation During the second half of 2008, it was noted that most of the planned activities could not be done this year. Therefore, there was a revision and three activities were prioritized as follows: a. A national research on the relationship between Masculinity, Alcohol, HIV and AIDS in Malawi. b. Study report dissemination workshop c. Study tour within the region

12 National Research Development of ToRs (July-August) Recruitment of the Consultants (August-September) Actual study (September-October) Dissemination workshop on the key findings and identification of the partners capacity building requirements (October, 2008) Completion of the study (November, 2008)

13 Key findings Although alcohol is not a key factor in the construction of masculinity, it is still something tolerated among men in many culture in Malawi. There is an increase in alcohol consumption both among men and women. This could partly be due to disposable income. Prostitution is increasingly becoming an alternative employment sector.

14 Key findings There is no clear law or policy that specifically regulate prostitution and alcohol. There is no direct and immediate linkage between masculinity, alcohol and HIV and AIDS. Nevertheless, the male image/masculinity and alcohol are conducive for the spread of the virus

15 Key findings Drunk men tend to indulge into risky behaviours and this includes unprotected sex. This was confirmed by a lady who narrated her experiences as a sex worker in Mangochi. At present she is living positively with the virus. Drunks men are easily attracted by symbols of innocence. And these include: a. Claims of being school girls b. Recitation of tender age (18-21) c. Claims of short duration of stay in that area

16 Key findings d. Claims of having a stable boy friend e. Wearing of rings f. Claims of having one child whom she got while at school and later the man disserted both of them. g. Sometimes the wearing of traditional dress. h. The type of beer that one drinks, e.g. a good percentage indicated that they drink Hunters, Castle, Savanna, Reds.

17 Key findings i. There is a variety of marketing strategies. Some operate within drinking premises hoping to catch those who are slowly getting drunk. Others operate along the streets, especially at corners, junctions and shades. This category is usually picked up by those people who do not want to be known. In many cases, these men do not drink. It was also established that those women operating on these places lay claim to those plots such that one can not just come and stand there. Places and time also define the type of sex workers to be found at a place.

18 Key findings j. The most preferred customers include Government officers, heads of NGOs, politicians and in some cases tourists and clergy. Charges vary depending on the general outlook of the customer and the quality of the service to be provided.

19 Some recommendations Promote labeling on alcohol bottles and packets with messages on men, alcohol, and HIV and AIDS. Promote paradigm shift in Churchs teachings, instructions and sermons to include issues of masculinity, alcohol, HIV and AIDS. Note that Churches have great impact in the formation of the male and female identities.

20 Some recommendations Man to man programmes Promotion of HIV and AIDS Testing and Counseling Services by alcohol companies-principle of social responsibility. Policy reforms

21 Some recommendations Promotion of bedroom skills The draft national policy on alcohol should incorporate views from the faith community as well as traditional leaders Breaking the silence on the linkage between masculinity, alcohol, HIV and AIDS Use of the media on the linkage between masculinity, alcohol, HIV and AIDS.

22 Taking the Discourse Further Proposal preparation with partners for 2009 Completion of the Project proposal by integrating the key findings and recommendations of the national study


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