Omar (r) Up to Hijrah A.S. Hashim, MD From wikipedia.com
Sources of Reference Al Farooq, Omar, Muhammad Husayn Haykal al-Tabari, History of the Prophets and Kings Tabqat ibn Sa'ad. al-Suyuti, The History of Khalifahs Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad. K. Y. Blankinship, The History of al-Tabari Early caliphate, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Yaqub Khan Modern Islamic political thought, Hahmid Enayat, Encyclopedia Britannica al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah by ibn Kathir Armstrong,
In this Slide Show Omar from birth to the Hijrah Lineage and Early Childhood Early life Attitude toward Muslims before his embrace of Islam Circumstances leading to his conversion Praying in the open defiantly Encounters with the disbelievers of Quraish The emigration to Medina The Brotherhood-in-Faith
Lineage Omar was born in Mecca to the Benu Adi clan, عدي بنو thirteen years after the Prophet's birth Benu Adi clan was responsible for arbitrations of disputes among the tribes. Omars father was Khattab ibn Nufayl الخطاب بن نفيل Omars mother was حنتمة بنت هشام, Hantamah Bint Hisham from the tribe of Banu Makhzum. He is said to have belonged to a middle class family. In his youth Omar used to tend to his fathers camels in the plains near Mecca.
Father and Home Life His father, Khattab ibn Nufayl, was famed for being a gifted and smart person among his tribe. Khattab was a middle class merchant and is believed to be: Not only a ruthless man but also an emotional polytheist Khattab often treated his son Omar quite badly. As obvious from Omar's own statement regarding his father during his later political rule, Omar had said: "My father Al-Khattab was a ruthless man. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion."
Lineage Father Khattab ibn Nufayl Mother Hantamah Bint Hisham Omar Tribe Banu Adi Tribe Makhzum
Youthful Years Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Omar learned to read and write in his youth. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature. According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Omar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. Omar was tall and physically powerful, was soon to became a famed wrestler. Omar was also a gifted orator, and he succeeded his father as an arbitrator of conflicts among the tribes.
Early Life In addition, Omar followed the traditional profession of Quraish, dealing with merchandise. He became a merchant and had several journeys to outside of Arabia, where he is said to have met the various scholars and analyzed the Byzantine and Persian societies closely. However, as a merchant he is believed to have never been successful. Drinking alcohol was very common among the Quraish, and Omar was also fond of drinking until alcohol was prohibited in Islam.
Description Omar was quite tall, muscular and well built, with an imposing figure commanding attention His complexion was ruddy (fair, tinged with red), Omar had a bald head, but with a long beard that thins out on the sides He used to use Henna to color his beard, not unusual in those days His moustache used to be long, so that when he was in anger he would twirl it to a point and blow a huff أن عمر بن الخطاب كان إذا غضب فتل شاربه ونفخ His walk was usually speedy Drinking alcohol was very common among the Quraish, and Omar was also fond of drinking until alcohol was prohibited in Islam.
His Married Life Omar married a total of 9 women in his lifetime Omar had 14 children, 10 sons and 4 daughters. Of the 9 women he was married to: He divorced 3 of them And 2 of them were Umm Wilid (slave girls) One wife was the daughter of Imam Ali, by the name of Umm Kulthoom, who bore him two children: Son: Zayd ibn Omar, (famously known as Ibn al-Khalifatayn; the son of the two Khalifas i.e Omar and Ali). Daughter: Ruqayyah bint Omar
Arabia at the Time Arabian peninsula at the time consisted of dispersed tribes in conflict with each other: looting, kidnapping for slavery, etc. Arabian peninsula at the time consisted of dispersed tribes in conflict with each other: looting, kidnapping for slavery, etc. As for religion, there were 360 statues of gods on top of the Kaba. Some people used to take a square stone for a god. Some people used to take a square stone for a god. Others would make a god out of date paste if it were too cold to go to the place of worship. Others would make a god out of date paste if it were too cold to go to the place of worship. However, when hunger strikes, eating the god they made out of dates might be the only option! However, when hunger strikes, eating the god they made out of dates might be the only option! Even Omar Ibn al-Khattab did such a thing and when later he was asked, didnt people have a brain at the time? He replied, We did, but we didnt have guidance.
Arabia at the Time Women had no financial rights of inheritance or ownership. A woman was not even part of the inheritance, except for those of some noble families. Khadijah was not like this nor Amina Bint Wahab. Khadijah was not like this nor Amina Bint Wahab. Moreover, the practice of burying girls alive was common. Moreover, the practice of burying girls alive was common. Some companions of the Prophet had buried up to seven of their daughters before Islam, and could never cry enough afterwards for what they had done. could never cry enough afterwards for what they had done. Some girls were buried at birth, others at the age of up to six. See what Allah says in the next slide:
Quran 16:58-59 وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُمْ بِالْأُنْثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ يَتَوَارَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ مِنْ سُوءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ When news is brought to one of them, of the birth of a female, his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief! He hide himself from his people with shame, (due to the bad news he has had!) Shall he retain the girl but with sufferance and contempt, or bury it alive in the dust? Ah! what an evil choice they decide on?
Omar and his Daughter قصة وأد عمر بن الخطاب –رضي الله عنه- لبنته : من المفارقات ان عمر بن الخطاب كان يروي انه كان يهيل التراب على ابنته في القبر وهي حية بل ان ابنته كانت تمسح له لحيته من التراب المتناثر الذي يهيله عمر بن الخطاب على ابنته وهو يغمر جسدها الطري بالتراب تحت الارض. و كان ذلك قبل إسلامة، أما بعد إسلامه فمرة وجدوه يبكى فلما سألوه عن سبب بكائه قال أنه تذكر عندما وأد ابنته في الجاهلية وتأثر من فعلته وقسوة قلبه قبل الإسلام، ومن المعروف ان رسول الاسلام محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم قد ساهم في عدم وأد البنات وجعله من الكبائر.
Persecution by Quraish For three years after the advent of Islam, Muslims kept secret their faith, and did not pray in public. When the Prophet called people to Islam in the open, Muslims were demeaned and they became the target for more abuse, hurts, and exposure to harm Omar in particular, was quite harsh on the Muslims Because of such violence the Prophet urged the Muslims to take refuge in far away Abyssinia Escaping home to Abyssinia was no easy matter, even then they were pursued by Quraish, since it left a worrisome vacuum in Mecca.
Abyssinia and Worries of Omar Due to the persecution at the hands of Quraish, Muhammad had ordered his followers to migrate to Abyssinia Abyssinia was with a Christian population and a Christian Ruler A group of about 80 Muslims did migrate to make Abyssinia their temporary home and place of business This migration left a vacuum in Mecca, not many Muslims were left to persecute, and the businesses suffered Omar worried about the unity and future of Quraish, he thus decided on his own to kill Prophet Muhammad to get rid of the division created by Islam among the people of Mecca.
Omar's hostility to Islam The polytheists of Mecca and their traditional ways clashed head to head with the message of Islam; Like other people of Mecca, Omar was adamant in opposing Islam. He resolved to defend the traditional pagan ways of Arabia. He was most insistent and cruel in opposing Muhammad and vicious in persecuting the Muslims. Omar was the first man who decided on his own that Muhammad had to be murdered to finish Islam. Omar firmly believed in unity of Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord among Quraish.
Converting to Islam Omar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration of the Muslims to Abyssinia. The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Seerah; On the way to murder Muhammad, Omar met his best friend Nuaim who had secretly been converted to Islam but he did not tell Omar anything about it. When Omar told him that he was on his way to kill Muhammad Nuaim was terrified. He knew Omar was capable of what he said. So just to divert his attention he told Omar to set his own house in order first, since Omars sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, Omar found his sister and brother-in-law Sa'eed bin Zaid (Omar's cousin) reciting verses of the Quran. Omar started beating his brother-in-law savagely.
20 Circumstances of the Conversion When his sister came to rescue her husband who had been slapped by Omar, Omar hit his sister so hard that she began to bleed. Yet still they kept on saying You may kill us but we will not give up Islam" Omar felt guilty, he calmed down but insisted to let him see what they were reading. Omar was so struck by its beauty that he felt for Islam that very day. He then went to Muhammad with the same sword with which he intended to kill him, but Declared accepting Islam in front of him and his companions. Omar was 27 when he accepted Islam.
Omar, Islam, and his Reaction Red with anger, the room filled with tension, Omar kept insisting to take a look at what they were reading They told him he was impure and was not allowed to touch the Quran Omars anger abated a little, felt belittled, But he insisted, so the page was given to him He was overwhelmed with what he read, far beyond what he expected: With its phraseology and its unusual style of expression He was overjoyed and overcome by its meaning He was overwhelmed He was shaking inside, very taken The part of Quran he was reading was from Surah Al-Hadeed (57)
22 Struck with awe, Omar reads: Whatever is in the heavens and the earth declares the glory of Allah, and He is the Mighty, the Wise His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; He gives life and causes death; and He has power over all things He is the First and the Last and the Ascendant (over all) and the Knowledgeable of hidden things, and He is Cognizant of all things….. سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ ۖ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنْزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا ۖ وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ….
Tidbits about Converting to Islam Omar was in his twenties when he: Embraced Islam in the 6 th year of its advent, and It was just 3 days after al-Hamza became Muslim Omar accepted Islam one year after the immigration of the Muslims to Abyssinia It is claimed that Omar was the 40 th Muslim convert However, more than 80 Muslims had already emigrated to Abyssinia the year before Therefore he must have been the 40 th of the Muslims left in Mecca at the time As obnoxious as he used to be on the Muslims, Omar now became more severe and obnoxious on the pagans of Quraish and others.
To Recognize the Truth In accepting Islam Omar has to: 1. To know the person of the Prophet 2. To evaluate the Message 3. To believe in the Message 4. To face the consequences 5. To enthusiastically spread the Message
Praying in the Open Following his conversion, Omar went to inform the leader of Quraish, Amr ibn Hisham, about his acceptance of Islam. According to one account Omar thereafter openly prayed at the Ka'ba as the Quraish leaders, (Amr ibn Hisham and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb) reportedly watched in dismay. This further empowered the Muslims to gain confidence in practicing Islam in the open. At this stage Omar even challenged anyone who dared to stop the Muslims from praying, No one dared to interfere with Omar when he was praying in the open.
Ibn Mas'ood and Praying in the Grand Mosque Omars conversion to Islam gave power to the Muslims and the faith in Mecca. It was after this that for the first time Muslims offered prayers in the open in Masjid al-Haram. Abdullah ibn Mas'ood said, Omar's embracing Islam was our victory, his migration to Medina was our success and his reign a blessing from Allah, we didn't offer prayers in Masjid Al-Haram until Omar accepted Islam, when he accepted Islam Quraish were compelled to let us pray in the Mosque. All these things earned Omar the title of Farooq, meaning one who makes a difference.
Migration to Medina In 622 due to the growing popularity of Islam in the city of Yathrib and the horrendous anti-Muslim attitude in Mecca: Muhammad ordered his followers to migrate to Medina. Muslims usually migrated at night due to fear of Quraish's resistance to that migration, but Omar is reported to have migrated openly during daytime saying; He who likes to see his wife widowed and his children orphaned let him meet me there behind that cliff. Therefore Omar was not challenged by Quraish Omar migrated to Medina accompanied by his cousin and brother- in-law Sa'eed and many of his family and friends.
Brotherhood-in-Faith When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired off Each Meccan immigrant (Muhaajir) was to be with one of the Muslim residents of the city (Ansaari), The only exception was to pair off himself with Ali, since both were from Mecca, as Brothers-in-Faith That was a further distinction and honor for Ali The Prophet joined Omar with either: Uwaim Ibn Saidah عويم بن ساعدة Or Utban Ibn Malik وقيل عتبان بن مالك Or Muadh Ibn Hafraa وقيل: معاذ بن عفراء making them Brothers-in-Faith. Later in Omar's reign as a Khalifa, he assigned his Brother-in-Faith the office of Chief Inspector of Accountability.
In Conclusion Omar from birth up to the Hijrah Omars lineage and childhood During Omar's youthful life Arabia at the Time: Burying the female alive Omars Ill-Treatment of Muslims in the beginning Omar converts to Islam after skirmishes with sister Omar the Muslim, prays in the open Migration to Medina and the Brotherhood-in-Faith
Finally we quote the Quran: By the Token of Time Verily Man is in loss, Except those who believe and do good works, and exhort one another to Truth and exhort one another to patience. بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ وَالْعَصْرِ إِنَّ اِلانسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ إِلا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْحَقِّ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ