Presentation on theme: "This pedigree shows a genetic condition in a family. It is not sex linked, figure out if it is dominant or recessive. Why? I II III."— Presentation transcript:
This pedigree shows a genetic condition in a family. It is not sex linked, figure out if it is dominant or recessive. Why? I II III
On your first day interning in the office of a human geneticist, a man with purple ears walks in. You questioned the man and wrote down the following family history. The man's mother and one of his sisters also had purple ears, but his father, his brother, and two other sisters had normal ears. The man and his normal-eared wife had seven children, including four boys and three girls. Two girls and two boys had purple ears. Draw the family pedigree and indicate what form of inheritance that the purple-ear trait most likely follows. What are the genotypes of his parents? Pedigree Word Problem
4.4 Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Outline the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA State that, in gel electrophoresis of DNA, fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to their sizes. State that gel electrophoresis of DNA is used in DNA profiling. Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also forensic investigation. Outline 3 outcomes of the sequencing of the complete human genome. State that, when genes are transferred between species, the amino acid sequence of the polypeptides translated from them is unchanged because the genetic code is universal. Outline a basic technique used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell (bacterium, yeast or other cells), restriction enzymes and DNA ligase. Assessment Statements
State two examples of the current uses of genetically modified crops or animals. Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic modification. Define clone Outline a technique for cloning using differentiated animal cells. Discuss the ethical issues of therapeutic cloning in humans. Assessment Statements continued…..
Answer the following What is biotechnology? How has biotechnology and genetic engineering helped society? Give examples What ethical issues are raised with these advancements? What is DNA profiling? What can be found at a crime scene that can be used to get DNA? What is polymerase chain reaction (PCR)? What is gel electrophoresis? Describe the technique. What are restriction enzymes? What is the human genome project? When did it start? Completed?
Biotechnology Genetic engineering and biotechnology have opened new opportunities in forensic science, agriculture, medicine and food technology.
As knowledge has grown, science has enabled us to manipulate the unique genetic identity of organisms. Gene transfer, cloning and stem cell research have raised questions and the safety and ethics of techniques that are new to this generation.
DNA Profiling At crime scenes, forensic scientists check for fingerprints because fingerprints are unique can be used to identify someone. Forensic scientists also collect samples of hair, skin, blood and other body fluids that contain a persons DNA.
DNA Profiling Matching the DNA from a sample to a known individual is called DNA profiling. Along with forensic science DNA profiling can be used to determine paternity.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (No need to know) The ELISA has been used as a diagnostic tool in medicine as well as a quality-control check in various industries. In simple terms, in ELISA, an unknown amount of antigen is affixed to a surface, and then a specific antibody is applied over the surface so that it can bind to the antigen. This antibody is linked to an enzyme, and, in the final step, a substance containing the enzyme's substrate is added. The subsequent reaction produces a detectable signal, most commonly a color change in the substrate.
LAL (No need to know) Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the horseshoe crab. An extract of the horseshoe crab's blood is used by the pharmaceutical and medical device industries to ensure that their products, intravenous drugs, vaccines, and medical devices, are free of bacterial contamination. No other test works as easily or reliably for this purpose.
Gel Electrophoresis Gel electrophoresis is a method used to separate fragments of DNA on the basis of size and the electrical charge they carry. It can indentify natural variations found in every individuals DNA.
Any DNA sample usually contains long molecules that are too large to be used for profiling. Enzymes, called restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA into fragments at very precise points in the base sequences. Since each person has a unique DNA sequence, the position of these cutting sites will vary, resulting in different fragment sizes.
The DNA fragments are placed in a well in a plate of a gel and an electrical field is applied. Each DNA fragment has a small negative charge so will move in the electrical field, through the gel. The distance a fragment can move depends on its size: smaller fragments move more easily through the gel matrix and travel further, while larger fragments are left behind close to their well. After fragments have separated in the gel, they are stained and produce a unique pattern of bands called a DNA profile.