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Early history He was born as Alan Mathison Turing on June 23rd 1912 in Paddington, London.(website) Turing was highly educated. He attended Kings College, Cambridge in 1931 to study Mathematics.(website) Turing was known as a brilliant thinker. Apart from Mathematics, he also studied Philosophy, Psychology, Physics, Chemistry and Biology.(website) His personality was to have something cool to work with that has to do with machines.(website) But he was more interested in deeper understanding of how computer works and the future of computers.(website)

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Early History Inetellectually, Turing was an happy man but personally, he was sad. He was homosexual and during his time homosexuality relationship was a crime and therefore illegal.(website) So he had an alternative to take female hormones to avoid going to prison.(website) But he was at big risk with his personal life.

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Early History In 1937, after Turing graduated from Cambridge studying Mathematics in 1934 he wrote a famous paper: "On Computable Numbers" with an application to the "Entscheidungsproblem", which postulated the Turing Machine.(website) The Turing Machine was later useful during the war. (website)

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The Entscheidungsproblem The Entscheidungsproblem was published by Alonzo Church and Alan Turing in 1936 - 1937 to further describe the work of David Hilbert's challenge problem.(The man who knew too much) The Entscheidungsproblem is commonly referred to by its original German name, which means "decision problem"(The man who knew too much) Entscheidungsproblem is a concept of a mathematical algorithm, an arithmetic statement that can be either true or false. (website) The Entscheidungsproblem idea introduced the concept of the Turing machine. And latter was computable with the Turing machine(website).

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The Entscheidungsproblem By this problem, Hilbert meant that within that system, any true statement could be formally proven and any false statement could be disproven. ( The Man who knew too much) (The man who knew too much) He meant that, within the system, no invalid statement, such as 2+2 = 5 or 1 = 0, could be arrived at through a valid process. (The man who knew too much) Simply meaning, within that system, there could be shown to be a "definite method" by means of which the truth or falsity of any statement might be ascertained. (The man who knew too much)

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In the 1930's when he began his work on the Entscheidungsproblem, the word "computer" had a different meaning from todays meaning. It meant someone who did computations. (The man who knew too much) Because in the1930's computations took long hour of human labor in which today's simple addition problem's was solved using Charles Babbage abacus which later played a big influence in the invention of Turing's "universal machine"(The man who knew too much) The Entscheidungsproblem

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The Turing Machine With the influence of the Entscheidungsproblem and Charles Babbage abacus, Turing invented a machine named the Turing machine which was used to perform specific algorithm and simple arithmetic problems like 2 + 2 (The man who knew too much)

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The Turing Machine and how it works. Each number was represented in Binary system. (The man who knew too much) The machine was divided into 4 columns. (The man who knew too much) The first column is the m-configuration lettered from A - D, the second column is for symbol which is left blank. And the third column is where the action of the algorithm takes place. Lastly, the fourth column is the New m-configuration which prints the answers. (The man who knew too much)

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Later in the years, an advanced set of the machines was made which worked better. They still did the same thing but it was more advanced than the first set of machines. (78, the man who knew too much) The newest machines at that time later performed derivatives and differentiation problems (78, the man who knew too much)

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The Bombe Machine (1939 - 45) The day after the war broke out Turing "joined up" full time at the Government Code and Cypher School, which had just moved to Bletchley Park. He was in the first handful of the stream of able mathematicians drafted into their code-breaking operations. (website) In the next three years Turing was the key figure in the continual battle to decode messages encrypted by the increasingly complex Enigma machines, using the 'Bombe' machine

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The Bombe was an electro-mechanical device, developed by Turing with help from another mathematician W. G. Welchman, inspired by the Polish 'Bomba'. The periods when the Naval code could be broken saw dramatic reductions in the shipping losses from the Atlantic convoys so essential to the conduct of the Allied war effort. (website)

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The Bombe Machine By the time Turing returned to the U.K., the ability to decode had been restored, under his deputy, and his deputy remained in charge. Turing moved on to a general consultancy role, and to work on a Speech Secrecy system. The American system comprised three roomfuls of equipment (one each for the White House, Pentagon and Whitehall), and Turing thought up a much smaller electro-mechanical device, about the size of a typewriter, which would obviously make the facility more widely available! (website)

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Honours In 1945, he was awarded the O.B.E for his contribution in the war(website) In 1951, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (website)

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Final Years of Turing and His Legacy Afterwards his personal life caught up with him. In june 1954, he died from cyanide poisoning, with a verdict concluding suicides the cause; though he did legitimately have cyanide in the house in connection with chemical experiments. (Website).

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Apology In September 2009, PM Gordon Brown announced a sincere apology for the mistreatment of Alan Turing, the World War II code breaker, for being gay. (bbc) Slide 16 ACM Turing Award. Today, He is well know for his brilliant contribution to computer and now individuals receive an award in honour of him called the ACM Turing ward.

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Biblography http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8249792.stm (bbc) http://www.computer50.org/mark1/turi ng.html#ace(website) http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8249792.stm http://www.computer50.org/mark1/turi ng.html#ace(website) The Man who knew too much by David Leavitt

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Turing, Expert Systems, and Neural Nets

Turing, Expert Systems, and Neural Nets

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