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Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

2 Chapter 4: Gender

3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Core Concepts

4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Difference Between Gender and Sex Gender The behavioral, cultural, and psychological traits associated with being male or female Sex Refers to the biological makeup of males and females, especially in terms of their reproductive organs and bodily structures Difficult to find significant differences between baby boys and girls, especially right after birth Not until early childhood the gap between genders widens

5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Girls have strong tendency to be more verbal, compliant, and empathetic Boys exhibit more aggression and independence Studies suggest that socialization is part of the cause Process of learning gender roles continues throughout childhood and into adolescence

6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Gender Construction and Identity Idea regarding what is and is not normal for a particular gender not based on biological set of traits Product of social behavior Childhood is primary time for developing and understanding these standards Children follow cultural rules and try to meet the expectations of gender they perceive themselves to be Gender Identity

7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Sociologists West and Zimmerman There is a difference between doing gender and having gender Doing gender refers to act of matching ones behavior to certain set of gender- related standards Having gender refers to simply being male or being female Constructs can become so fixed that children who dont fit the mold are often ostracized

8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Patriarchy Social system in which men control majority of power and exert authority over women and children Matriarchies No pure matriarchies exist in the world Some women may seem to have more influence than men In most cultures, there are clear lines of male dominance in the social system Women in general have less power in society

9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Sexism Belief that one sex is superior to the other In a patriarchy Women typically viewed as weak and incapable of matching mans physical or intellectual prowess Even in societies that give women same civil rights as men Different standards placed on women Income inequality

10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. The Lolita Effect Dr. M. Gigi Durham The Lolita Effect: The Media Sexualization of Young Girls and What We Can Do About It 5 common myths about sex and sexuality: Girls dont choose boys. Boys choose girls, but only sexy ones There is only one kind of sexypreferably Caucasian Girls should work to be that type of sexy The younger a girl is, the sexier she is Sexual violence is sexy Myths believed to be true by impressionable girls

11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Gender Roles Societys expectations of how males and females should think and act Men assumed to be tough and authoritarian Policemen, politicians, businessmen Women nurturing and tolerant Nurses, social workers, housewives Our society still imposes gender roles on children

12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. History of Gender Differences

13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Rooted in Religion Gender differences and stratification often have their roots in religion Early Christians blamed Eve for fall of man Over time, Christianity transferred this belief to society Gender inequality stems from and contributes to religious beliefs around the world

14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Present in the Early Colonies Same themes followed women to the colonization of the Americas Although women important to functioning of new society Still treated as second-class citizens Couldnt own property or inherit land Colonization was a small step toward female rights

15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Effects of the Feminist Movement Feminism Philosophy based on political, social, and economic equality of sexes Specifically, womans right to have same opportunities as a man Mary Wollstonecraft A Vindication of the Rights of Woman in 1792 One of earliest examples of feminist thought Argued for womans right to education Set off other forms of feminist thought

16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Three distinct waves First wave started by early feminists: Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Protested legal inequality Led to passage of the 19th Amendment ratified in 1920 Second wave began in the 1960s with rise of womens liberation movement Betty Friedan: The Feminine Mystique Introduced idea that a woman could and should seek personal fulfillment outside home and family Era also brought to light other controversial issues Womens reproductive rights and domestic violence

17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Third wave began in early 1990s Branched out to protect rights of minorities and underprivileged women Maxine Hong Kingston, Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks (née Gloria Jean Watkins), and Audre Lorde Called attention to how race, capitalism, and gender affect the lives of women throughout the world

18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Does Gender Make a Difference?

19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Education 52 percent of college graduates are women Men earn majority of science and engineering degrees Income Gap Difference in earnings between different demographics Becomes wider with higher levels of educational background Womans education is not valued as much as a mans?

20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

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22 Work Income gap between men and women created great divide in the workplace Women earn just $0.77 for every $1 that a male counterpart makes Gap is a financial burden and stifles womans career advancement and devalues her efforts

23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Choices women make in workplace have an effect on how much theyre paid Women choose positions that offer flexibility rather than high salary Avoid extensive overtime or business travel because of home responsibilities Tend to take breaks in work careers due to maternity leave or child-rearing duties

24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued 2007 Cornell University study Mothers are penalized in the workplace Perceived by employers as less competent and offered lower starting salaries than equally qualified childless women Men arent similarly penalized for being parents

25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Politics 2008 presidential election groundbreaking on many levels Realization of the first African American president Potential for first female president or vice president of the United States Only 17 of the 100 members of the Senate are women Women account for only 17% of House of Representatives Women face same double standard in politics as they do in educational institutions, social settings, and workplace

26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.

27 Health Women have a life expectancy seven years longer than men Women start to outnumber men by around age 35 Gap continues to grow with age Despite longer life expectancy, women often suffer from health disadvantages Heart disease is number-one killer of women in US Females not always given same aggressive treatment for heart attacks Due in part to faulty idea that women are not as susceptible to heart attacks

28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Theories of Gender Related to Social Problems

29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Feminist Theory Feminist theory examines how gender affects experiences and opportunities of men and women Feminists seek to achieve the following: Greater equality in the workplace and in schools Equal opportunities for men and women A world in which rights, opportunities, and income are no longer stratified by gender An end to sexual violence

30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Central theme of feminism is equality for all people Two major groups Radical feminism and Liberal feminism Liberal feminists tend not to stray from primary focus of feminism Equal rights Women should receive equal pay for equal work The right to hold political office Same educational and professional opportunities as men Safety from domestic violence

31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Radical feminists Believe in the same core concepts as liberal feminists See men as the social dominators Blame patriarchal system for all forms of oppression in society Class oppression and racial oppression Believe that radical action must be taken Women should avoid taking on any traditional roles through marriage or childbearing Women should avoid participating in capitalism because structure favors men

32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Functionalism View society as system of many parts working together to form a whole Examine how different gender roles complement each other and help society run smoothly Children watch and learn from parents and step into these roles early in life Girls expected to help mothers with domestic chores Boys primed to work outside the house as fathers do

33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Conflict Theory Interested in the struggle for power between groups Especially economic power Feminization of Poverty Women more likely to be poor than male counterparts Result of job and wage discrimination in system Friedrich Engels Women were actually the first group to be oppressed

34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Symbolic Interactionism Look at micro-interactions of daily life and how they influence the ways in which issues are perceived Gender role definitions more fluid in society today than 50 years ago Societal views on household labor have been modified

35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Social Policies in Place to Prevent Domestic Violence

36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Preventing Domestic Violence Oppression becomes abuse When it starts to cause physical, emotional, sexual, or psychological harm National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 survey A large number of these crimes go unreported Only 1/5th of rapes, 1/4th of physical assaults, and 1/2th of stalking committed against women by their intimate partners are reported

37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Abuse is about power and control and can come in many forms Some abusers use intimidation Children involved in the relationship may be used as pawns in the struggle Abuse can occur through no contact at all Isolating the victim and making her feel insecure and alone Any physical attack is considered abuse

38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Resources available to help victims Often too scared or ashamed to come forward Dont understand that what theyre experiencing is illegal and undeserved. Law enforcement and community organizations Initiated campaigns against sexual assault and domestic violence

39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Title IX 1972, Patsy T. Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act (Title IX) Prohibits exclusion of any person from participation in an educational program on basis of gender Most extreme controversial effect Allocation of funding to female extracurricular activities, specifically sports Though womens participation in athletics has increased, goal of equality still not met

40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved. Continued Still fail to receive equal funding for sports programs in girls schools receive 45% of Division I scholarship money and only 32% of recruiting dollars Title IX requires equal treatment of male and female teams Does not require schools to spend equal amounts of money on male and female athletes


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