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Homo mobilus II – the mobile man II 28.05.2008Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark.

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Presentation on theme: "Homo mobilus II – the mobile man II 28.05.2008Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark."— Presentation transcript:

1 Homo mobilus II – the mobile man II Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

2 Aleksander Dye started at NKI Distance Education in 2001 in the R&D department as a system developer. Working with the development of SESAM - the LMS (learning management system) of NKI comprehensive knowledge about SESAM and how to adapt it to different needs. have been part of the research team on mobile learning since 2001 being part of four projects on mLearning. in 2007 focus changed to research in the field of distance education and is now a researcher at NKI working with mobile learning as well as being project manager for the development of SESAM Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

3 NKI Distance education NKI Distance Education (www.nki.no) Online distance education since 1987 (100,000 enrolments) Broad specter of subjects from secondary to master level One of Europes larges providers of online distance education About 9000 online students in at least 34 countries 54 % women More than 450 courses online Startup every day Individual progress plans Always room for more students Exams at local schools and embassies Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

4 Mobil learning in the beginning Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

5 Technological challanges Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

6 Today X Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

7 Possible today, but do we want it… Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

8 Important aims of the m-learning projects Extend distribution of learning materials and communication to lighter equipment Increase the flexibility of distance education Refining the environment to meet the needs to the mobile learner Increase the level of universal accessibility Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

9 Project 1 From e-learning to m-learning From e-learning to m-learning ( ) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

10 Our definition of mobile learning mLearning is learning that can take place anytime, anywhere with the help of a mobile computer device. The device must be capable of presenting learning content and providing wireless two-way communication between teacher(s) and student(s). Typically, an educational organization administrates both the course content and the communication services Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

11 Designing and trying out the Environment for Mobile Learners - First project Studying online and offline Technical solution: Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

12 Results and conclusions - first project Working from home, the office and on travel Increased feeling of flexibility Few technical problems Readability was good Access to forum and pre-written messages LMS should facilitate the mobile learner Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

13 Project 2 Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education ( ) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

14 First year developments – 2 nd project – Development of first year in additional version – Texts and graphics specifically developed for small screens – Text perfectly adapted to the screen of the PDA – Multi-media elements readable but not satisfactory Screenshots from the PDA of multi-media multiple-choice question and drag and drop assignment. Screenshots from PC from of PDA version Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

15 Second year: Developing the mLMS An always-online solution would possibly increase the quality of the services for mobile learners High bandwidth gives fast downloading of course content and use of audio, video and advanced graphics Independence of synchronization with desktop PC Access to resources on the Internet at all times Easy access to at all times Possibilities for online assessment and assignments Options for easier co-operation with fellow students Possibilities for synchronous communication, chat and IP telephony ADSL or free access to WLAN give control over costs Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

16 Examples Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

17 Examples Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

18 Syncronous communication – Microsoft MSN Messenger – Pocket Skype (IP telephony, instant messages) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

19 Example: Course forum Screen shot from the discussions forum using an ordinary browser Screen shot from the discussions forum on the PDA Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

20 Mobile learning: the next generation of learning Not one course as course #2, but all courses are available via the PDA Redirect to specially designed front page for PDAs Structural changes in layout Course menu moved to the top Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

21 Mobile learning: the next generation of learning Development issues with Course 2 Removing tables Layout by CSS Images and illustrations still a challenge –Reduced size = reduced readability Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

22 Mobile learning: the next generation of : /*css for screen{ #pageContent { margin-left: 3px; font-size: 94%; padding: 0px; width:80%; } #courseMenu { margin-top: 0px; float: right; width: 18%; } /*END css for screen*/ handheld{ /* css for handheld */ #pageContent { margin-top: 1px; margin-left: 1px; font-size: 120%; padding: 0px; width: 95%; } #courseMenu { margin-top: 0px; width: 18%; } /* END css for handheld */ } Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

23 Conclusions after 2 nd project Mobile learning has resulted in better solutions for serving distance online learners in general Cost efficiency considerations do not allow for developing parallel versions of courses Courses must be developed, presented and distributed in ways that allow both mobile and not mobile learners to participate in the same course Course materials can be accessed both by standard and mobile technology with acceptable quality of all content elements Interaction with course content and multi-media materials and communication with tutors and fellow students function adequately both through standard and mobile technology There are difficulties in presenting graphical materials on small screens Test students found equipment easy to use – test persons with technical background less enthusiastic Mobile learning increases access and flexibility and possibilities for cooperation Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

24 Project 3 Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education Incorporating mobile learning into mainstream education ( ) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

25 SMS example 1. Prospective registrations Jan Via 6124www.nki.no Via SMS: 3611 Via telephone: students enrolled without being registered as prospectives Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

26 SMS example 2. Data quality We struggle with incorrect addresses to students. September newsletter to our 7445 online students. 42 students with the address Newsletter to the remaining 7403 students. Error messages from 421 students (6.2 % errors). Mobile numbers for 207 of these 421 students Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

27 SMS example 2… SMS to 207, requesting them to correct their addresses. 52 error messages 155 SMS messages resulted in 108 corrected addresses. About 70% success rate… Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

28 Conclutions Students wants information SMS is a good channel SMS works for everyone, age, sex, education and so on 85% knows about internet possibility ( ) 31% of them uses it 11% use it at NKIs site (of the ones who knows about it on NKIs pages) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

29 Project 4 The role of mobile learning in European educationThe role of mobile learning in European education ( ) Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

30 The role of mobile learning in European education – 4 th project Survey on status and trends of mobile learning internationally and in Europe Continued developments of mobile learning services in the NKI LMS and distance learning systems – developments hindered by changing the technological platform of SESAM Survey on NKI online students access to mobile technology and attitudes towards use of mobile phones in their studies Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

31 Results from the student survey Technology and access Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

32 Results from the student survey Views on SMS Services Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

33 Results from the student survey Using the mobile phone in online study Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

34 Mobile learning at NKI – discussions and conclusions mLearning has increased quality for all Need for one version of a course Following standards ease the adaption of materials The ideal device is still to be found Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

35 Mobile learning around the world Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

36 6.5 billion Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark 3.3 billion subscribers

37 ADVANTAGES Available Not in use in education yet Phones will be more powerful Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

38 DISADVANTAGES Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark Small screen Data input Battery life

39 The role of mobile learning in European education An in-depth analyses of the success of mobile learning in 9 international countries: 178 pages (Australia, Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Taiwan and the USA) An in-depth analyses of the success of mobile learning in 28 European countries: 300 pages (27 members of the European Union and Norway) Both are available at the project websiteproject website Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

40 AUSTRALIA Current mLearning initiatives within the education and training sector of Australia are characterised by fragmentation. Several universities and education faculty staff have pockets of research, initiatives and enthusiasm; however their work is essentially focused on the Higher Education sector, providing limited awareness of research outcomes or benefit to K-12, VET or life-long-learning developments. The Australian Government has taken no significant interest in developing or optimizing networks or mobile systems to support mLearning Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

41 CANADA In Canada, the first short experiment took place in 2001, conducted at the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and using PDAs. Since then, different universities have been experimenting with podcasting of lectures. Athabasca University, which hosted the International Mobile Learning Conference in 2006, is leading in mobile learning research where it has created a mobile-enabled digital reading room with materials accessible using a variety of different mobile devices Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

42 CHINA China is not yet the country of mobile learners, but it has all the potentials to incorporate mlearning into mainstream education in the future. The mobile telecommunication sector is rapidly growing, just like the rate of internet access within the population. The coastal and the special administration areas are very well developed, but the great inland territories still need tremendous amount of infrastructural investment. There are several companies, universities, research institutions active on the field of ICT supported learning, providing a good basis for valuable research activities in mobile learning Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

43 INDIA Companies in India are receiving contracts for the development of mobile learning materials from institutions in Europe and in America. Two examples of these mobile learning development companies are given here: ZMQ Software Development Systems and Aptara Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

44 JAPAN Japanese researchers use the concepts pervasive learning and ubiquitous learning to emphasise that mobile devices often are applied in learning situations taking place at a place directly related to the object of learning. Often, mobile learning is organised as collaborative learning, focusing on sharing knowledge and social knowledge building. There is high government attention to develop Japan into an ubiquitous learning society where mobile devices are widely used for increasing welfare and life-long learning for all. There are some universities specifically working on the development of solutions for mobile learning: Tokushima University, University of Tokya, Oita University and Kobe University Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

45 REPUBLIC OF KOREA The Republic of Korea is in the forefront in Asia and in the world in adopting new technology for learning. For instance, it has been far ahead of Japan in introducing broadband access in the homes. The Korean government has actively tried to influence the development of Korea into an ubiquitous learning society. There are examples of mobile learning activities on all educational levels. The Ministry of Education has including mobile learning as one section of the nation-wide educational software context. Korean universities encourage the development of Internet learning that uses mobile technology and both elementary and secondary schools use mobile technology in learning Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

46 SOUTH AFRICA Work at the University of Pretoria and at Tshwane University of Technology gave South Africa a leadership role in the field of mobile learning which has now been built on by other institutions in the country. The University of Pretoria work provided mobile learning for students enrolled in a Post-graduate Diploma in Education who were all teachers in rural schools in South Africa. These students had no access to or to e-learning but all had mobile phones which were used successfully by the University in their education Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

47 TAIWAN Taiwan is a small island, but very strong when it comes to mobile learning. The country already has a very good mobile telecommunication infrastructure, which is under continuous development due to the strong commitment of the government. Schools and universities are picking up mobile educational services based on the highly developed telecommunication infrastructure. But not only the usage of these services is remarkable in Taiwan, but also the amount of research activities, carried out by various universities and research organisations Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

48 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA In a number of US universities the web portals are now able to send administrative messages to their students, using new channels of communication based on mobile devices (ipods, mobile phones, smart phones, PDAs, etc). One of the main strategies for the development of the m- learning field in Universities seems to be based on the availability of devices for students free of charge. The Universities are offering iPods, MP3 readers, PDAs or other recent devices to their students. Those devices have already pre-loaded contents with university based information and then students can use them to download other files from the University Library, or from the university portals, or from the teachers podcasts Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

49 Mobile learning in Europe UK in the lead and defines level Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

50 EUROPE LEVEL 1 The United Kingdom has at least 4 areas of provision: primary and secondary schools, universities, government departments and corporate providers. Provision at primary and secondary school level is vibrant. Many UK universities are active in the field UK companies are involved Finally 1000 British delegates are expected at the Handheld Learning conference to be held in London in October Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

51 EUROPE LEVEL 2 Level 2 consists of countries in which there has been mobile learning activity mainly in the form of participation in European Commission funded projects. Austria, Bulgaria (notably the University of Plovdiv), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Hungary (notably Corvinus University of Budapest), Ireland (notably Ericsson Education Ireland), Italy (many university and government research centre projects), Netherlands, Norway (notably NKI), Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

52 Mobile learning in Denmark (Paulsen and Rekkedal, 2008) The eleven projects funded by the Ministry are: 1.Interactive continuing education for mobile health care workers in the Aabenraa Municipality (www.mobile.dk/design/)www.mobile.dk/design/ 2.Combining GIS, GPS and e-learning for municipal employees (www.mobil.elr.dk/index.php?page_id=157&menu_id=158)www.mobil.elr.dk/index.php?page_id=157&menu_id=158 3.Using media players to teach students at Ørestad upper secondary school (www.oerestadgym.dk)www.oerestadgym.dk 4.Electronic visualisation to teach physicians at the University of Aalborg 5.Mobile e-learning for economical truck driving (www.vitusbering.dk)www.vitusbering.dk 6.Mobile e-learning tools for teaching of dyslectics (http://english.melfo.hum.ku.dk)http://english.melfo.hum.ku.dk 7.Mobile e-learning against obesity among young people (www.hillerod.dk/Nyheder/2007/Juli/mobile%20fitness.aspx)www.hillerod.dk/Nyheder/2007/Juli/mobile%20fitness.aspx 8.Podcasting for e-learning in the university world (www.dpu.dk) 9.E-learning for farmers via podcasting and online radio (www.knowledgelab.dk/nyheder/landmobil 10.Mobile e-learning for treatment of cancer 11.Flexibility in further and continuing education at CVU Sønderjylland Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

53 Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark Podcasting

54 Video based m-learning Vitus Bering Danmark received the international Boldic Award (www.nade-nff.no/default.pl?showArticle=141&pageId=194) for its mobile e-learning course on energy efficient driving for trucks and busses. The course includes 22 study units that are especially developed for mobile phones. The project is further described in a Danish article (Dalum 2007).www.nade-nff.no/default.pl?showArticle=141&pageId= Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

55 EUROPE LEVEL 3 Level 3 countries are making their first fragile steps in the field of mobile learning. Estonia, France, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Germany and Poland Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

56 EUROPE LEVEL 4 Level 4 countries are those in which little or no activity in mobile learning has been documented. Belgium, Luxembourg and Romania Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

57 CONCLUSION mLearning is on the move Increased possibilities Easier to adapt Several services available Tools are here, we need to learn to use them Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark

58 Thank you! NKI Distance Education NKI Internet College Presenters home page Conference: NoEL - Netværk om eLæring, Denmark


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