2Rudyard Kipling ( )British novelist, short story writer, and poet who celebrated British ImperialismBorn in Bombay, but moved to England at age 5.At 16 he returns to India to edita newspaper in Lahore.He begins writing short storiesset in British India which gain himnotoriety.By 1889, Kipling was earningenough from his writings to quitthe paper and travel the world.
3“The White Man’s Burden” (1899) Published in McClure’s magazine with the subtitle “The United States and the Philippine Islands”What is the “White Man’s Burden” which Kipling is referring to?How does Kipling view European colonialism?Do the benefits outweigh the costs?
4The White Man’s BurdenThe Journal (Detroit, 1898),
7Social DarwinismSearch for scientific explanation for political and economic dominance of powerful over weak, men over women, rich over poor, Europeans over other races, and humans over nature.Charles Darwin ( ): On theOrigin of the Species“natural selection”“survival of the fittest”Herbert Spencer ( ),pseudo-scientific belief that racialdifferences are product of biologyrather than history.
8The New Imperialism (1869-1914) Land grab by Western powers (and Japan) to divide up the rest of the world.10 million square milesconquered (over 1/6th of all landin the world)150 million people undercolonial rule.Reorganize the world aroundindustrialized world economy.
9Political Motives European competition and hyper- sensitivity towards status.Britain must protect their colonialinterests.France and Russia need to improvetheir image after humiliating defeats(Franco-Prussian War, Crimean War,Russo-Japanese War)Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Belgiumsee colonies as status symbolsColonial governors take initiative toexpand territory before someone elsecan.
10Cultural Motives “White Man’s Burden” Christian revival in US and EuropeConversion but also change culture (abolish slavery, end of sati, etc.)Racism: culturesranked from “savage” to“civilized”Non-Europeans werepermanently inferior andtherefore neededEuropean guidance.The Midway - World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
11Economic MotivesIndustrialization demanded resources (copper, tin, rubber, etc.).Development of a luxury economyalso demanded resources (diamonds,coffee, tobacco, etc.).Series of depressions causedbusinessmen to ask governments toprotect foreign interests.Declining profits at home meantmore investment abroad.
12Machine Guns Puckle Gun (1718): round bullets for Christians, square bullets fornon-Christians1890’s: First effective machine guns,firing eleven bullets a secondSwitches the balance of warfare, afew hundred Europeans could defeatthousands of Africans or Asians.Battle of Omdurman (1898)47 British killed, 340 wounded9,700 Sudanese killed, 13,000wounded, 5,000 capturedTwenty machine guns make thedifference
13The Scramble for Africa Pre-19th century, little outside interference in AfricaNorth Africa and areas immediately south of Sahara, develop large Muslim empiresEuropeans built small tradingposts and resupply ports, but tradewas most often on African termsStarting in 1870’s, Europeanpower look to divide up Africa1879: 90+% of Africa underAfrican rule
14EgyptKhedives attempt to modernize following Napoleon’s invasion with foreign investmentAttempt to break free of Ottoman Empire and build their own empire in Sudan and EthiopiaReorient economy towards exports (cotton)1869: Suez Canal completed1876: Interest on foreign debt equals 1/3rd of exportsand Egypt forced to sell its shares of the Suez Canal to Britain1878: Egypt forced to appointFrench minister of public works andBritish minister of finance
15Egypt and the Suez Canal British and French agents raises taxes to pay off Egypt’s debts which increases discontent.Uprising by Egyptian military under Arabi Pasha threatens Western access to the Suez Canal.1882: British send army into Egypt to protect canal and other interests, stay for 70 years, but leave Egyptiangovernment in place.Forces British to intervene in SudanCharles “Chinese” Gordon (1885)1902: Aswan Dam, first dam acrossthe Nile, increases agriculturaloutput.
16Expansion into the Interior French wish to expand up the Senegal River and connect with the Niger River.Build a railroad to connect interior river basins.Open up interior to French merchants.Involves militaryconquest andexploration ofinterior.
17Dr. Livingstone I presume… Exploration of the interior of Africa had been happening throughout 19th century.Dr. David Livingstone: Scottish missionary who traced the Zambezi River scouting sites for missionaries.Henry Morton Stanley: American journalist. Meets Livingstone on the Congo River in Describesfinding “lost” missionary togreat sales.Sensationalist reportingencourages further exploration.
18Stanley and King Leopold II Stanley persuades King Leopold IIof Belgium to invest his fortunes in“opening up” equatorial Africa.: Stanley establishestrading posts along the southernbank of the Congo River.Savorgnan de Brazza: Italianserving in the French army, obtains atreaty giving the French the right of“protection” over the north bank ofthe Congo.Congo Free State
19Berlin Conference (1884) In response to competition over the Congo. Must show “effective occupation” to claim rights in Africa.Effective occupation is expensive.West Africa: Overthrow Muslim rulers, make use of existingtrade networks and force heavy taxation.Equatorial Africa: Farm huge piecesof land out to private companieswho forced inhabitants to providecash crops.Rubber boom in Congo Free State mostoppressive.
20The Rubber Terror“We begged the white men to leave us alone, saying we could get no more rubber, but the white men and their soldiers said: “Go. You are only beasts yourselves, you are only meat.” We tried, always going further into the forest, and when we failed and our rubber was short, the soldiers came to our towns and killed us. Many were shot, some had their ears cut off; others were tied up with ropes around their necks and bodies and taken away.” – report by Congolese refugee to British consul
21The Rubber Terror“The baskets of severed hands, set down at the feet of the European post commanders, became the symbol of the Congo Free State. ... The collection of hands became an end in itself. Force Publique soldiers brought them to the stations in place of rubber; they even went out to harvest them instead of rubber... They became a sort of currency. They came to be used to make up for shortfalls in rubber quotas… the Force Publique soldiers were paid their bonuses on the basis of how many hands they collected.” – historian Peter Forbath
22Responses to Colonialism Africa was not empty before the arrival of Europeans.Some saw Europeans as allies in local struggles.Sought work with colonial powers and sent children to missionary schools.Pastoral and warrior cultures fought back (Zulu, Ndebele, Herero) andwere met with violentresponses.Muslim states organizedjihad against colonizers.
23Responses to Colonialism Rich commercial states also resisted.Asante of the Gold Coast rise up in 1874, 1896, and 1900 before being overwhelmed.Benin destroyed in a “punitive expedition” in 1897.Ethiopia: Long tradition oftrading with Europeans.Stuck between MuslimSudan and Frenchand Italian colonies.1896: Ethiopians defeat20,000 Italian troops.