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Literary Term/Device Development. point of view a way the events of a story are conveyed to the reader, it is the vantage point from which the narrative.

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Presentation on theme: "Literary Term/Device Development. point of view a way the events of a story are conveyed to the reader, it is the vantage point from which the narrative."— Presentation transcript:

1 Literary Term/Device Development

2 point of view a way the events of a story are conveyed to the reader, it is the vantage point from which the narrative is passed from author to the reader. The point of view can vary from work to work.narrative For example, in the Book of Genesis the objective third person point of view is presented, where a nonparticipant serves as the narrator and has no insight into the characters' minds. The narrator presents the events using the pronouns he, it, they, and reveals no inner thoughts of the characters. In Edgar Allan Poes short story The Cask of Amontillado the first person point of view is exhibited. In this instance the main character conveys the incidents he encounters, as well as giving the reader insight into himself as he reveals his thoughts, feelings, and intentions. Many other points of view exist, such as omniscient (or all knowing) in which the narrator moves from one character to another as necessary to provide those characters respective motivations and emotions. Understanding the point of view used in a work is critical to understanding literature; it serves as the instrument to relay the events of a story, and in some instances the feelings and motives of the character(s). See A Handbook to Literature, Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. Stephanie White, Student, University of North Carolina at Pembroke*narratorcharacters *Note: 2 nd person POV (using You or We to address the audience primarily is less common, but does show up in literature as well.

3 The total environment for the action of a fictional work. Setting includes time period (such as the 1890's), the place (such as downtown Warsaw), the historical milieu (such as during the Crimean War), as well as the social, political, and perhaps even spiritual realities. The setting is usually established primarily through description, though narration is used also.

4 In literature, one of the strongest devices is imagery wherein the author uses words and phrases to create mental images for the reader. Imagery helps the reader to visualize and therein more realistically experience the authors writings. The usage of metaphors, allusions, descriptive words and similes amongst other literary forms in order to tickle and awaken the readers sensory perceptions is referred to as imagery. Imagery is not limited to only visual sensations, but also refers to igniting kinesthetic, olfactory, tactile, gustatory, thermal and auditory sensations as well.

5 Similes are one of the most commonly used literary devices; referring to the practice of drawing parallels or comparisons between two unrelated and dissimilar things, people, beings, places and concepts. By using similes a greater degree of meaning and understanding is attached to an otherwise simple sentence. The reader is able to better understand the sentiment the author wishes to convey. Similes are marked by the use of the words as or such as or like.

6 Symbol. Something that on the surface is its literal self but which also has another meaning or even several meanings. For example, a sword may be a sword and also symbolize justice. A symbol may be said to embody an idea. There are two general types of symbols: universal symbols that embody universally recognizable meanings wherever used, such as light to symbolize knowledge, a skull to symbolize death, etc., and constructed symbols that are given symbolic meaning by the way an author uses them in a literary work, as the white whale becomes a symbol of evil in Moby Dick.

7 A mode of expression, through words (verbal irony) or events (irony of situation), conveying a reality different from and usually opposite to appearance or expectation. A writer may say the opposite of what he means, create a reversal between expectation and its fulfillment, or give the audience knowledge that a character lacks, making the character's words have meaning to the audience not perceived by the character.

8 IRONY (SITUATIONAL) - Continued In verbal irony, the writer's meaning or even his attitude may be different from what he says: "Why, no one would dare argue that there could be anything more important in choosing a college than its proximity to the beach." An example of situational irony would occur if a professional pickpocket had his own pocket picked just as he was in the act of picking someone else's pocket. The irony is generated by the surprise recognition by the audience of a reality in contrast with expectation or appearance, while another audience, victim, or character puts confidence in the appearance as reality (in this case, the pickpocket doesn't expect his own pocket to be picked). The surprise recognition by the audience often produces a comic effect, making irony often funny. The third type is dramatic irony, where the audience is aware of facts that the characters are NOT aware of. You will see this in some plays we read.

9 The literary device foreshadowing refers to the use of indicative words/phrases and hints that set the stage for a story to unfold and give the reader a hint of something that is going to happen without revealing the story or spoiling the suspense. Foreshadowing is used to suggest an upcoming outcome to the story.

10 Characterization in literature refers to a step-by-step process wherein a character of a story is brought to notice and then detailed upon in front of the reader. Characterization is a sort of initiation wherein the reader is introduced to the character. The initial step is to introduce the character with a marked emergence. After the arrival his behavior is discussed. This is followed by an insight into his thought- process. Then comes the part where the character voices his opinions or converses with others in the story. The last and finalizing part is when others in the plot respond to the characters presence. DIRECT = Explicitly stated INDIRECT = Implied where the reader has to infer

11 STATIC = Character does not change in a significant way in personality, viewpoint, etc. DYNAMIC = Character DOES change in a significant way in personality, viewpoint, etc.* *Dynamic characters might revert back to their original viewpoint at the end, but they are still dynamic if they are capable of, or demonstrate, significant changes.

12 Flat = Two Dimensional (We know little about their biography, history, hopes, desires, accomplishments, etc.) Ex: A tribune in a Shakespeare play that enters and delivers one line (important to the plot, but not demonstrating a great depth of character). Round = Multi-Dimensional (We know quite a bit about their biography, history, hopes, desires, accomplishments, etc.) Ex: The protagonist of a novel, where we know a great deal about them.

13 The theme of any literary work is the base topic or focus that acts as a foundation for the entire literary piece. The theme links all aspects of the literary work with one another and is basically the main subject. The theme can be an enduring pattern or motif throughout the literary work, occurring in a complex, long winding manner or it can be short and succinct and provide a certain insight into the story.

14 A Glossary of Literary Terms. Virtual Salt. January 4 th, 2004. September 27 th, 2012. All American: Glossary of Literary Terms. University of North Carolina at Pembroke. m/general/glossary.htm. September 27 th, 2012 m/general/glossary.htm

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