2 ARCHAEOLOGY, ANTHROPOLOGY, & PALEONTOLOGY Archaeologist: A person who studies the remains of ancient societies to learn about past ways of life.Anthropologist: A person who studies early human beings and the way societies and cultures originate and are organized.Paleontologist: A person who studies life existing in prehistoric times through fossils of plants, animals, and other organisms.
3 HOW DO WE DATE ANCIENT FOSSILS & ARTIFACTS? Potassium Argon Dating Radio Carbon Dating+ Organic material, up to 50,000 years Rate of decay of radioactive carbon atoms.Potassium Argon Dating+ Dates stone, up to 3 billion years.
4 LAETOLI FOOTPRINTS Mary Leakey Tanzania, 1978 3.6 million years One of earliest evidences of hominid existence.Ash, rain, prints, sun, ash, plant growth.
7 WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT LUCY? How old is she? Where was she found?3.6 million years, Ethiopia.How do we know?Fossilized crocodile and turtle eggs, same sediment level.Potassium argon dating method.What is Lucy’s ultimate significance?Oldest, most complete, best preserved skeletal remains of early hominid existence.
8 MORE ABOUT LUCY...They think she died at 20 and suffered from severe arthritis.How do they know???PaleopathologyA paleopathologist is one who studies old and diseased things, specifically, diseases of human and animal as inferred from recent or fossilized skeletal remains.
10 CHART REFERENCE: AUSTRALOPITHCUS Location:Ethiopia, Tanzania (“southern ape”)Time Period4-1 million years agoPhysical Characteristics3-5 ft. tall, 500 cubic centimeters cranial capacity (1/3 of modern humanTechnologyused objects in crude formSpecial Characteristics1st hominid? Lucy and Laetoli footprints
11 A FOSSIL HUNTER'S DREAMOlduvai Gorge - Area in northern Tanzania where Louis and Mary Leakey unearthed a skull of a Homo habilis.
13 Chart Reference: Homo habilis Location: Tanzania (Olduvai Gorge), Leakey’sTime Period: million yearsPhysical Characteristics50% larger cranial capacity (750 cubic cm.)Technology: stone tools found in Olduvai GorgeSpecial characteristics: Beginning of stone age, (100 lbs of elephant meat carved in one hour!)
17 Chart Reference: Homo Erectus Location:Africa, Europe, S.W. Asia, S.E. AsiaTime Period: 2-1 million yearsPhysical CharacteristicsCranial capacity 1000 cubic cm, 6 ft. tall!Technology: 1st to use fireSpecial characteristics: 1st to leave Africa
18 NEANDERTHAL Take notes on the following during the video. Two theories on the fate of NeanderthalTheories as to why he became extinctEvidence of sophistication
19 Chart Reference: Neanderthal Location:Europe, S.W. Asia (Neander Valley, Germany)Time Period: 200,000-30,000 yearsTechnology:Temporary shelters, wood, bone and stone tools, excellent huntersPhysical characteristics:Cranial capacity of modern humans (bigger?), 10-20% heavier bone mass than modern man, low brow, barrel chest, 5-51/2 feet tallSpecial Characteristics:Burial ceremonies (afterlife?), evolution, or extinction?, braved the Ice Age
20 INTRODUCING CRO-MAGNON MAN... (Anatomically modern man)
21 THE GREAT LEAP FORWARDArchaeologists sometimes call the late Paleolithic period of Cro-Magnon man as “The Great Leap Forward.”Compile a list of Cro-Magnon achievements that might justify this claim.
31 THE DAWN OF AGRICULTURE Excavation at Jarmo, Iraq Robert BraidwoodExcavation at Jarmo, Iraq
32 JARMO, IRAQ 1 of earliest Neolithic villages found Settlement of peopleStone sickles, bowlsDomesticated goats, sheep and dogs16 layers of sediment16th=charred seeds of wheat and barley dating to 7,000 BC1 of earliest known uses of agriculture