Presentation on theme: "The Harm That Good Men Do"— Presentation transcript:
1The Harm That Good Men Do Unit EightThe Harm That Good Men DoBertrand Russell
2Introduction to Bertrand Russell Introduction to TextText Structure
3About the author:Bertrand Russell, 3rd Earl Russell ( ), British philosopher, mathematician, and social reformer. Nobel Prize for Literature (1950).Russell is an iconoclastic modern philosopher (打破传统信仰的哲学家) who writes this witty essay against conventional beliefs, arguing in it that good and evil can be defined only through the exercise of reason.
4About the author:Over the course of his long career, Russell made significant contributions, not just to logic and philosophy, but to a broad range of other subjects (including education, politics, history, religion and science), and many of his writings on a wide variety of topics have influenced generations of general readers.
5Introduction to TextIn “The Harm That Good Men Do”, Russell, the inimitable British Voltaire (无与伦比的英国哲学家）evaluated the difficulty and dilemma of answering children, or their more adult versions, just what is a “good man?” Russell deflates（挫傲气）, debunks（驳斥） and denigrates（贬低）the conventionally defined “good man,” as generally a moralistic fop（花花公子）, a mere defender of the superficial status quo.Russell attacks these “good men” who represent the unjust power of the dominant classes.
6Introduction to the Text However, on closing his critical litany against the conventional “good man,” Russell offers the hope of science and reason; they eventually will enable men to realize that institutions based on hatred and injustice will not produce happy societies, and that “good man” need a morality based on “love of life … pleasure in growth, and not upon repression or exploitation”. Though difficult and painful to follow, Russell’s criticism and positive suggestions are a positive beacon of lucidity（洞彻事理） and light for all who would like to be called “good man,” or “woman”.
8Part I (Para. 1)ComprehensionLang. PointsParaphrases
9Paragraph 1Main idea of the paragraph:A brief introduction to the generally accepted concept of “ good men.”
10Why does the author use quotation marks for the words “good” and “morals”? He indicates that the real meaning of good and morals may be debatable even though there is a general public acceptance of what they mean.
11“Good works” that a “ good man” does besides his professional duties: 1.encouraging patriotism and military training2.promoting industry, sobriety and virtue3.preserving a misguided respect for learning to allow professors who have subversive ideas to be employed
13Key to the Exercises wholesome – health horror – disgust safeguard – protectassiduous – diligentsubversive – destroyingirreproachable – beyond criticismcastigate – punishsobriety – being self-controlled/ being serious
14a wholesome horror of wrongdoing a healthy/reasonable disgust of the bad behaviorwholesome a. : healthy; good for you physically, morally or emotionallye.g.A healthy diet includes lots of wholesome natural food with plenty of protein and vitamins.
15Question sth./whether-clause: to express one’s doubt about its value or whether it is true E.g.1) Experts have questioned the usefulness of vitamin pills.2) Two months ago, results from a European study questioned whether early treatment with the drug really improved survival.Question sb.: ask someone about sth., especially, officiallyE.g. 1)When questioned about the issue, the Foreign Minister declined to comment.2) Several men were questioned by police yesterday about the burglary.
16In the broad/broadest sense (of sth): If you define a term in the broad/broadest sense, it means getting causes, reasons, understandings, etc. at the root. The opposite of the broad sense is the narrow senseIrreproachable : [not gradable] without fault and therefore impossible to criticizee.g.1) If you say that someone’s character or behaviors is irreproachable, you mean that they behave so well that they cannot be criticized.2) The way she tackled the problem was irreproachable.
17…it is our painful duty to castigate Sin. … it is painful for us to punish someone whose behavior has broken God’s laws or has gone against principles of morality.
18He has a still greater horror … by middle-aged successful citizens He has a still greater horror … by middle-aged successful citizens. (line 5)He has a still stronger dislike of wrong thinking, and consider it the business of the authorities to protect the young from being exposed to those who feel doubt about the wisdom of the view which have already been accepted by middle-aged successful citizens.
19… he may promote industry, sobriety, and virtue among wage-earners and their children by seeing to it that failures in these respects receive due punishment; … (line 11)… he may encourage workers and their children to be diligent, serious, and moral by making sure that those who are not so will be punished; …See to (it that): make sure; care for; attend toE.g. 1) We must see to it that party policies are implemented.2) Please see to it that no one comes in without identification.
20…he may be a trustee of a university and prevent an ill-judged respect for learning from allowing the employment of professors with subversive idea. (line13)…he may be a person who is responsible for managing a university and he may be aware that an unwise respect for learning should be stopped in order not to allow the employment of professors with the ideas which tend to destroy, overthrow religion, a government etc. by weakening people’s trust, confidence, belief.
21Above all, of course, his “morals,” in the narrow sense, must be irreproachable. (line15) Most importantly, it should be certain that his so called standard of behavior and principles of right and wrong, superficially, must be free from blame or fault.Above all: most importantlye.g. 1) Above all don’t forget to write.2) max is fair, hardworking, and above all, honest.In the narrow sense: superficiallye.g. In a narrow sense, computer can organize, allocate and project. And they can do it a lot better, a lot cheaper and a lot faster than we can.
22Part II (Para. 2-4) Main Idea: Three uses of good men among politicians:1. affording a smoke-screen (para. 2)2. keeping undesirables out of politics (para. 3)3. getting good men themselves murdered (para. 4)What is the implied meaning of the three uses ?These three uses of good men actually are the harm good men do.
24Para. 2What are the two reasons, mentioned in this part, for good men used as smoke screen?1. Part of his goodness: a good men is quite credulous, trusting and will never suspect his friends of shady actions2. Part of his utility: a good men will never be suspected by the public of using his goodness to screen villains
25Background KnowledgeAn American President: probably referring to Warren Gamaliel Harding. Harding ( ), 29th president of the United States. He was elected president in 1920 by an overwhelming vote in a postwar reaction against President Wilson’s international policies. The first American president to take office after World War I, Harding was also the first president to be born after the Civil war.Under Harding’s tenure the White House took on the lax atmosphere of his frequent poker evenings. Among his subordinates corruption grew blatant(明显的). With the collapse of the war boom, with wage cuts, unemployment, growing farm distress, and urban resentment(愤慨) of prohibition, Harding by midterm found that much of his popularity had slipped away.
26Background KnowledgeHarding’s reputation did not long survive his death, as scandal after scandal came to light. Harding’s announced ambition was to be his country’s “best-loved” president. Upright, limited, and overtrusting, he had the misfortune to be thrust into a position beyond his capacities.Russell is the author of The Shadow of Blooming Grove: Warren G. Harding in His Times
27Para. 2: Language Points the deserving rich (para. 2): people who are rich, but have “good” qualities (here sarcastic: the rich aren’t deserving of money taken from the general public.) It implies that the rich have gotten the money secretly and underhandedness.e.g deserving poor ; to give money to a deserving causebe deserving of: be worthy ofe.g. Such people will never be deserving of trust.These are the problem deserving of public attention.c.f. deserve doinge.g. Xiao li deserves praising.
28Para. 2 ParaphrasesAmong politicians good man … on their activities unsuspected. (line 1)Some of the politicians make use of good men and the main one of their uses is to provide smoke-screen behind which the politicians can carry on their activities without any risk of being suspected.A good man will never be suspected … of his utility.(line 4)The public will never feel that a good man is guilty of using his strict and lofty morality to prevent evil acts from being seen: this is one of the good man’s use.
29Para. 2 ParaphrasesIt is clear that this combination of qualities … of the deserving rich. (line 6)It is clear that the combination of good man’s goodness and utility makes a good man extremely useful wherever public refuses to accept and objects to the transference of public money into the hands of the rich people.narrow-minded a.: not ready to listen to or tolerate the views of otherse.g. 1) If you describe someone as narrow-minded, you are criticizing them because they are unwilling to consider new ideas or other people’s opinion.2) narrow-minded views/opinions; narrow-minded person
30Para. 2 ParaphrasesI am told – though far be it from me … this purpose. (line 9)I am told – though I would never approve the statement -- that not long ago in American history there was an President who was “a good man” and used as a smoke-screen.far be it from me to do sth: I certainly would not want to do sth.e.g.1) Far be it from me to advice you what to do.2) Far be it from me to hurt his feelings.far be it from me to disagree/criticize: neither hope nor daree.g. Far be it from me to criticize her. I just think she’s behaved extremely bad.
31Para. 3 Comprehension Who are the “undesirables”? (para.3) people who may or may not have committed breaches(违规) of the moral law but who are not wanted for one reason or another, often chiefly political.(被排斥的异己)
32Para ComprehensionThree ways to keep such people (undesirables) out of politics after his private activities has been kept track of and something has been discovered:1. to publicize the facts and cause the person to disappear2. to compel the person to retire into private life by treats of exposure3. to use blackmail
33Para. 3 Language Points venture into: risk going into venture into/through/out of: risk going somewhere when it could be riskye.g. Today is the first time I’ve ventured out of doors since my illness.venture to do sth: risk doing sthe.g. 1) I venture to say that men will live in the moon.2) Nothing ventured, nothing gained. 不入虎穴，焉得虎子Venture …. One.g. Jeff ventured his whole fortune on one throw of the dice.
34Para. 3keep track (of): keep in touch with ; follow the course or development (of)e.g.1. I read the newspapers to keep track of current events.2. I always make sure I keep track of all the money I spend.c.f.lose track (of): fail to follow the course or development (of)
35Para. 3 derive v. : get, obtain sth derive…from…: get…from… e.g. She derives great joy (pleasuresatisfaction) from playing the violin.The institute derives all its money from foreign investments.
36Para. 3 ParaphrasesAnother of the uses of good men … by means of scandals. (line 1)Another of the uses of good men is that any undesirable people/things can avoid becoming involved in politics by means of the general feeling of indignation of the good men.keep out of: prevent sth; (cause sb to) avoid sth; not enter (a place); remain outsidee.g.1) I prefer to keep out of arguments about money.2) I kept out of their quarrel.3) Keep that dog out of my study.
37Para. 3 ParaphrasesNinety-nine men out of a hundred … does not become public. (line 2)Ninety-nine men out of a hundred break the moral law, but mainly this fact does not become known to the public.commit a breach/breaches: break or neglecte.g.commit a breach of international practice 违反国际惯例
38Para. 3 ParaphrasesAnd when in the ninety-ninth case … of being suspected (line 4)And when in the ninety-ninth case it (breaking the moral law) becomes public concerning anyone in the hundred, the one man in the hundred who is really innocent expresses his real indignation, but the other ninety-eight are reduced to doing the same (not genuinely) because they don’t want to be suspected.follow suit: (fig.) do what someone else has donee.g. One of the major banks has lowered its interest rates and the other banks are expected to follow suit.
39Para. 3 Understanding and Language Points When, therefore, any man of obnoxious opinions … will ruin his political career. (line 7)Therefore (according to what discussed above), when any man who has very different and disagreeable opinions risks going into political affairs and political life, people who want to keep the long-established laws or customs think it is necessary for them to watch the activities of the “difficult” politician (because his opinions are in conflict with the majority of other people’s) until they discover something which, if made known to the public, will destroy his political career.
40Para. 3 They then have three courses open to them. (Line 12) There are three available options/activities for them to choose.(be) open to (sb.): availablee.g. The competition is open to anyone over the age of sixteen.
41Para. 3All three, therefore, are to be commended, and all three are only rendered possible through the existence of good men. (Line 15)Therefore, all three courses (mentioned above) seem to be spoken favorably, and the three outlined courses are made possible because of the existence of good men. (It is a cynical statement(嘲讽的说法) because at least one of the courses is illegal, other two perhaps unethical)render v.: cause… to becomee.g. 1. I rejected his advice in term which rendered it impossible for him to address me again.我用使得他再也不可能与我对话的措辞来拒绝他的劝说。2.新的技术使我的老计算器过时了。 New technology has rendered my old computer obsolete.
42Para. 4 ComprehensionTune of paragraph 4: the third use of “good man” , which is written in Sarcastic tune.
43Archduke Franz Ferdinand : heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (奥匈帝国)assassinated on June 28, 1914 when returning from an official visit to City Hall
44Para. 4safe for (sth): (para. 4) not causing or likely to cause harm or danger to (sth)(be) safe from: (be) not harmed by(be) safe with: not (tell) anyone who is not supposed to knowe.g.1. Are these toys safe for small children?2. Is this safe for bathing?3. The house is not safe from theft.4. The secret will be quite safe with her.
45Para.4 ParaphraseIf he had not died as he did, we might not have had the war, and then the world would not have been made safe for democracy, nor would militarism have been overthrown, nor should we be now enjoying military despotisms in Spain, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria. (line 3)If the Archduke had not gotten himself murdered, we might not have had war (we had war); and then democracy would have been endangered in the world; militarism (believing in or depending on military strength and methods) would not have been overthrown; and we should not be now enjoying military tyranny in Spain, Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria. (The tone of this sentence, or rather, of the whole paragraph, is sarcastic.)
46Part III (Para. 5-7) Main Idea Factors attributing to the harm that good men do
48Para. 5: Language Points Sir J.G. Frazer: Sir James George ( ), Scottish anthropologist. In The Golden Bough ( ) he proposed an evolutionary theory of the development of human thought, from the magical and religious to the scientific.
49Para. 5 ComprehensionAccording to the author the standards of so-called “goodness” are not those carefully planned to make the world a happier place.Two main causes giving rise to these standards:1. Tradition2. The unjust power of dominant classes
50Questions: Where did, historically, primitive morality originate from? The notion of taboo.What did they continue to do to people for generations?They continued to have authority over people’s feelings when nobody know the original reason.What are morals nowadays?Large parts of them are still of this sort.
51Language Points… on the supposed ground that they produced disaster by magical means.(para.5)…on the assumption that completely harmless acts caused tragedy through magic.on the ground(s): becausePeter always declines his friends’ invitations on the ground that his wife would blame him for coming back late.
52Language Points In this way there came to be prohibitions. Therefore the prohibitions were formed and became necessary at last.Come +to V : reach a point at which one realizes, understands, believes somethinge.g.She had come to see the problem in a new light.I have come to believe that the Government’s economic policy is misguided.
53Language Points speak of… as... : mention…as… e.g. 1)He is spoken of as a good teacher.2)The wealth and honor of a man are usually spoken of as his ‘credit’.
54ParaphraseTo speak seriously: the standard of “goodness” which are generally recognized by public opinion are not those which are calculated to make the world a happier place.(line 1,para. 5)To speak seriously: the standards of so called the goodness which are generally accepted by public opinion are not the standards which are designed to make the world a happier place.(The sentence indicates that the standards of genuine goodness should be those which are planned to make the world a happier place.)be calculated to do sth.: be planned or arranged in order to produce a particular effecte.g. This advertisement is calculated to attract the attention of house wives.
55ParaphrasePrimitive morality seems to have developed out of the notion of taboo; that is to say, it was originally purely superstitious, and forbade certain perfectly harmless acts on the supposed ground that they produced disaster by magical means. (line 5)The earliest morality seems to have originated from the idea of taboo; that is to say, the earliest morality was originally only superstitious, and prohibited certain completely harmless actions because they were supposed to cause tragedy through magic means.On the ground(s) that/of: because (of)Peter always declines his friends’ invitations on the ground that his wife would blame him for coming back late.
56Paragraph 6Paragraph 6 is mainly about:our current ethic is a curious mixture of superstition and rationalismWhy do we say our current ethic is a mixture of superstition and rationalism?Because in social practice we now still believe that the virtue consists in not doing instead of doing.
57Language Pointsset apart: make noticeable or different; separated frome.g. 1) The separation of words into sense groupings is one of the things that sets this dictionary apart.2) What set her apart from the other candidates for the job was that she had a lot of original ideas.
58Language Points abstain form: hold oneself back; refrain e.g.1) His doctor told him to abstain from beer and wine.2) At the last election he abstained from voting.inculcate…in…: fix ideas, beliefs, etc., in one’s mind by repetition灌输e.g.1) We need to inculcate in young people the duty of loyalty.2) Our football couch has worked hard to inculcate a team spirit in the players.
59Language Pointsprofit by/from sth.: to achieve an advantage from it; learn from ite.g.1) He’s getting married again, after two divorces, so he obviously hasn’t profited by his experience.2) I certainly profited from the two years I spent in that company.
60Language Pointsknow of: have information about or experience of sb./sth.e.g. 1) Do you know of any way to stop a person snoring?2) I don’t know him personally, though I know of him.
61Paragraph 7Benthan advocated and expected:“The greatest happiness of the greatest number” as the basis of morals.The author’s attitude towards Benthan’s ideas:Support them. (much more arduous life; make himself the champion of the oppressed; incur the enmity of the great etc.)
62Comprehension official morality: morality that is held to be the norm by society but which society may or may not actually live by.Author’s opinion about ‘official morality’:It has always been oppressive and negative. It seems unlikely that any large-scale improvements will come.
63Main idea of paragraph 7Traditional morality (seems) not perfect, but large-scale improvement (seems) unlikely.
64Para7 language Pointsalienate (from): cause someone to stop supporting and agreeing; cause someone to feel very distant from or not welcomee.g.The prime Minister’s policy alienated many of his followers.Ten years in prison has alienated him from his family.
65Para 7 Paraphase…but only if it is conducted with a view to nothing more than momentary pleasure.…but it will be the case only if it is done with the idea of gaining temporary pleasure.
66Conclusion drawn from the last paragraph: Part IV (Para. 8)Conclusion drawn from the last paragraph:With the progress of reason and science, men gradually come to realize that the world whose institutions are based upon hatred and injustice is not the one most likely to produce happiness. The harm that good men do results from such a world.
68Translation1.So-called ideally good men, in fact, are not always of benefit to society and the standards of goodness have long been argued.2.The morals of good men must be irreproachable and they mustn’t be so indifferent to the things causing harm to society.
693.They try to be assiduous and earnest and see to it that they finish their work smoothly; they never give any thought to personal fame and position.4.Scandals can defame a genuinely good man, while flattery can make an evil man a good man.5.He cannot tell good men from evil ones, so bad men often use the goodness of good men to screen their villains.
706.They often elbowed out the undesirable, which made it impossible for them to continue their work. 7.Although he was forced,he was not afraid of that and continued his own experiment, which was calculated to be successful.8.The poor man was sentenced to be imprisoned for life on the ground that he had stolen bread from a store.
719.They have kept track of his activities, but haven’t found any suspected behavior. 10.Many people were against him for his violation of some conventional concepts. But still some others followed suit.