Presentation on theme: "Sophocles Philoctetes It was here, child bred of the man who was the noblest of the Greeks, Neoptolemus son of Achilles, that I exposed  long ago the."— Presentation transcript:
Sophocles Philoctetes It was here, child bred of the man who was the noblest of the Greeks, Neoptolemus son of Achilles, that I exposed  long ago the native of Malis, Poeas' son, on the express command of the two chieftains to do so, because his foot was all running with a gnawing disease.
Little Iliad: suicide of Ajax, fetching of Philoctetes, wooden horse Sophocles Ajax, Philoctetes Iliad 2 These with their seven ships were led by Philoctetes, well-skilled in archery,  and on each ship embarked fifty oarsmen well skilled to fight with the bow. But Philoctetes lay suffering grievous pains in an island, even in sacred Lemnos, where the sons of the Achaeans had left him in anguish with an evil wound from a deadly water- snake. There he lay suffering;  yet full soon were the Argives beside their ships to think about king Philoctetes. However, these men were not leaderless, though they longed for their own leader. Odyssey 8 Only Philoctetes excelled me with the bow  in the land of the Trojans, when we Achaeans shot.
Od As touching your dear son, Neoptolemus, I will tell you all the truth, as you bid me. I brought him from Scyros in my ship to join the host of the well-greaved Archaeans.  And truly, as often as we took counsel around the city of Troy, he was ever the first to speak, and made no miss of words; godlike Nestor and I alone surpassed him. But as often as we fought with the bronze on the Trojan plain, he would never remain behind in the throng or press of men,  but would ever run forth far to the front, yielding to none in his might; and many men he slew in dread combat. All of them I could not name, all the host that he slew in defense of the Argives; but what a warrior was that son of Telephus whom he slew with the sword,  the prince Eurypylus! Yes, and many of his comrades, the Ceteians, were slain about him, because of gifts a woman craved. He truly was the most handsome man I saw, next to goodly Memnon. And again, when we, the best of the Argives, were about to go down into the horse which Epeus made, and the command was laid upon me,  both to open and to close the door of our stout-built ambush, then the other leaders and counselors of the Danaans wiped away tears from their eyes, and each man's limbs shook beneath him, but never did my eyes see his fair face grow pale at all, nor see him  wiping tears from his cheeks; but he earnestly asked me to let him go forth from the horse, and kept handling his sword-hilt and his spear heavy with bronze, and was eager to work harm to the Trojans. But after we had sacked the lofty city of Priam, he went on board his ship with his share of the spoil and a goodly prize  all unscathed he was, neither smitten with the sharp spear nor wounded in close fight, as often befalls in war.
Neoptolemus My birthplace is the island Scyros, and I am sailing  homeward. I am the son of Achilles, by name Neoptolemus. Now you know everything. Philoctetes O son of a father I loved, and of soil I cherished! Ward of aged Lycomedes, on what mission have you touched this shore? Malis Phthia
Nature You must cheat the mind of Philoctetes by speaking  by means of tricks. When he asks you who and from where you are, say that you are the son of Achilles it is not in that detail that you will cheat him. But tell him you are sailing homeward, and have left the fleet of the Achaean warriors, after coming to hate them with unbounded hatred.  Give him this reason: when, with no other hope of taking Ilium, they had summoned you by their prayers to come from home, they judged you not worthy of the arms of Achilles, not worthy to receive them even though you had come and were claiming them by right but instead handed them over to Odysseus. Say what you  will of me even the vilest of vile insults. You will not harm me at all by that. But if you fail to do as I say, you will inflict pain on all the Argives, for if that man's bow is not seized, you can never sack the realm of Dardanus. Well I know, my son, that by nature you are not apt  to utter or contrive such treachery. Yet knowing that victory is a sweet prize to gain, steel yourself to do it. We shall appear just another time. Now, however, give yourself to me for one brief, shameless day, and then for the rest of time  may you be called the most pious of all humankind.
Pity  That man inferior in no way, probably, to any man belonging to the oldest families lies alone without companions and stripped of all life's gifts  among the dappled or shaggy beasts. He is a man to be pitied for his torments and his hunger alike, enduring anguish that has no cure. But to his bitter cries the mountain nymph, babbling Echo, coming from afar,  gives answer. Surely he toils by the plan of some god so that he may not bend against Troy the invincible arrows divine, until the time be fulfilled at which, men say,  by those arrows Troy is fated to fall. Though he had wronged no one by force or thievery,  but conducted himself fairly towards the fair, he was left to perish so undeservedly.
Neoptolemus story They came for me in a ship elaborately ornamented, shining Odysseus, and he who fostered my father,  and said whether truly or falsely, I do not know that since my father had perished, fate now forbade that anyone but I should take the towers of Troy. I, unhappy,  when I had wept for him, went before long to the Atreids, to friends, as it was reasonable to suppose, and claimed my father's arms and all else that had been his. O, their reply was bold and shameless! Seed of Achilles, you may take all else  that was your father's. But of those arms another man now is lord, the son of Laertes. The tears came quick to my eyes as I sprang up in passionate anger and said in my bitterness, Madman! Have you dared give my arms  to another man in my place, without asking me?  No, that is not at all a wonder to me, but rather that the elder Ajax, if he was there, could bear to see this.
No evil thing has ever been known to perish. No, the gods take excellent care of their kind. They find a strange joy in turning back from Hades all things criminal  and crooked, while they are always dispatching the just and the good from life. theodicy
Consider me a small side-task (parergon). Great is  your disgust, well I know, at such a cargo. Yet bear with it all the same to noble minds baseness is hateful, and a good deed is glorious.  Helenus then prophesied for them whatever matter they asked, and, pertaining to Troy, he foretold that they would never sack its towers, unless by winning words they should bring Philoctetes here from the island where he now dwells. Alas! Has he, the utter plague, sworn to fetch me back to the Achaeans by persuasion? For if that were to happen, I could be persuaded, when dead, to come back up  from Hades into the light, as his father did! Sisyphus
Ixion I have heard a rumor, but never seen with my eyes, how the man who once approached the bed of Zeus was bound upon a  swift wheel by the almighty son of Cronus. Apollodorus, Epitome 1.20 Ixion fell in love with Hera and attempted to force her; and when Hera reported it, Zeus, wishing to know if the thing were so, made a cloud in the likeness of Hera and laid it beside him; and when Ixion boasted that he had enjoyed the favours of Hera, Zeus bound him to a wheel, on which he is whirled by winds through the air; such is the penalty he pays.
Charis and Philia Neoptolemus Is that indeed the famous bow which you hold? Philoctetes  This, and no other, that I carry in my hand. Neoptolemus Is there any way that I might have a closer view of it and handle it, and salute it as divine? Philoctetes To you alone, my son, this shall be granted, along with anything else in my power that is in your interest. Neoptolemus 672 I am not sorry that I found you and have gained your friendship (philia), since whoever knows how to render benefit (charis) for a benefit received must prove a friend more valuable than any possession. O son, noble youth, seize me,  burn me up, true friend, in that fire famed as Lemnian. I, too, once deemed it lawful to do that very service for the son of Zeus, in return for which I received these same arms, which are now in your keeping.
oath Philoctetes Indeed, I do not think it right to put you under oath. Neoptolemus Rest assured; it is not lawful for me to leave without you. Philoctetes Give me your hand in pledge! Neoptolemus I give it to stay.
Revelation No, even though he hears nothing, I see that  we have made this bow our quarry to no end, if we sail without him. His must be the victor's crown. It is he that the god commanded we bring. It would be a foul disgrace upon us to boast of deeds in which failure and fraud had equal parts. 888 The labor (ponos) will not be grudged, since you and I are of one mind. Neoptolemus 903 All is difficulty when a man has abandoned his true nature and does what does not suit him. Neoptolemus 906 I shall be found to be base this is the thought that long torments me. Philoctetes What do you mean, son? I do not understand. Neoptolemus  I will conceal nothing. You must sail to Troy, back to the Achaeans and the forces of the Atreids. Neoptolemus 922 A harsh necessity (anankê) governs these events, so do not be angered at hearing of them.
After Philoctetes Attack  A terrible pity for him has come upon me and not now for the first time, but long ago. 971 You are not in and of yourself wicked, but you seem to have come to me after learning the shameless lessons of wicked masters. Now leave such behavior to others, whom it suits, and sail from here once you have given me back my weapons.
Philoctetes O Lemnos, and you all-conquering flame kindled by Hephaestus, will you indeed endure it that this man should take me from your domain by force? Odysseus Zeus it is, I tell you, Zeus, who rules this land,  and it is by Zeus that these actions are decreed. I am his servant. Philoctetes  Ah, misery! Clearly, then, my father sired me to be a slave and no free man. Odysseus Not so, but to be the peer of the best and bravest, with whom you are destined to take Troy and force it to the ground.
He is too good for your company, but worthy of mine,  since he had no thought but to execute his orders, and he already shows remorse for his own errors and for the wrongs done me I sailed of my own accord as their mate with seven ships, me they cast out of ship and honor.  Bitter is the stranger, and bitter his words, Odysseus. They do not bend before the storm of his troubles.
Odysseus What kind of man the occasion demands, that kind of man am I.  And accordingly, where the judgment at hand is of just and good men, you could find no man more pious than me. Victory, however, is my inborn desire in every field...
Chorus  It was you, you, I say, doomed one, that chose this fate; and this fortune to which you are captive comes from no other source, nor from a stronger man's compulsion. For when in fact it was in your power to show sense,  you chose to reject the better fate, and to accept the worse.
Neoptolemus I come to undo the mistake that I made earlier. Odysseus  Your words alarm me what mistake was that? Neoptolemus The one I made when I obeyed you and all the army. Odysseus What did you do that was unworthy of you? Neoptolemus I captured a man by disgraceful deceits and treachery.
Neoptolemus  Is there no room, then, for repentance? Neoptolemus It is true that men are compelled to bear the fortunes given by the gods; but when they cling to self-inflicted miseries, as you do,  no one can justly excuse or pity them. You have become savage: you welcome no counselor, and if someone admonishes you, even if he speaks in all good will, you detest him and consider him an enemy who wishes you ill. Know also that you will never gain relief from this grave sickness,  as long as the sun still rises in the east and sets in the west, until of your own free will you come to the plains of Troy, find there the sons of Asclepius, our comrades, be relieved of this infection, and, with this bow's  aid and mine, be hailed as the sacker of Troy's towers.
Heracles  And for you, be sure, this fate is ordained, that through these toils (ponoi) of yours you will make your life far-famed. You shall go with this man to the Trojan city, where, first, you shall be healed of your cruel sickness,  and then, chosen out as foremost among the warriors in prowess, with my bow you shall sever Paris, the author of these evils, from life. You shall sack Troy and shall receive from the army the spoils of supreme valor to carry home  to the heights of your native Oeta for the delight of your father Poeas. Deus ex machina