Presentation on theme: "Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations"— Presentation transcript:
1Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations Prehistory to 450 B.C.
2Early Man Key Terms Culture – people’s unique way of life Hominid – early upright beingsArtifact – man made object from previous culturesMary Leakey – discoveries in E. Africa that led to a better understanding of early man.Donald Johanson – found “Lucy in Ethiopia 3.5 millions years oldPaleolithic – Old Stone Age – Hunter and GathererNeolithic – New Stone Age – Faming (also called Agricultural Revolution)Technology – ways of applying knowledge to meet needs
3Homo habilis – earliest man, used primitive tools Homo erectus – walked upright (not the first) and used fireHomo sapiens – modern humans, means “wise man”Neanderthals – not ancestors of modern man, tried to explain and control their world, practiced religious beliefs, used stone scrappers and other tools to survive. They vanished about 30,000 years ago.Cro-Magnon – physically identical to modern man, superior hunting strategy helped them survive. They developed a spoken language
4Early Man Key TermsSlash and Burn – cutting and burning fields to clear and fertilizeDomestication – taming of animalsArtisans – skilled workers who make goods by handScribes – professional record keepersCuneiform – Mesopotamian wedge shaped writingCivilization – a complex culture with the followingAdvanced Cities of TradeSpecialized WorkersComplex InstitutionsRecord KeepingAdvanced Technology
5Early Man Key WordsBronze Age – use of bronze rather than copper and stone for tools and weapons.Barter – exchange of goods/services without the exchange of moneyZiggurat – pyramid shaped monument housing the temple of the city
6Early Man OverviewPrehistory is the period before written records. The earliest people’s history is based on evidence compiled and studied by a variety of scientists such asarchaeologists – study artifactsanthropologists – study culturepaleontologists – study fossilsTogether these scientists have determined, based on the evidence available, how early man lived.
15MESOPOTAMIAThe Fertile Crescent was the arch of land that provided some of the best farming in southwest Asia.Silt from flooding provided rich new soil which brought surplus harvests, with enormous quantities of wheat and barley. Problem: the flooding was unpredictable!Sumerians – first civilizationIrrigation – more crop production= more tradeEstablishment of city-statesTrade = cultural diffusionPolytheistic (worshipped many gods)Advanced –number system, bricks, columns, ramps
16CITY - STATESEach city and the surrounding land it controlled formed a city-state.A city-state functioned much as an independent country does today.Sumerian city-states included Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma, and Ur.The center of all Sumerian cities had a ziggurat
17MESOPOTAMIA SARGON ofAkkad, defeated the city-states of Sumer. Created the first empireBrought together various groups & culturesLast about 200 years, declined due to infighting, invasions & famine.Hammurabi – ruler of Babylonian Empire.- first written code of laws to unify the diverse people- the code applied to all people, but not all people equally (282 specific laws compiled from common law)
20NILE Est. about 3,000 years ago Along the Nile River in Egypt Flooding provided fertile soil for abundant cropsLower Nile – from the area where the Nile splits and fans out to Mediterranean SeaUpper Nile – from 1st cataracts to the area where the river splitsTransportation and trade between the Upper & Lower Nile to the cataracts
21NILERuled by pharaohsTheocracy- government & religious leaders the samePyramid buildersUpper & Lower kingdoms united by MenesWritten language – hieroglyphicsSocial classes not lockedInvaded and conquered by Hyksos
23INDUS Located on the Indian subcontinent Supported by the Indus and GangesProtected by Hindu Kush & Himalaya MountainsClimate dominated by monsoonsRiver flooding supported abundant crop yields
24INDUS Built planned cities Indoor plumbing- Houses alike indicated few class distinctionsToys – leisure timeFew weaponsUncertain – the fall of the Indus River Civilization could have been disaster, invasions or a combination
25CHINESE Supported by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Silt of China – loess produced abundant cropsBecause of geography – less trading than other river valley civilizationsEarly leaders (Shang dynasty) built palaces and had written languageSociety divided between ruling nobles and peasant farmersFamily closely linked to religion
26CHINESE CIVILIZATIONSupported by the Yellow & Yangtze Rivers
27CHINESEBelief in the spirit of ancestor’s power to determine events in lifeUse of oracle bonesWriting system had no connection to the spoken languageSpecialized in weapons, jewelry and bronze. Also known for silk work.Rulers worked under Mandate of Heaven which became central to the Chinese view of government.