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Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations Prehistory to 450 B.C.

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Presentation on theme: "Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations Prehistory to 450 B.C."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations Prehistory to 450 B.C.

3 Early Man Key Terms Culture – peoples unique way of life Hominid – early upright beings Artifact – man made object from previous cultures Mary Leakey – discoveries in E. Africa that led to a better understanding of early man. Donald Johanson – found Lucy in Ethiopia 3.5 millions years old Paleolithic – Old Stone Age – Hunter and Gatherer Neolithic – New Stone Age – Faming (also called Agricultural Revolution) Technology – ways of applying knowledge to meet needs

4 Homo habilis – earliest man, used primitive tools Homo erectus – walked upright (not the first) and used fire Homo sapiens – modern humans, means wise man Neanderthals – not ancestors of modern man, tried to explain and control their world, practiced religious beliefs, used stone scrappers and other tools to survive. They vanished about 30,000 years ago. Cro-Magnon – physically identical to modern man, superior hunting strategy helped them survive. They developed a spoken language

5 Early Man Key Terms Slash and Burn – cutting and burning fields to clear and fertilize Domestication – taming of animals Artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hand Scribes – professional record keepers Cuneiform – Mesopotamian wedge shaped writing Civilization – a complex culture with the following Advanced Cities of Trade Specialized Workers Complex Institutions Record Keeping Advanced Technology

6 Early Man Key Words Bronze Age – use of bronze rather than copper and stone for tools and weapons. Barter – exchange of goods/services without the exchange of money Ziggurat – pyramid shaped monument housing the temple of the city

7 Early Man Overview Prehistory is the period before written records. The earliest peoples history is based on evidence compiled and studied by a variety of scientists such as archaeologists – study artifacts anthropologists – study culture paleontologists – study fossils Together these scientists have determined, based on the evidence available, how early man lived.

8 Timeline of History

9 Early Man Overview Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) Nomadic Hunter-gatherer Primitive tools Cave art

10 Early Man Art Early Art Gives Clues To Nature Environment Human Living

11 Early Man Overview Neolithic Age (New Stone Age) Began about 10,000 years ago From hunter-gatherer to farming Agricultural Revolution Permanent dwellings VillagesCitiesCivilizations

12 Civilization Brings Change Economic – irrigationcrop surplustrade Social – Complex economy required cooperation and labor of many people – Social class system developed – Religion became organized

13 CH 2: RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS

14 EARLY RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS MESOPOTAMIA – Sumerians on the Tigris/Euphrates NILE – Egyptians on the Nile INDUS- Indians on the Indus & Ganges Rivers CHINESE-Yellow (Huang He) /Yangtze

15 MESOPOTAMIAN CIVILIZATION

16 MESOPOTAMIA The Fertile Crescent was the arch of land that provided some of the best farming in southwest Asia. Silt from flooding provided rich new soil which brought surplus harvests, with enormous quantities of wheat and barley. Problem: the flooding was unpredictable! Sumerians – first civilization – Irrigation – more crop production= more trade – Establishment of city-states – Trade = cultural diffusion – Polytheistic (worshipped many gods) – Advanced –number system, bricks, columns, ramps

17 CITY - STATES Each city and the surrounding land it controlled formed a city- state. A city-state functioned much as an independent country does today. Sumerian city-states included Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma, and Ur. The center of all Sumerian cities had a ziggurat

18 MESOPOTAMIA SARGON ofAkkad, defeated the city-states of Sumer. – Created the first empire – Brought together various groups & cultures – Last about 200 years, declined due to infighting, invasions & famine. Hammurabi – ruler of Babylonian Empire. - first written code of laws to unify the diverse people - the code applied to all people, but not all people equally (282 specific laws compiled from common law)

19 MESOPOTAMIA Known for cuneiform writing

20 NILE RIVER CIVILIZATION Nile River Valley

21 NILE Est. about 3,000 years ago Along the Nile River in Egypt Flooding provided fertile soil for abundant crops Lower Nile – from the area where the Nile splits and fans out to Mediterranean Sea Upper Nile – from 1 st cataracts to the area where the river splits Transportation and trade between the Upper & Lower Nile to the cataracts

22 NILE Ruled by pharaohs Theocracy- government & religious leaders the same Pyramid builders Upper & Lower kingdoms united by Menes Written language – hieroglyphics Social classes not locked Invaded and conquered by Hyksos

23 INDUS RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION

24 INDUS Located on the Indian subcontinent Supported by the Indus and Ganges Protected by Hindu Kush & Himalaya Mountains Climate dominated by monsoons River flooding supported abundant crop yields

25 INDUS Built planned cities Indoor plumbing- Houses alike indicated few class distinctions Toys – leisure time Few weapons Uncertain – the fall of the Indus River Civilization could have been disaster, invasions or a combination

26 CHINESE Supported by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Silt of China – loess produced abundant crops Because of geography – less trading than other river valley civilizations Early leaders (Shang dynasty) built palaces and had written language Society divided between ruling nobles and peasant farmers Family closely linked to religion

27 CHINESE CIVILIZATION Supported by the Yellow & Yangtze Rivers

28 CHINESE Belief in the spirit of ancestors power to determine events in life Use of oracle bones Writing system had no connection to the spoken language Specialized in weapons, jewelry and bronze. Also known for silk work. Rulers worked under Mandate of Heaven which became central to the Chinese view of government.


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