Presentation on theme: "Essential Question Essential Question: –How did America progress towards greater democracy between 1800 & 1840? Essential Question: Essential Question:"— Presentation transcript:
Essential Question Essential Question: –How did America progress towards greater democracy between 1800 & 1840? Essential Question: Essential Question: –Examine Alexis de Tocquevilles journey through America in the 1830s & read excerpts from his observations. What did this French visitor observe about U.S. society & govt in the 1830s?
Alexis de Tocqueville
The Growth of White Men's Democracy
The Growth of Democracy From 1824 to 1840, democracy was extended to more Americans: –Before 1800, most states limited the right to vote exclusively to property owners & taxpayers –By 1840, these restrictions were removed for most white men –Nowhere else in the world was the right to vote as widespread as in the USA Less than 50% of white men could vote 90% of white men could vote This increase in democracy was a major shift from the virtuous republic envisioned by Jefferson & Hamilton
The Growth of Democracy By the 1830s, a democracy of commoners became more accepted than a republic of natural aristocrats –Positions of power became attainable for self-made men –Americans valued equal opportunities among white men, but not necessarily equality White males were seen as equal before the law & in voting Decreased requirements in the licensed professions No clear domestic servant class There was a growing % of Americans who owned no land Rising industrialization led to a population of low-paid laborers Division between commercial farmers & yeoman farmers
Quick Class Discussion: Why did this unprecedented growth in democracy occur? Before 1800, most states limited the right to vote exclusively to property owners & taxpayers The Simple Answer: Westward expansion led to an increase in democracy
Westward expansion led to increased suffrage for common men in the new states who did not qualify in the older states Jeffersons vision of republicanism did not apply in the West because there were no virtuous elite to rule for the people As more western states extended democracy to common men, political parties in eastern states felt pressure to do the same By 1840, more than 90% of all adult white men could vote (universal white male suffrage) But…this extension of suffrage did not include African-Americans or women
Universal Manhood Suffrage Political parties developed new types of politicking in order to reach new voters –In the 1820s, politicians began using campaigns, parades, slogans to appeal to the masses –Well-organized, statewide political machines developed –Party loyalty became expected –Partisan newspapers boomed
Universal Manhood Suffrage Could mob rule really work in America? Partisan newspapers played an important role in early American politics
Universal Manhood Suffrage The 1830s & 1840s experienced: –Massive voter turnout due to the growth of suffrage & increased organization of political parties –Direct methods of selecting presidential electors, county officials, state judges, & governors (replaced indirect methods by state legislatures)
What is voter turnout like today?
Democratic Culture In the 1830s, high literacy & cheap printing allowed artists & writers to work for a mass audience: –Popular genres include romanticism, gothic horror, & landscape paintings –Authors included Wadsworth, Emerson, Melville, Hawthorne, Whitman, Poe; showed human nature, morality, romanticism
Kindred Spirits, by Asher Durand
Politics Politics: The Elections of 1824 & 1828 John Quincy Adams video
The Election of 1824 The election of 1824 was a 4-way race among Dem-Republicans: –John Quincy Adams represented New England –William Crawford represented the South –Henry Clay & Andrew Jackson represented the West Jackson won the popular vote but not a majority of electoral votes Sec of State under Monroe Speaker of the House; author of American System Not taken seriously at first; but war hero status made Jackson a natl candidate Sec of Treasury under Monroe
Jackson did well in the South & the West Clays influence was limited to a few western states JQ Adams won NE Crawford won VA but few other Southern states But, because no one candidate received 51% of the electoral votes, the House of Reps had to determine the presidential winner Adams won when Henry Clay threw his support behind him Led to charges that Adams had "bought" the presidency (Corrupt Bargain!!)
J. Q. Adams' Administration Adams had a difficult presidency: –JQ Adams wanted to continue the nationalist programs of the Era of Good Feelings –The depression of 1819 limited the nationalist agenda & few of Adams policies became law –A protective tariff was passed to help farmers & industry, but this angered the South One exception: the National Road
Jackson Comes to Power Jacksonians prepared for the election of 1828 by creating a well-organized, national campaign – Jackson (TN) formed a coalition with Adams VP Calhoun (SC), Van Buren (NY), & 2 newspaper editors (KY) to rival JQ Adams Democrats – Formed the basis of 1 st modern political party, calling themselves the Democrats Democrats distinguished themselves as different from the Nationalist Republicans who has strayed from the Jeffersonian ideal But, these Jacksonian Democrats are not going to mirror the Jeffersonian Republicans
Jackson Comes to Power The election of 1828 changed American politics: – Showed the effectiveness of political parties in elections – It was the 1 st election with overt mudslinging & propaganda – Exciting appeals to average the man (public rallies & barbeques) Jackson won the election as a common man of the people Ms. Jackson is a bigamist & Ms. Adams is a bastard Democrats presented Jackson as Old Hickory, uneducated, a hero, a dueler & a man of the people Democrats painted Adams as an out-of- touch aristocrat
Who is Andrew Jackson? Jacksons wild & rowdy inauguration
Jackson Comes to Power Jackson was a popular candidate but it was not clear what type of president Jackson would be: –Jacksons supporters wanted states rights & limited govt –During the campaign, Jackson never clarified his stand on major issues: banks, tariffs, etc. –Only stood for Indian removal
Conclusions In the 1820s & 1830s, America became more democratic: –Westward expansion facilitated the expansion of suffrage for common white men –Led to unprecedented voter participation by citizens –Allowed for a new breed of common man politicians to come to power
Review Questions Review Questions: –What did the term common man mean in the early 19 th century? –In what ways were Presidents Washington, Adams, Jefferson, Madison, & Monroe different from the common man?