Presentation on theme: "The Desolation of Jerusalem and The Coming of the Son of Man"— Presentation transcript:
1The Desolation of Jerusalem and The Coming of the Son of Man Matthew 24; Mark 13; Luke 21
2Three ViewsAll talking about the end of the world and the second comingAll talking about the destruction of JerusalemTalking about both the destruction of Jerusalem and the second coming
3Apocalyptic Literature A prophecy of an event which will soon take place.A prophecy of an event in the distant future.An exhortation to live faithfully for God.
4Near and Far Prophecies Some Ezekiel -- Restoration of Israel and Future TempleDaniel -- Chiasmus of Nebuchadnezzar and Future KingdomsJoel -- Locust Plague and Outpouring of SpiritZechariah -- Rebuilding Temple and Coming of MessiahRevelation -- Destruction of Rome and Second Coming
5Chiasmus in Daniel A Nebuchadnezzar’s Dream of Image B The Three Young Friends of DanielC The Dream of the Giant TreeC’ The Handwriting on the WallB’ Daniel in the Lion’s DenA’ Daniel’s Vision of the Four Beasts
6The Setting Matt. 24:1-3; Mark 13:1-4; Luke 21:5-7 The disciples pointed out the stones and buildings of the temple: “What wonderful…”Jesus said, “You see all these things, do you not? Truly, I say to you, there will not be left here one stone upon another, that will not be thrown down.”Then they went to the Mount of Olives where the disciples asked him two questions.
7Two Questions “When will these things be?” Destruction of the Temple “What will be the sign …MatthewMarkLukeof your advent [parousia] and of the full end of the age?” –when these things are all to be fully ended?” –when these things are about to happen?” –Second ComingBoth – S.C. & D.O.T.Destruction of the Temple
8Daniel 9:27b LXX“… and on the temple [the] abomination of desolation will be until [the] full end; and [a] full end will be given on the desolator.”Based on this scripture the disciples apparently thought that the temple would be destroyed at the end of the world.
9Synoptic DifferencesMatthew alternates blocks of destruction of the temple and the second comingMark interweaves the two themesLuke moves most of the second coming material to Luke 17:22-37
10Matthew’s Blocks 24:4-8 Not Second Coming 24:9-25 Destruction of the Temple24:26-2824:29After Destruction of the Temple24:30-33Second Coming24:3424:35-25:46
11Warnings About Misunderstanding Matthew 24:4-14; Mark 13:5-13; Luke 21:8-19 Against Being Led AstrayWars, earthquakes, famines, plagues“The end is not yet”“The beginning of birth pangs”Against Falling Awaypersecutionlove grow cold
12Call for EnduranceMatt. 24:13 — “But he who endures to the end will be saved.”v. 14 – “And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole world, as a testimony to all nations; and then the end will come.”
13Abomination of Desolation Matt. 24:15-16; Mark 13:14; Luke 21:20 When you see (in the lifetime of apostles)The abomination of desolation (the hated thing that destroys) (Luke: armies [neu. pl.] surrounding Jerusalem)Standing in a holy place (holy ground--NAB) (not “the holy place” in the temple)where they [neu. pl.] must not (Mark; ASV he)Spoken of by Daniel (9:27; 12:11)Then FLEE
14The Armies Surrounding Jerusalem In AD 66 the Jews rebelled against Rome.The Roman general Cestius Gallus surrounded Jerusalem with the 12th Legion.They pushed to the temple gates before retreating.The Jews destroyed the retreating 12th Legion.The Christians fled to Pella.
15Great Tribulation Matt. 24:16-22; Mark 13:15-20; Luke 21:21-24 This will be the time of the Great Tribulation -- no other time like itDon’t try to save possessionsWoe to the pregnant and nursingPray not in winter or on sabbathShortened for the sake of the electDon’t believe “Here is the Christ”False Christ and false prophets
16Tribulation in Jerusalem A.D. 70 Three Rival MessiahsIn temple, city, and outsideFood destroyedBurnt each other’s grainRobber bands aboundBroke into people’s housesBeat them if they had food or if they didn’t
17Tribulation in Jerusalem A.D. 70 (cont.) No way to escapeArrows shot at those escapingSyrian forces met and disemboweled escapees looking for gold coinsWoman ate her own childMary daughter of Eleazar from BethezobRoasted and ate her infant sonA million Jews died; 90,000 captives
18The Parousia Matt. 24:23-28; Mark 13:21-23 Presence; arrival; adventTechnical term for the second comingChrist not in the inner roomChrist not in the wildernessAs obvious as lightning in the skyAs obvious as vultures circling a dead body
19The Coming of the Son of Man Matt The Coming of the Son of Man Matt. 24:29-31; Mark 13:24-27; Luke 21:25-28Immediately after that tribulationsigns in the sun and moon and starssymbolic for political upheaval(Isaiah 13:1, 10, 17; Ezekiel 32:2, 7, 11)Then they will see (not apostles)The sign = the Son of man in heavenAnswer to the second question
20Isaiah 13:1, 10, 17 (RSV)v. 1 — The oracle concerning Babylon which Isaiah the son of Amoz saw.v. 10 — For the stars of the heavens and their constellations will not give their light; the sun will be dark at its rising and the moon will not shed its light.v. 17 — Behold, I am stirring up the Medes against them, who have no regard for silver and do not delight in gold.
21Ezekiel 32:2, 7, 11 (RSV)V. 2a—"Son of man, raise a lamentation over Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him: …V. 7—When I blot you out, I will cover the heavens, and make their stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give its light.V. 11—For thus says the Lord GOD: The sword of the king of Babylon shall come upon you.
22The Coming of the Son of Man On the clouds of heavenClouds are a symbol of divinityEx. 16:10; 19:9; 34:5; Num. 11:25; 12:5; Is. 19:1; Ezek. 30:3; Dan. 7:10-13With power and great glorySend out His angelsWith a loud trumpet callI Thess. 4:16; I Cor. 15:52They will gather his elect (II Thess. 2:1)
23Symbolic or Second Coming? Not Symbolic for Jesus coming in destruction on JerusalemThe coming happens “after the tribulation of those days”Same coming as Matthew 25:31 – “When the Son of man comes in his glory, and all the angels with him, then he will sit on his glorious throne.”
24Parable of the Fig Tree Matt. 24:32-33; Mark 13:28-29; Luke 21:29-31 When you see fig leavesSummer is nearWhen all these things happenHe is near (Luke: the kingdom of God)Note that all these things do NOT include the second coming; they precede and point to itFig leavesSummer is nearAll these thingsHe is near
25Statements about Time Matt. 24:34-36; Mark 13:30-32; Luke 21:32-35 This generation [the people then alive] will not pass away until all these things happenNot include the second comingAnswer to the First QuestionOf that day and hour [when heaven and earth pass away] no one knows, except the FatherIt will come “upon all who dwell upon the face of the whole earth” (Luke 21:35).
26Exhortation to Watch Matt. 24:37-25:46; Mark 13:33-37; Luke 21:36 Like days of NoahPeople unawareSo we must be readyHe will come when we do not expectMark concludes with Jesus saying, “What I say to you I say to all: Watch.”