# What Is Language? Sound production Phones Phonemes Morphemes Words: –learned one at a time Sentences: –not learned one at a time Muscle movements.

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What Is Language? Sound production Phones Phonemes Morphemes Words: –learned one at a time Sentences: –not learned one at a time Muscle movements

Basic requisite of a grammar: How to explain the ability to create an infinite number of sentences from a finite number of words?

Chained Behavior (Bar Pressing): DD/r R

Objections To Chaining Theory Finite-state grammar Transitional probabilities say nothing about meaning Embedding Ambiguous sentences

How would Chaining Theory explain the following sentence? That man has eaten the bread.

Example: The man has eaten the bread.

Possible sequences that can be generated from words, A, B & C: Without replacement: ABC ACB BAC BCA CAB CBA

With replacement: AA AB A AC A A AA BB A BC B B AA CB A CC A C AB AB B AC B A AB BB B BC B B AB CB B CC B C AC AB C AC C A AC BB B BC C B AC CB C CC C C

Number of 3-word sentences = 3 3 = 27 Suppose we considered 10 word sentences. 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3 = 3 10 = 59, 049 different sentences. 12345678910 AAAAAAAAAA BBBBBBBBBB CCCCCCCCCC

Suppose we arbitrarily restrict language to sentences of 10 words… There are 450,000 English words Number of 2-word sentences: (450,000) 2 = 202,000,000,000 = 2 11 Number of 3-word sentences: (450,000) 3 = 91,125,000,000,000,000 = 91 15. Consider only grammatical sentences. Assume only one in a million was grammatical. i.e., 10 6. There would then be only 91,125, 000, 000 = 91 9 grammatical sentences. Suppose we read one word/sec., reading at a rate of 24 hrs/day, 365 days/year, it would take 2,887 years to read all possible three- word sentences. Four-word sentences: 1,299,150,000 years.

Objections To Chaining Theory Finite-state grammar Transitional probabilities say nothing about meaning

Meaningless Sequences Of Words: Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Goes down here is not large feet are the happy days.

Objections To Chaining Theory Finite-state grammar Transitional probabilities say nothing about meaning Embedding

Embedded Sentences The girl sat down. The girl who wore a hat sat down. The girl who wore a hat who smiled sat down. The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold sat down. The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold who missed the train sat down. The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold who missed the train who got a new job sat down.

The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold who missed the train who got a new job who loves jazz sat down. Embedded Sentences The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold who missed the train who got a new job who loves jazz who makes the best apple pie sat down. The girl who wore a hat who smiled who had a cold who missed the train who got a new job who loves jazz who makes the best apple pie whose cousin went to Japan sat down.

Objections To Chaining Theory Finite-state grammar Transitional probabilities say nothing about meaning Embedding Ambiguous sentences

Ambiguous Sentence Meaning 1Meaning 2The hunters shotSomeone shot something.the hunters. FormThe shooting of the hunters Paraphrase Meaning 1The detective saw the accident Form 1 Form 2 The detective saw the accident. The accident was seen by the detective

Phrase-structure Grammar How is a sentence like, The boy hit the ball. generated?

Constituents of "The Boy Hit The Ball." "the" =article =T "boy" =noun =N "hit" =verb =V "the boy" =noun phrase =NP "hit the ball" =verb phrase =VP "the ball" =noun phrase =NP

T N TN V NP NP VP The boy hit the ball

Sentence: They Are Shooting Hunters NounVerbNoun PhrasePhrasePhrase NounVerb Adj Noun Theyare shooting hunters

NounVerbNoun PhrasePhrasePhrase NounVerb Auxiliary Noun Theyare shooting hunters

Sentence: They Are Shooting Hunters 1 2

active passive interrogative The boy hit the ball What did the boy hit? The boy hit the ball The boy hit what? What did the boy hit? Example Of A Transformation

Transformational Grammar Example 1: The Boy Hit The Ball. What Did The Boy Hit? (1) The boy hit the ball. (2) The boy hit what? (3) What did the boy hit? Where did "did" come from? "What the boy hit" needs dummy auxiliary

Example 2: THE BOY HAD HIT THE BALL. WHAT HAD THE BOY HIT? (1) The boy had hit what? (2) What the boy had hit? (3) What had the boy hit? "the boy had" "had the boy" (transposition) Transformational Grammar

Kernel Sentences 1.The old woman was warned by Joe.__The small boy wasnt warned by John. 2.The small boy wasnt liked by Joe.__The old woman wasnt warned by Jane. 3.The young man was liked by John.__The young man was warned by Jane. 4.The old woman wasnt liked by Joe.__The old woman wasnt warned by Joe 5.The young man wasnt warned by Jane.__The old woman was liked by John. 6.The small boy was liked by Jane.__The small boy wasnt liked by John. 7.The young man wasnt liked by Jane.__The young man wasnt warned by John. 8.The old woman was warned by Jane.__The old woman was warned by Joe.

Kernel Sentences (cont.) 9.The small boy wasnt warned by Joe.__ The young man wasnt warned by Joe. 10.The small boy was warned by John.__ The small boy was warned by Joe. 11.The young man was warned by John.__ The small boy was warned by Joe. 12.The small boy wasnt warned by Jane.__ The small boy wasnt like by Jane. 13.The small boy was liked by John.__ The young man wasnt liked by John. 14.The young man wasnt liked by Joe.__ The young man was liked by Jane. 15.The young man was warned by Joe.__ The old woman was liked by Joe. 16.The old woman was liked by Jane.__ The old woman wasnt liked by Jane. 17.The old woman wasnt liked by John.__ The small boy was liked by Joe. 18.The old woman wasnt warned by John. __ The young man was liked by Joe.

1. The old woman was warned by Joe.10 The small boy wasnt warned by John. 2. The small boy wasnt liked by Joe. 8 The old woman wasnt warned by Jane. 3. The young man was liked by John.5 The young man was warned by Jane. 4. The old woman wasnt liked by Joe.1 The old woman wasnt warned by Joe 5. The young man wasnt warned by Jane.17 The old woman was liked by John. 6. The small boy was liked by Jane.13 The small boy wasnt liked by John. 7. The young man wasnt liked by Jane.11 The young man wasnt warned by John. 8. The old woman was warned by Jane.18 The old woman was warned by Joe. 9. The small boy wasnt warned by Joe.19 The small boy was warned by Joe. 11. The young man was warned by John.12 The small boy was warned by Joe. 12. The small boy wasnt warned by Jane.6 The small boy wasnt like by Jane. 13. The small boy was liked by John.3 The young man wasnt liked by John. 14. The young man wasnt liked by Joe.7 The young man was liked by Jane. 15. The young man was warned by Joe.4 The old woman was liked by Joe. 16. The old woman was liked by Jane.16 The old woman wasnt liked by Jane. 17. The old woman wasnt liked by John.]2 The small boy was liked by Joe. 18. The old woman wasnt warned by John.14 The young man was liked by Joe.

Is Transformational Grammar Psychologically Real? Sentence types that can be formed with kernel sentences (K), negatives (N), passives (P), and passive-negatives (PN).

STAGES OF LEARNING SIMPLE PAST TENSE

Acquisition Order The order in which children acquire some English inflectional suffixes and function words ItemExample Present progressive: ingHe is sitting down. Preposition: inThe mouse is in the box. Preposition: onThe book is on the table. Plural: -sThe dogs ran away. Past irregular: e.g., wentThe boys went home. Possessive: -sThe girls dog is big. Uncontractible copula be:Are they boys or girls? e.g., are, wasWas that a dog?

Acquisition Order, contd Articles: the, a, anHe has a book. Past regular: -edHe jumped the stream. Third person regular: -sShe runs fast. Third person irregular: Does the dog bark? e.g., has, does Uncontractible copula be:Is he running? e.g., is, wereWere they at home? Contractible copulabe:Thats a spaniel. e.g., s, -reTheyre pretty. Contractible auxiliary be:Hes doing it. e.g., -s, -reTheyre running slowly.

How Does A Child Learn Language? CHOMSKY: -LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (LAD) BRUNER: - LANGUAGE ACQUISITION SUPPORT SYSTEM (LASS)

Peek-A-Boo

Acquisition of Language *Grammar (Syntax) *Meaning (Semantics) *Function (Pragmatics)

Antecedents Of Language Cognitive: Cognitive maps Serial Expertise Tool use Social: Learning through imitation Social knowledge Joint attention Deception

Language Areas Of The Brain

Motor Cortex: Representation Of Body Parts (Monkey)

Motor Cortex: Representation Of Body Parts (Human)

Language Areas Of The Brain

DESCRIPTION OF TEST PICTURE: In this picture, a man has just run out of his house to remonstrate with a girl passerby, thinking that she must be responsible for his broken window. We also see a boy in baseball garb hiding behind a fence and can reasonably assume that he, not the girl, is the culprit.

Brocas patient: -Like the door...crash...like, pants...shirt...shoes...the boy...the dress...I dunno.

Wernickes patient: This guy did something, right here...He ran...and shes there like she didnt even know. (Tester: Who broke it?) She would never do it-she looks like a really nice kid. Hes really getting mad (pointing to the man)...He did it (pointing to the boy); he broke it. (Tester: How?) I cant tell you but I know what it is....

Human Vocal Tract

Split Brain

Split Brain Test

Behavioral And Cognitive Psychology Behavioral unit of analysis: –S D : R S R Problems with behaviorist approach: –Performance underestimates knowledge –Children do not have to be taught to refer. Problems with cognitive approach: –How is knowledge measured?

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