Presentation on theme: ""Beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella"— Presentation transcript:
1"Beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella Surrealism Circa 1921 – 1940"Beautiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrellaon a dissection table.“- LautréamontLes chants de Maldoror
2The Surrealist Revolution (left) Photomontage for La Révolution Surréaliste, nº 12, 1929 by René Magritte (Belgian, ), Enquête sur l'amour’ (Inquiry on Love) (bottom right) Surrealist group, Paris, 1930, L-R: Tristan Tzara, Paul Eluard, André Breton, Hans Arp, Salvador Dali, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, René Crevel, Man Ray
3(left) The World in the Time of the Surrealists, Brussels, "We are determined to make a Revolution." "We have joined the word surrealism to the word revolution solely to show the disinterested, detached and even entirely desperate character of this revolution." André Breton(right) Easter Island, Polynesia, ceremonial dance paddle (rapa) from André Breton’s collection of Oceanic art. It represents a highly stylized male figure with Janus-face head and phallic finial showing retracted foreskin.
4Precursors to Surrealism: 19th Century Romanticism and Symbolism (left) Arnold Bocklin, The Isle of the Dead, 1880, oil on canvas, Symbolism (right) Francisco Goya, Saturn c , Oil on plaster remounted on canvas, Romanticism
5“Naturalist” or “Hand Painted Dream” Surrealism René Magritte (Belgian, ) The Treachery of Images, , oil on canvas, 23 x 31”, LACMA, Deconstruction
6Magritte, The False Mirror, 1928, oil on canvas, 212 x 31”, MoMA NYC
7Magritte, Les Valeurs personnelles (Personal Values), 1952, 31 1/2 in Magritte, Les Valeurs personnelles (Personal Values), 1952, 31 1/2 in. x 39 3/8 in., oil on canvas, SFMOMAJohn Baldessari at 2007 exhibition hedesigned: Treachery of Images: RenéMagritte and Contemporary Art. LACMA
8(left) Charles Ray (American, b (left) Charles Ray (American, b. 1953), Fall '91, 1992, mixed media, 96 in. H (right) Robert Gober (American, b.1954), Untitled, , mixed media
9(left) Robert Gober, Untitled, 1990, beeswax, human hair, pigment (right) Magritte, The Rape, 1935, oil on canvas
10"The eye exists in its savage state. The marvels of the earth "The eye exists in its savage state. The marvels of the earth ... have as their sole witness the wild eye that traces all its colors back to the rainbow."- André Breton
11Surrealist magazine, La Révolution Surréaliste [The Surrealist Revolution, 12 issues, ] was modeled on the conservative scientific magazine, La Nature. In a mock scientific manner, specimens of automatic writing and records of dreams were illustrated with photographs, mostly by the “machine-poet” Man Ray (American, ). The review succeeded in shocking everyone.
12Man Ray, Minotaur, 1933, for the Surrealist magazine, Minotaur Man Ray, Minotaur, 1933, for the Surrealist magazine, Minotaur. Collapses human and animal into a single (border) “impossible” category: bull-human, like the Greek mythical monster.
13Surrealist “formlessness”: erasing categories of sexuality Man Ray, Minotaur, 1933Surrealist “formlessness”:erasing categories of sexualityBrassai, Nudes, 1933Phallus-female torsoBrancusi, Torso, 1924 & 1926
14Man Ray, Anatomies, c. 1930 phallus-neck (double entendre) “The frame announces the camera’s ability to find and isolate what we could call the world’s constant writing of erotic symbols, its ceaseless automatism.”Man Ray, Anatomies, c phallus-neck (double entendre)
15(left) Lee Miller (American, ), Nude Bent Forward, Paris, 1931 (right) Dora Maar (French, ), Le Pere Ubu, 1936Surrealist defamiliarization becomes “Formless (Informe)” of the subconsciousand the dream
16The art object is not the sculpture; it is the photograph. AUTOMATONS and mannequins: Hans Bellmer (Polish, ), La Poupée (Doll), , hand colored gelatin silver print (right) Bellmer, La Poupée, : (center) La Poupée), 1934; gelatin silver prints “Dolls” are made of wood, metal, papier-mâché and dressed with wigs, clothing, etc. or notThe art object is not the sculpture; it is the photograph.
17SURREALIST PHOTOGRAPHY: MANNIQUINS AND “DISTORTIONS” Eugène Atget (French ), Boulevard de Strasbourg, Corsets, 1912, albumen silver print André Kertész (Hungarian, ), Distortion #4, 1933, gelatin silver print
18Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali, frames from Un Chien Andalou (France) An Andalusian Dog, Surrealist film, Eyes, insects, metamorphosis, erotics, madness of the dream & subconscious
19METAMOPHOSIS OF FORM Salvador Dali (Spanish, ) interpreted photograph, Paranoic Face, from Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, no.3. “voluntary hallucination" = the "critical paranoic method" (right) Dali, Apparition of a face and a Fruit Dish, 1930I think the time is rapidly coming when it will be possible…to systematize confusion thanks to a paranoiac and active process of thought, and so assist in discrediting completely the world of reality.” - Dali
20Salvador Dali, The Lugubrious Game, 1929, oil on canvas "Repugnance is the sentry standing right near the door to those things that we desire most.” - Salvador Dali
21Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931 oil on canvas, 9 x 13,” MoMA NYC “The transcription of reveries.” Hand-painted dream photographs. Dali’s morphological aesthetics of the soft and hard and the search for form: “un-form” (Informe)Cape Creus, Catalonia
22ANXIOUS VISIONS for Anxious Times – social contexts of Surrealist imagery (left) Salvador Dali, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonitions of Civil War, 1936, oil on canvas, 39 x 39” (Spanish Civil War), Surrealism (right) compare Francisco Goya, 1821 (Napoleonic wars in Spain), Romanticism
23Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’8”, Madrid
24AUTOMATISM: Surrealist “exquisite corpse” drawings (left) by Yves Tanguy, Man Ray, Max Morise, Joan Miró, c (right) “exquisite corpse” by Victor Brauner, André Breton, Jacques Hérold and Yves Tanguy, 1935.
25AUTOMATISM and abstract biomorphic Surrealism André Masson (French, ) Quare de vulva exuxiste me (Why dids’t thou bring me forth from the womb?), 1923, pen & ink on paper (right) Battle of Fishes, 1926, sand, gesso, oil, pencil, and charcoal on canvas, 14 x 28,
26Joan Miró (Spanish, ), Carnival of Harlequin, , oil on canvas, 26 x 36” Response to Cubism: "I will break their guitar."
27BIOMORPHISM + POPULAR CULTURE Joan Mirò, Painting, 1933, oil on canvas, 5’8” x 6’5” MoMA, NYC (right) source collage of clippings from equipment catalogues
28DISJUNCTION / READYMADE /UNCANNY OBJECT (left) Joan Miró, Object, assemblage: stuffed parrot on wood perch, stuffed silk stocking with velvet garter and doll’s paper shoe suspended in hollow wood frame, derby hat, hanging cork ball, celluloid fish, and engraved map, 32 x 12 x 10,” 1936 (right) Joseph Cornell (American, ] ) Medici Boy, mixed media assemblage
29(left) Exhibition of Surrealist Objects, Paris, 1936, mock-scientific display (right) Marcel Duchamp, Surrealist Exhibition / Installation, 16 Miles of String, Peggy Guggenheim Gallery, NYC, 1942 – the labyrinth of the Minotaur
30SURREALISM . DIASPORIC INDIGENISM / “MAGIC REALISM” Wilfredo Lam (Cuban, ), The Jungle, 1943, gouache on paper mounted on canvas, 7’10” x 7’6”, MoMA NYC Santerìa: blend of African and Catholic religious practices (left) Wilfredo Lam in his Havana studio, 1947
31Matta (Roberto Matta Echaurren, Chilean, ), Disasters of Mysticism, 1942 oil on canvas, 38 x 51”
32Frida Kahlo (Mexican, 1907-1954) (right) What the Water Yields Me, oil on canvas,1938 Imogen Cunningham, FridaKahlo in San Francisco, 1931
33Kahlo, Henry Ford Hospital, 1932, oil on metal, 12 x 15. 5 in Kahlo, Henry Ford Hospital, 1932, oil on metal, 12 x 15.5 in. (compare left) Mexican ex-voto (retablo), oil on tin, 1878, 14" x 10"
34Aztec goddess Tlazolteotl in the act of giving birth to a man.Kahlo, My Birth, 1932, painted after a miscarriagecoinciding with the death of the artist’s mother“How I imagined I was born.” (a double death?)
35Leonora Carrington (British-born Mexican Surrealist Painter and Writer, born in 1917) Self-Portrait (The White Horse Inn), , oil on canvas, 25 x 32”
36Dorothea Tanning (American, ) (left) Ein klein nachtmusik "A little night music," 1946 (right) Birthday, 1942, oil on canvas, x 25.5 inches (center, below) with husband Max Ernst, Sedona, Arizona, 1948
37Dorothea Tanning, Hôtel du Pavot, cloth and mixed materials, permanent installation, “life” size, Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2000
38Sexual “nudes” undoing categories of “masculine” and “feminine” desire Alberto Giacometti (Swiss, ), Suspended Ball, (1965 reconstruction), plaster and metal, 24 x 14 x 13” (right) Constantin Brancusi, Torse (wood 1922; bronze 1926)Sexual “nudes” undoingcategories of “masculine”and “feminine” desire
39Alberto Giacometti, Woman with Her Throat Cut (Femme égorgée), bronze, 8 x 34 x 25”, MoMA, NYC
40Alberto Giacometti, Woman with Her Throat Cut (Femme égorgée), bronze, 8x34 x 25”, MoMA, NYC
41Giacometti, The Palace at 4 a. m Giacometti, The Palace at 4 a.m., , construction in wood, glass, wire, and string, 25 x 28 x 16”, MoMA NYC (top right)1932 sketch indicatespre-conception
43THE END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL (left) Hitler occupies Paris, 1940 Artists in the Artists in Exile show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York, March, Left to right, first row: Matta, Ossip Zadkine, Yves Tanguy, Max Ernst, Marc Chagall, Fernand Léger; second row: André Breton, Piet Mondrian, André Masson, Amédée Ozenfant, Jacques Lipchitz, Pavel Tchelitchew, Kurt Seligmann, Eugene Berman
44END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL Max Ernst, Europe After the Rain, , oil on canvas, 21 x 58,” automatist technique of decalcomania, which involves pressing paint between two surfaces