Presentation on theme: "Andrew Levack and Lori Rolleri"— Presentation transcript:
1Andrew Levack and Lori Rolleri Gender Matters:Working with Youth to Explore Views of Masculinity and Femininity and Their Impact on Health OutcomesAndrew Levack and Lori Rolleri
2Session ObjectivesDescribe how rigid norms about gender influence health outcomesList three key steps in gender transformative programmingDescribe the Gender Matters teen pregnancy prevention interventionIdentify at least two ways that gender norms can be integrated into existing science-based ARH curricula
4What is Gender?Socially constructed roles, behaviors and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
5What is Gender?Socially constructed roles, behaviors and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
6Sex or Gender? Women give birth to babies, men don’t. Girls should be gentle, boys should be tough.Women can breastfeed babies, men cannot.Four-fifths of all the world’s injecting drug users are men.Women get paid less than men for doing the same work.The number of women with HIV infection and AIDS has increased steadily worldwide.
7Assignment Turn to a person sitting next to you Take one minute each to share some of the messages you received growing up about how you were expected to behave as a male or female.If it helps, think about the times you were told to:“Act Like a Man” or“Act Like A Lady”
8“Act Like A Man” Be tough Be strong Don’t cry or show emotion Be dominant over womenHave many sexual partnersTake risksDrink / do drugs and handle itBe in controlDon’t ask for helpViolence as a means to address problems8
9US-Specific Data on Male Gender Norms Adolescent males who held traditional attitudes towards masculinity indicate having:More sexual partners in the last yearLess intimate relationship at last intercourse with current partner,Greater belief that relationships between women & men are adversarial.Less consistent use of condomsSpecific attitudes about condoms associated with low condom useLess belief in male responsibility to prevent pregnancyGreater belief that pregnancy validates masculinity(Pleck J. et al, Masculinity ideology: Its impact on adolescent males heterosexual relationships, Journal of Social Issues, 1993, 49 (3:)11-29.)
10“Act Like a Lady” Be seen, not heard Look pretty Defer to men to make decisionsDon’t get angryDo not have sex until marriageDon’t talk about sexBe the caretaker and homemakerKeep your man – provide for himHave children
11“Act Like a Lady” “Acquiescent femininity” (Jewkes et al 2010): Traditional constructions of femininity are characterized by accommodating the interests and desires of men.Encourages resonance, rather than dissonance with harmful male normsYoung women whose gender ideology was relatively traditional have a lower age at first motherhood than those whose gender ideology is less traditional. (Stewart, 2003)
12Different Constructions of Femininity “Assertive communication isn’t what works. Aggressive communication is what works.”“We do it (treat badly) to guys because guys do it to us.”
13Since 1996, EngenderHealth’s gender work… …has reached thousands of people in 26 countries with the goal of promoting healthy gender norms and positive SRH outcomes through:group educationcommunity engagementclinical services with the goal of promoting healthy gender norms and SRH outcomes
20Gender Accommodating Acknowledge the role of gender norms & inequities Develop activities to adjust to and/or compensate for themDo not actively aim to change norms, but strive to limit the impact of harmful gender normsCan provide a sensible first step toward gender transformative programming
21Accommodating Young Men’s Clinic Designed specifically for young men Comprehensive SRH services (STIs, physical exams, FP, RH counseling)Informational materials, slideshows and videosHours designed to best serve male clientsFew opportunities to build awareness, question and redefine harmful norms regarding masculinity
22Three Tasks (GT Programming) A program that allows participants to develop awareness, question and redefine the socially constructed roles, behaviors and attributes that a given community considers appropriate for men and women.Gender Transformative programs generally address multiple forces in an individual's environment (e.g., peers, health facilities, workplaces, media, government, etc.)
25Gender SynchronizedEngage both sexes in challenging harmful constructions of masculinity and femininityEqualize the balance of power between men and women in order to ensure gender equality and transform social norms that lead to gender-related vulnerabilitiesView all actors in society in relation to each other
27Gender Matters Curriculum Delivered over five days (four hours per day)Two facilitators (one male, one female)Workshop Sessions:Day One: Understanding GenderDay Two: Healthy RelationshipsDay Three: Are You Ready to Become a Teen Parent?Day Four: Skills to Prevent Teen PregnancyDay Five: Taking Action
28Video Statements from Gender Matters Participants
29Gender Matters Declaration of Independence I am the boss of me.I decide what being a man or a woman means to me.I treat others in the way I want to be treated.I decide when and if I am ready for sex.I use protection every time I have sex.I go to the clinic to get tested and protected.
32Specific Gender Attitudes and Norms Addressed in Gender Matters (See Handout)
33Integrating Gender During All Phases of Program Planning: Relationship/Commitment BuildingAssessmentGoal SettingProgram Design and AdaptationOrganizational/Staff Capacity BuildingProgram ImplementationProgram EvaluationQuality Improvement
34Logic Models Interventions Determinants Behaviors Delay onset of sex Health GoalDesign interventionactivities that aredirectly linked tothese determinantsand willchange them.KnowledgeAttitudesSkills/Self EfficacyIntentionsParent-Child CommunicationGender NormsDelay onset of sexIncrease use of contra-ceptives including condomsReduce adolescent pregnancy in Pittsburg, PA34
35Adaptation is …making changes (e.g., additions, changes, deletions, substitutions, etc.) to an evidence-based program in order to make it more suitable for a particular population and/or an organization’s capacity without compromising or deleting its core components.35
36Three Tasks (GT Programming) Create Awareness about Gender NormsUsing examples from mediaSex disaggregated dataPersonal reflectionsQuestion Gender NormsWhy are there differences?What are the costs of rigid norms?What are the benefits gender equality?Redefine Gender NormsPromote alternative/positive models of masculinityBuild skills and self-efficacy to model new normsAdvocacy
37Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) Session 2: Making Sexual Decisions & Understanding Your ValuesMajor ActivitiesReview of definitions and how HIV is transmittedAIDS and African AmericansHIV Feud (game)Personalizing HIV RisksExploring drug risks for HIVSupport systems
38BART AdaptationReview of definitions and how HIV is transmitted: Incorporate “gender” into list of definitionsAIDS and African Americans: Include information about how HIV affects men and women differently, discuss reasons whyPersonalizing HIV Risks & Exploring drug risks for HIV: Explore how gender norms affect sexual decision making and risk taking; Ask youth to redefine gender norms to support healthy behavior
39Reducing the Risk Classes 3 & 4: Refusals and Using Refusal Skills Major ActivitiesTalk to Your Parents HomeworkIntroduce RefusalsDemonstrate Role PlaysRole Plays in Small Groups
40Reducing the Risk Adaptation Talk to Your Parents Homework: Include interview question about the role gender plays in sexual decision making for parentsIntroduce Refusals: Integrate discussion about the types of gender norms that may make it difficult for a girl or a boy to refuse sexDemonstrate Role Plays & Role Plays in Small Groups: Integrate debrief discussion that helps to redefine these norms
41For More Information… Andrew Levack, MPH Lori A. Rolleri, MSW, MPH Director, Director Gender MattersGender and Men as Partners, EngenderHealthLori A. Rolleri, MSW, MPHSenior Technical Advisor, Team Lead