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Unit Six Clothes Make the Man---Uneasy Anne Hollander.

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1 Unit Six Clothes Make the Man---Uneasy Anne Hollander

2 Pre-reading Questions 1: What kind of clothes do you like to wear? Is it important what a person wears, especially in public? 2: What role do you think men's clothes play in social communication? 3: What is the main idea or gist of the essay? Pre-reading Questions

3 Background Information Anne Hollander(1930- ) she is a native of cleveland who was educated in New York City. An experienced observer of and writer on the history of fashion, she again turns to that subject in the essay Clothes Make the Man--Uneasy. Her works include Seeing Through Clothes, Sex and Suits; Feeding the Eye; and Fabric of Vision: Dress and Drapery in Painting.

4 Paragraph 1 Questions 1: What do you know about men's and wmoen's choices of clothes in the 1960s? 2: Why did the choices men made have an enormous meaning in teh world of men? Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

5 Paragraph 1 agonize: suffer great pain, anxiety or worryintensely about sth. The woman agonized about her child's safety. Perhaps he was agonizing over the moral issues involved sideburns: the hair that grows down the sides of a man's face before ear. radically: fundamentally; thoroughly, completely, drastically. radically change/alter/transform Paraphrase: the idea that one might...a whole generation. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

6 Elvis Presley with sideburns Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

7 Paraphrase: a whole generation had never thought that one might suffer extreme agony about whether to grow sideburns or wear trousers of a completely different shape. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

8 Dramatic: very great exciting impressive Sartorial: of men's clothes, a way of dressing He is known for his sartorial elegance. sartorial preferences / tastes Subtle: not very noticeable or obvious. surface: adj. a surface quality seems to exist in someone or something, but in fact it hides deeper or truer feelings or conditions A surface calm settled over the troubled city. Variation: A variation is a change or slight difference in a level, amount, or quantity. Paraphrase: Before the mid 60s whether to wear...surface variation. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

9 Paraphrase: Before the mid60s whether to wear a tie was the biggest decision for men to make about clothing: everything else was just trivial, superficial change that was hardly noticeable. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

10 be accustomed to (doing) sth to be familiar with something and accept it as normal We were accustomed to working together. fashion: a manner or way of doing sth. He walks in a peculiar fashion. The pretty girl is dressed in the latest fashion. automatically: unconsciously For most of us breathing is done automatically. conform: keep to or comply with We must conform to normal social conventions. Their deeds do not conform to their words Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

11 If you brace yourself for something unpleasant or difficult, you prepare yourself for it. He braced himself for the icy plunge into the black water... Financial markets are braced for another turbulent week. Smith braced himself to deliver the bad news. Masculine:masculine qualities and things relate to or are considered typical of men, in contrast to women....masculine pride. female Paraphrase: Women have been so accustomed to…masculine responses. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

12 Paraphrase: Women have been so used to handling extreme trends for such a long time, that they are unconsciously ready for whatever is coming next. For example, they are naturally liable to reject or accept extreme fashion, and they are automatically prepared for all the possible responses from men. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

13 Delicate: slight small subtle Shade: slight difference in sth The word can have many shades of meaning. A range of sth: a series of sth, a selection of sth Alternative: two or more choices You can be paid in cash weekly or by cheque monthly; those are the two alternatives. Absorbing: holding ones attention what an absorbing film it is ! Cut: The way of cutting Slacks: casual trousers for men or women Paraphrase: All the delicate shades of significance…plain or wing tip? Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

14 double-breasted:a double-breasted jacket or coat has two front parts so that one part covers the other when the buttons are done up, and two rows of buttons can be seen single-breasted:(of a jacket or coat) having only one row of buttons that fasten in the middle. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

15 shoes with plain tip shoes with wing tip Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

16 Paraphrase: All the subtle degrees of significance made known or conveyed by the limited number of alternatives were often difficult enough in the past: Which do you prefer, a double-or single-breasted suit? Do you want a sports jacket and slacks or a suit? Which do you like better, shoes with plain or wing tip. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

17 Momentous:very important; serious a momentous decision, occasion, event Possibilites: choices Stamp: mark, sign She bears the stamp of genius. His face bears the stamp of suffering. Their story has the stamp of truth Identify: to recognize, establish the uniquemess of. The light was too dim for me to identify her. he identified the coat as his brother's. Paraphrase: The choices men had had to make… to female judgment. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

18 Paraphrase: The choices men were obliged to make never seemed very significant to women who had been used to a formidable range of personally acceptable things, but the choices men confronted meant a lot in their own world, for they served as a characteristic mark which helped to establish a mans identity but which women usually were unable to understand in terms of judgments. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

19 Invisible: that cannot be seen; not visible distant stars that are invisible to the naked eye, Shun: to avoid, keep clear of, keep away from The country did not want to shun the war. She tries to shun publicity. imperceptible: Something that is imperceptible is so small that it is not noticed or cannot be seen. Brian's hesitation was almost imperceptible. imperceptible change in temperature Paraphrase: A hat with a tiny bit of nearly…oxford-cloth shirts. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

20 Paraphrase: A hat with a little bit of hardly discernable feather was absolutely differentiated from a hat with no feather at all, and white shirts decorated with white patterns, which were nearly subtly complex in weave, were totally avoided by those who preferred to wear white oxford-cloth shirts. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

21 Mystify: confuse, bewilder, baffle, puzzle Her mystifying disappearance puzzled us. Ferocity: Violence,fierceness The lion attacked its victim with great feorcity Our fighters resumed their attack against the enemy with the greatest ferocity. Pity:feel pity for (sb) Pity the poor sailors at sea in this storm! Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

22 padding: soft material used to fill out things. The padding feels soft and touches smooth. cuff: the end of a coat or shirt sleeve at the wrist. Attach importance to:to believe that sth is important or worth thinking about I attach great importance to this research. Paraphrase: Women might remain mystified…an inch of trouser cuff. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

23 Paraphrase: Women might remain bewildered by the fact that men should feel so strongly and support so vigorously these very small differences. And probably women might feel contemptuous pity for men who have such a conservative view of fashion that even such trivial variations as half and inch of padding in the shoulders or an inch of trouser cuff could make them excited. Paragraph 1 Detailed Study

24 Paragraphs 2-5 Questions 1: What can you infer about masculine fashion in the 1960s? 2: Why did the writer say that the difference between men's and women's clothes used to be an easy matter from every point of view? Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

25 Seductive: tending to seduce, charm or tempt sb; attractive Incorrect:not according to accepted standards; improper. with respect to sth: concerning sth This is true with respect to English but not to French. Parents often have little choice with respect to the way their child is medically treated flavor: taste, strong suggestion visiting this rural area, you can enjoy the full flafor of English country life. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

26 connote: imply or suggest Smoke connotes fire. Terrorism connotes killing of innocent people. bonding: becoming emotionally attached to male bonding: The formation of a close human relationship, as between friends. Paraphrase: Even imaginative wives and mothers…sort of male bonding. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

27 Paraphrase: Even wives and mothers full of imagination could finally learn to say Noto all attractive but improper choices concerning tie fabric and collar shape, because such choices might give strong suggestions of incorrect mental attitudes, the low level of education, or the inappropriate sort of male intimacy. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

28 double standards:If you accuse a person or institution of applying double standards in their treatment of different groups of people, you mean that they unfairly allow more freedom of behaviour to one group than to another. Hindrance:(to sth/sb) thing or person that hinders Some kitchen gadgets are more of a hindrance than a help. Flourish: be very successful, very active. No new business can flourish in the present economic climate. stick to: keep to, adhere to Paraphrase: It was a well ordered world…he might look ridiculous. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

29 Paraphrase: It was a well organized world where people were strictly classified; the double standard, i.e., the rule or principle applied more strictly to some people than to others, was observed fully and successfully, and no man who adhered to the rules ever found it necessary to suppose that he might look unusual. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

30 erupt: break out suddenly and violently Violence has erupted on the streets. The demonstration erupted into violence. accelerate: quicken, hasten disconcert·ing:making you feel worried, confused a disconcerting habit/tendency throw light on: to make it easier to understand, because more information is known about it. A new approach offers an answer, and may shed light on an even bigger question. Paraphrase: Suddenly, and for the first time … steady old arrangements. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

31 Paraphrase: All of a sudden, and for the first time in hundreds of years, the rate of change in masculine fashion speeded up violently, giving a new interpretation of all the former arrangements that had remained unchanged for ages. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

32 look on: be a spectator at an event or incident; watch sth without taking part in it oneself discomfiture: a state of being disconcerted or baffled; a state of being thwarted The discomfiture in the ruling party was well known to the public. Our fondest dreams ended in discomfiture. conspicuous: easily seen; noticeable; remarkable you're walking along a badly-lit road at night you should wear conspicuous clothes. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

33 Nipped-in: taken-in pinched-in squeezed-in tur·tle·neck: a high neck that folds over on a SWEATER bell-bot·tom:Having legs that flare out at the bottom: bell-bottom trousers. Comfy:(comfier, comfiest)comfortable a comfy armchair / bed anonymity:the state of remaining unknown to most other people: Names of people in the documentary were changed to preserve anonymity Paraphrase: Paying no attention …follower of the old order. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

34 Turtleneck nipped-in waistline bell-bottom trousers

35 Paraphrase: If one ignored such fashions as nipped-in waistlines, vivid turtlenecks, long hair with sideburns, and bell- bottom trousers, he could not comfortably remain unnoticed; on the contrary, he would be marked as a die-hard follower of the old customs. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

36 A look in the mirror…hopelessly unliberated. Chain: (length of) connected metal links or rings, used for hauling or supporting weights or for fastening or restraining things Shackles:either of a pair of metal rings linked by a chain, used for fastening a prisoner's wrists or ankles together. Chains and shackles: METAPHOR, referring to outdated clothes which made the man so uncomfortable as if he was wearing a straightjacket. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

37 Paraphrase: Seeing his own image in the mirror, a man suddenly realized that he was obviously wearing old-fashioned clothes which were binding him to the old order, thus having no hope of ever catching up with the new fashion. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

38 turn out to be:it is discovered to be that thing. Cosgrave's forecast turned out to be quite wrong. fix on sb/sth: decide to have sb/sth; choose They've fixed on Ashby as the new chairman. Have you fixed on a date for the wedding? tend: to take care of, look after when his wife was busy with housework, he had to tend their baby. Look at his carefully tended moustache. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

39 strain: worry / anxiety Their marriage is under great strain at the moment. These repayments are putting a strain on our finances. multiple: having or involving many individuals, items or types a multiple crash on a motorway, ie one involving many vehicles person with multiple injuries, ie with many cuts, broken bones, etc Paraphrase: It seems too much... like women. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

40 Paraphrase: It seems too much of an effort to dress ourselves for various complex purposes, just as women do. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

41 plumage: feathers covering a bird's body the brightly coloured plumage of tropical birds have a thin `time (of it): be uncomfortable or disappointed The team's been having a thin time (of it) recently -- not a single win in two months. prerogative :/ prɪˈrɔgətɪv/ n right or privilege, esp one belonging to a particular person or group Education was once the prerogative of the elite. Arriving late is a woman's prerogative. overriding: more important than anything else an overriding concern for fairness Paraphrase: The creative use...precise identification. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

42 Paraphrase: For centuries, men who attempted to dress themselves in such a way as to make prominent their masculine features have had a difficult time. The reason is that such practice was the privilege reserved for some distinct social groups since the primary purpose of male dress had been recognized as marking a man;s social identity. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

43 thinkable : able to be imagined or considered possible: He had done everything thinkable to put things right. ruffled: Something that is ruffled is no longer smooth or neat. Her short hair was oddly ruffled and then flattened around her head. Association: mental connection between ideas What associations does the sea have for you? He has a shelf full of things, each of which has associations for him. Paraphrase: No stepping over...the wrong sex. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

44 Paraphrase: Nobody was expected to go beyond the boundaries---ruffled evening shirts were appropriate for them, but they were not suitable for me; men's strongest emotion about clothes was the anxiety that their clothes would cause wrong associations,and it was not at all the fear that their clothes would be associated with the female sex. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

45 sort out: to separate into categories It is not difficult to sort out the goodies form the baddies in a movie. It took us quite a while to sort out our luggage. Davina was sorting out scraps of material... How do we sort out fact from fiction? curl: a small bunch of hair that forms a curved or round shape: Her hair was a mass of curls. The baby had dark eyes and dark curls. Paraphrase: When long ago...sexually appropriate. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

46 bifurcate: (of roads, rivers, branches of trees, etc) divide into or have two branches It might be possible to bifurcate the beam of light. The stream bifurcated into two narrow winding channels. gaudy trimmings: tastelessly showy ormaments or decorations for clothing. disguise:to change your appearance so that people cannot recognize you The hijackers were heavily disguised. She disguised herself as a boy. They got in disguised as security guards. Paraphrase: So universal was...never the issue. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

47 Paraphrase: It was a usual phenomenon that women wore skirts and men wore trousers. This fashion was so widespread that a woman wearing men's clothes was completely disguised, and those who had long hair or those who wore clothes with gaudy trimmings were identified at a glance. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

48 exemption: ~ (from sth) official permission not to do sth or pay sth that you would normally have to do or pay She was given exemption from the final exam. exemption from customs duties He obtained exemption from customs duty. sanction: permission or approval for an action, a change, etc The king could not enact laws without the sanction of Parliament. = approval Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

49 perpetual: continuing all the time without changing or stopping = continuous the perpetual noise of the machines a little girl with a perpetual smile incur: If you incur something unpleasant, it happens to you because of something you have done. The government had also incurred huge debts. She wondered what she'd done to incur his displeasure this time. Paragraphs 2-5 Detailed Study

50 Paragraph 6 Questions 1: Why do men secretly hate fashion risks? 2: What do you know about the men referred to at the end of the text? Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

51 dread v fear (sth) greatly She dreads going to the dentist. He dreads to see her again. He dreaded the interview with Mrs. Fox. leap: you jump high in the air or jump a long distance. He had leapt from a window in the building and escaped. The man threw his arms out as he leapt. = jump renaissance : the Renaissance [sing] (period of the) revival of art and literature in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, based on classical forms zest : ~ (for sth) enjoyment and enthusiasm He had a great zest for life. She danced with the zest of a twenty-year-old. Paraphrase: Most of them...enough now anyway. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

52 Paraphrase: Since it is very difficult to keep body and soul together nowadays, most men find that they cannot afford to be keenly interested in and experience fashion risks with gusto or relish, just as people in Renaissance did. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

53 along with sth: in addition to sth Tobacco is taxed in most countries, along with alcohol. pitiless:Someone or something that is pitiless shows no pity or kindness. He saw the pitiless eyes of his enemy. = merciless exposure of: the exposure of his underground political activity narcissism: abnormal and excessive love or admiration for oneself vanity: too much pride in yourself, so that you are always thinking about yourself and your appearance submerge: completely cover (sb/sth); overwhelm be submerged by paperwork The main argument was submerged in a mass of tedious detail. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

54 along with sth: in addition to sth Tobacco is taxed in most countries, along with alcohol. pitiless:Someone or something that is pitiless shows no pity or kindness. He saw the pitiless eyes of his enemy. = merciless exposure of: the exposure of his underground political activity narcissism: abnormal and excessive love or admiration for oneself vanity: too much pride in yourself, so that you are always thinking about yourself and your appearance submerge: completely cover (sb/sth); overwhelm be submerged by paperwork The main argument was submerged in a mass of tedious detail. Paraphrase: Moreover...undiscussed. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

55 Paraphrase: what's more, as fashion emerged,man's excessive love of himself and his conceit and desire for admiration of his attainments or attractions, which were concealed and remained unknown so long, were pitilessly exposed and ruthlessly brought to light. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

56 blatently: very obvious; unashamed; flagrant a blatant lie blatant disobedience, disrespect, insolence, etc dandy:man who cares too much about the smartness of his clothes and his appearance The man warned his son to stay away from those upper-class dandies. Of all the books on the desk, this novel is a dandy. Paraphrase: The great dandies...urban blacks. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

57 Paraphrase: Those men unduly devoted to style, smartness and fashion in dress and appearance no longer followed their traditional fashion, it was perhaps only among urban blacks that the great dandies continued to provide traditional fashion style. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

58 finery: n [U] gay and elegant clothes or decoration The garden looks beautiful in its summer finery, ie with its bright flowers, lawns, etc. colossal: extremely large: a colossal statue The singer earns a colossal amount of money. self-conscious: worried and embarrassed about what you look like or what other people think of you covert: concealed; not open; secret covert glances, threats, payments the covert activities of a spy Paraphrase: Men formerly...all this stuff. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

59 Paraphrase: Men who used to have full confidence in the way they were dressed wore their new gaudy dress with excessive awareness of their own appearance. casting furtive glances at everyone else to find out what they thought of the new showy dress. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

60 Sole: part of a sock, shoe, etc covering this (usu not including the heel) holes in the soles of his socks leather soles cultivated: having a high level of education and showing good manners a cultivated young woman His voice was pleasant and cultivated. appropriate: to take something for yourself when you do not have the right to do this = steal He is suspected of appropriating government funds. Paraphrase: High heels...their way of walking. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

61 Platform soles Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

62 Sun King

63 Louis XIV (5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715), known as Louis the Great or the Sun King, was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre.He ranks as one of the most remarkable monarchs in history. He reigned for 72 years, 54 of them he personally controlled French government. The 17th century is labeled as the age of Louis XIV. Since then his rule has been hailed as the supreme example of a type of government - absolutism. He epitomized the ideal of kingship. During his reign France stabilized and became one of the strongest powers in Europe. During his reign France became the ideal culture since he put great care into its enhancement so he could boast it to the world. The country changed drastically from savage mediaeval ways to a more refined, exquisite living - evident from his palace in Versailles. Within 54 years he did what several kings worked on for centuries. French culture became one of the most appealing in the world, and the name Louis XIV has been associated with greatness and glory. Louis XIV was a great monarch, and he was capable of maintaining strong kingdom because he never, in his entire life, doubted his right to be king. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

64 Paraphrase: Shoes with high heels and platform soles, which were once worn by the Sun King and other social elite of the past, have been taken over and worn only by those who are willing to change their stature and gait. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

65 trinket: a trifling ornament, jewel. the shop sells postcards and trinkets. nestle: to settle oneself comfortably. She nestled into the cushions. A dog nestled at her feet. The village nestles in the valley. rule out: exclude sb/sth (as irrelevant, ineligible, etc) He was ruled out as a possible candidate. Paraphrase: They have been ruled out...carry handbags. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

66 Paraphrase: High heels and platform soles have been excluded, together with the waist-length shirt opening that reveals trinkets lying against the chest hair, by men who suddenly find that they are quite willing to wear long hair and fur coats and carry handbags. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

67 the waist-length shirt opening Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

68 catch on: be become popular or wide spreed The movie did not catch on as predicted. No one expected that foreign festivals,such as the Valentine's, would cathc on in big cities of China. Paraphrase: skirts...caught on. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

69 Paraphrase: I do not have to add that skirts never became fashionable among men. Paragraph 6 Detailed Study

70


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