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King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter 4 Similarities and Differences in Our Sexual Responses For use with the text, Human.

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Presentation on theme: "King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter 4 Similarities and Differences in Our Sexual Responses For use with the text, Human."— Presentation transcript:

1 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 1 Chapter 4 Similarities and Differences in Our Sexual Responses For use with the text, Human Sexuality Today, 5 th edition. Bruce M. King Slides by Callista Lee

2 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 2 Measurement of sexual responses Masters & Johnson recorded over 10,000 sexual episodes leading to orgasm in the 1960s: – Volunteers aged 18 to 89 years old. – Masturbation, sexual intercourse, oral-genital sex – Measurements included heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, respiration and brain waives. – Penile strain gauges and vaginal photo- plethysmographs measured sexual arousal.

3 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 3 Models of sexual response Masters & Johnson – four phases – Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution Helen Kaplan – three phases – Desire, Excitement, Orgasm Feminist Scholars – Questioning the focus on just the genitals – Womens sexual responses are more complex

4 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 4 Mens sexual response cycle

5 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 5 Desire and excitement in males Erection of the penis, caused by vasocongestion of the spongy tissues within the penis, is the first physical sign of arousal. Myotonia – a buildup of energy in nerves and muscles. Increase in heart rate and blood pressure. The scrotum thickens and spermatic cord shortens, elevating the testicles.

6 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 6 Neural mechanisms of erection A reflex center low in the spinal cord receives input caused by stimulation to the penis – smooth muscles of the penis then relax, allowing for vasocongestion. A 2 nd erection center receives input from the brain.

7 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 7 Plateau Phase High sexual arousal or varying lengths of time. Penis and testicles become larger. Cowpers glands secrete a clear fluid to make the urethra less acidic (from urine). 25% of men experience a sex-tension flush on the skin of the chest or other areas.

8 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 8 Sexual response – inside and out Changes during the Excitement Phase The Plateau Phase The Orgasm phase

9 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 9 Male orgasm is a rhythmic process Intense physical sensation and pleasure Emission stage – Contractions of vas deferens, prostate gland, and seminal vessicles mix sperm with seminal fluids. Feelings of Im coming. Expulsion (ejaculation) stage – The urinary bladder is closed off from the urethra. – Muscles in the urethra and at the base of the penis contract, forcing the blended semen out of the body.

10 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 10 Male resolution phase Resolution is the return to the unaroused state. Physiological responses drop below the plateau levels and into the excitement level – If stimulation continues, he may return to plateau and another orgasm after a Refractory Period during which he cannot experience another orgasm. – Length of the Refractory Period depends on many physiological, behavioral, emotional and age-related factors.

11 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 11 Womens Sexual Responses Differences in desire between men and women – Several researchers have concluded that men tend to have higher levels of desire, linked closely to biological factors. – In women, sexual desire is closely linked to relationship and intimacy needs such as feeling valued, nurturance, relief from stress, procreation, pleasure, personal power and feeling the power of ones partner

12 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 12 Excitement (arousal) in women – a precedent to feelings of pleasure Vasocongestion of the vaginal walls causes vaginal lubrication by a sweating effect after several minutes of stimulation. Labia become engorged and move apart. Walls of the vagina balloon out. Cervix and uterus pull upward. Engorged clitoris becomes more prominent. The nipples erect and breasts plump up.

13 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 13 An inside view of the aroused woman Early Excitement Phase Plateau Phase Orgasm Phase

14 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 14 The female plateau phase Inner 2/3 of the vagina expand, uterus tilts further, creating the orgasmic platform. Outer 1/3 of the vagina is highly engorged, very sensitive and significantly narrowed. 50 – 75% experience a sex flush of the skin. Clitoris pulls back beneath the clitoral hood. Areola of the breast swells. Secretion of vaginal lubrication may slow.

15 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 15 Female sexual response, outer view

16 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 16 Female orgasm and resolution Subjective feelings of orgasm do not differ from the mans except for a lack of orgasmic inevitability he feels during his emission stage. Some women experience true multiple orgasms; full orgasms in quick succession without dropping below the plateau levels of physiological arousal (no refractory period). Focus on orgasm as a goal is self-defeating.

17 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 17 Female variability in sexual response

18 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 18 Female genital mutilation Sunna circumcision and excision (80%) Infibulation (phraonic circumcision) Village women perform the surgery on girls with primitive tools and without anesthetic. These patriarchal cultures seek to eliminate female sexual desire so as to reduce infidelity to secure a husbands ownership of his wife and children.

19 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 19 Controversies about orgasms 5 – 10% of women never have orgasms About 1/3 of women do not have orgasm during sexual intercourse; of those who do, most require simultaneous clitoral stimulation. Regardless of the type of stimulation needed to achieve orgasm, physiologically and orgasm is an orgasm. Biology and psychology affect subjective feelings of intensity and pleasure.

20 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 20 Grafenberg spot & female ejaculations The G-spot, clearly identified in only 10% of women; highly sensitive dime-sized area on the front vaginal wall, under the bladder. It swells when stimulated % of women have experienced ejaculation of the Skenes glands, usually in women with strong PC muscles and responsive to G-spot stimulation.

21 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 21 Men and multiple orgasms According to the Masters and Johnson model, men may have several mini-orgasms by withholding ejaculation before having a full wet orgasm. The wet orgasm is nearly always followed by a refractory period. Variability among individuals must be considered; some men may experience a wet orgasm followed by dry orgasms.

22 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 22 Penis size, attitudes and pleasure Women rarely mention penis size as a significant factor in their ability to experience sexual pleasure with a man. X-rated entertainment worships Priapus, leading many normal men to feel insecure. Despite popular mythology, no study has found a substantial difference in penis size between black men and white men.

23 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 23 Aphrodisiacs and Anaphrodisiacs Foods that resemble genitals – placebo effect Spanish fly – painful inflammation can result Alcohol – fewer inhibitions but decreased performance Cocaine – energy, self-confidence, erectile failure and difficulty reaching orgasm Marijuana – increased tactile sensitivity, erectile problems, lower testosterone levels

24 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 24 More about supposed aphrodisiacs XTC (MDMA) – euphoria, overheating, memory loss, permanent brain damage Sextasy – Viagra plus XTC – pounding headaches, prolonged and painful erections Yohimbine – helpful for men with psychologically caused impotence but little effect on men without erectile problems Pheromone perfumes – no reliable results

25 King, Human Sexuality Today, 5/e (c) 2005 by Prentice Hall 25 People with disabilities Sexual self-esteem Creativity and openness to finding behaviors for sexual expression Understanding partners and care-givers Emotional intimacy Regardless of what we look like or our physical or mental capabilities, we are all sexual beings


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