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© 2001 by Prentice Hall1-1 Local Area Networks, 3rd Edition David A. Stamper Part 1: Introduction to Data Communications and Local Area Networks Chapter 1 Introduction to Data communications
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-2 Chapter Preview In this chapter you will study: The requirements for communication What constitutes a network The various types of networks in common use today The OSI Reference Model Some of the basic terminology of data communications and networks
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-3 Essential Elements of Communication A message A sender A receiver A medium
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-4 Understanding the Message In computer systems, data can be represented by any of several different codes, the two most common being: – the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) – the Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-5 Security Sensitive data like your credit card number or other secret data should be safeguarded during transmission. The most common mechanism for protecting data during transmission is encryption. – Encryption transforms plain text into an (presumably) undecipherable form called cipher-text.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-6 Two Types of Networks Terminal Network – consists of a single host computer with attached terminals – the host computer does all or most of the processing, and the terminals imply act as input/output (I/O) devices through which a person gains access to the hosts applications. Network of Computers – two or more nodes connected by a data communications medium. – individual nodes may have terminals attached to them – a single node on this network can look just like the terminal network
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-7 Three Network Subtypes Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN)
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-8 LAN/MAN/WAN Comparison Limitedtypically up to 2,500 meters or 2 miles Hightypically in excess of 10 Mbps 10,100 and 1,000 are standard Locally owned twisted-pair wires, fiber optic cable, wireless (not satellite) Can be any, but most are desktop computers Limitedtypically up to 200 kilometers or 100 miles Hightypically 100 Mbps Locally owned and common carrier twisted-pair wires, fiber optic cable Can be any, but most are desktop computers and minicomputers Unlimited Slowerusually 1.5 Mbps Locally owned and common carrier twisted-pair wires, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, wireless to include satellite Can be any, but most are desktop computers Distance Speed Media Nodes LANMANWAN
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-9 The OSI Reference Model The problem of network interconnection is so important that the ISO created the OSI Reference Model that describes the functions a generic network needs to provide. The OSI Reference Model has become the basis for many data communications standards. – Because these standards are placed in the public domain, they are called open standards and lead to open systems.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-10 OSI Peer Layer Communication Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Processor 1Processor 2 Logical PathPhysical Path
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-11 OSI Reference Model Formatting Trans-Id Data Date=dd/mm/yy Trans-Id Data Date=mm-dd-yyyy ID Length Trans-Id Data Date=mm-dd-yyyy TSAP ChkSum ID Length Trans-Id Data Date=mm-dd-yyyy Address Seq Nbr TSAP ChkSum ID Length Trans-Id Data Date=mm-dd-yyyy Header Address Seq Nbr TSAP ChkSum ID Length Trans-Id Data Date=mm-dd-yyyy Chksum (a) Application Layer (b) Presentation Layer (c) Session Layer (d) Transport Layer (e) Network Layer (f) Data Link Layer
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-12 The OSI Model at Work Application Layer – The application on Node A builds a record with a transaction identifier, the number of the account to be updated, the date and time of the transaction, and the amount to be deducted. Presentation Layer – The presentation layer is responsible for translating from one format to another. Session Layer – The session layers major functions are to set up and perhaps monitor a set of dialogue rules by which the two applications can communicate and to bring a session to an orderly conclusion.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-13 The OSI Model at Work (cont.) Transport Layer – The transport layer is the first of the OSI layers responsible for actually transmitting the data. Network Layer – The network layer provides accounting and routing functions. Data Link Layer – The data link layer is responsible for data delineation, error detection,and logical control of the link. Physical Layer – The physical layer does not append anything to the message. It simply accepts the message from the data link layer and translates the bits into signals on the medium.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-14 Receiving the Message 1. The message is passed over the link connecting Nodes A and X. 2. The message is passed to the data link layer in Node X. The message is checked for transmission errors, the PDU information applied by As data link layer is removed, and the message is sent to Xs network layer. 3. Xs network layer records the accounting information for the message and then strips off the network layer protocol data and examines the destination address. The destination is not Node X in this case, so the network layer consults its network routing table and determines the next link on the path to Node M. Xs network layer affixes the proper network layer protocol data and sends the message to Node Xs data link layer.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-15 Receiving the Message (cont.) 4. Node Xs data link layer creates its PDU and sends the message to Node M. 5. Node Ms data link layer receives the message, strips off Node Xs data link layer protocol data, checks for transmission errors, and passes the data up to Node Ms network layer. 6. Node Ms network layer gathers accounting data, strips off the network layer protocol data, and fins that the message is destined for an application in this node. 7. The message is passed up to Ms transport layer, where the sequence number is checked to ensure that no messages have been lost. The transport layer protocol data is removed.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-16 Receiving the Message (cont.) 8. The message arrives at the session layer, where relevant protocol data is examined and remove. 9. The message arrives at Node Ms presentation layer, where appropriate action is taken. 10.The message arrives at the application, where it is acted on.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-17 General Network Implementations: LANs A LAN services a limited geographic area at high speeds usually 10 million bits per second or higher. All components of the LAN are commonly owned by the organization that uses it. The nodes in many of todays LANs are desktop systems like personal computers. Henceforth, we will also use the terms workstations, clients, and servers in referring to LAN nodes. A workstation is used here to represent a LAN users computer; other terms used in referring to a workstation are client and node. A server is a network node that is dedicated to providing services to client nodes.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-18 General Network Implementations: MANs A MAN (metropolitan area network) is a high- speed network covering wider distances than LAN. A MAN spans distances of approximately 100 miles; therefore, it is suitable for connecting devices and LANs in a metropolitan area. MAN speeds are typically 100 Mbps or higher. The most commonly implemented MAN is the fiber distributed data interface (FDDI). It operates at 100 Mbps over fiber optic cable for distances up to 200 kilometers.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-19 General Network Implementations: WANs A WAN is the oldest type of network. WANs generally span a wide geographic area like a state, province, country, or multiple countries. However, some WANs are confined to a limited geographic area, like a LAN. A WAN in a limited geographic area could be easily extended over a wide area using the same technologies. The same is not true of a LAN.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-20 General Network Implementations: VANs A VAN is a network owned by a communications utility that sells the services of the network to other companies. A communications utility that owns a VAN provides connectivity to multiple locations. The value added by the communications utility is the maintenance and management of the communications circuits.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-21 General Network Implementations: Enterprise Networks An enterprise network is an organizations complete network. With the advent of LANs, many companies installed departmental LANs to improve the productivity of work groups. Soon, these companies realized that there was a benefit to having users on one LAN communicate with users or applications on other LANs or on the WAN, and the various networks were connected together to form one corporate-wide network, the enterprise network.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-22 General Network Implementations: The Internet An internet (with a lowercase i) is the interconnection of two or more networks. An enterprise networks just described is an example of an internet. The Internet (with an uppercase I) is a specific instance of an internet. The Internet is a global network of networks. The Internet is made up of hundreds of networks, thousands of nodes, and millions of users throughout most countries of the world.
© 2001 by Prentice Hall 1-23 General Network Implementations: Intranets An intranet is an organizations private Web. Companies have found that WWW capabilities can improve the information flow and availability in a company. Companies may use an intranet rather than publishing on the Internet because the information being provided is intended for corporate use only and not for the public at large.
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