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THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY America: Past and Present Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY America: Past and Present Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE TRIUMPH OF WHITE MEN'S DEMOCRACY America: Past and Present Chapter 10

2 Democracy in Theory and Practice n Fear that democracy would lead to anarchy wanes in the 1820s and 1830s n Equality of opportunity stressed n America becomes society of winners and losers

3 Democracy and Society n Egalitarian expectations despite growing economic inequality n No distinctive domestic servant class n No class distinctions in dress n White male equality before the law radical by European standards n Egalitarian attack on licensed professions n Popular press the source of information and opinion

4 Democratic Culture n Artists work for mass, democratic audience rather than for an aristocratic elite n Popular genres include Gothic horror, romantic fiction, melodramas, genre paintings n Serious artists seek to inspire with neoclassical sculpture, landscapes of untamed nature n Only a few truly avant-garde, romantic artists

5 Democratic Political Institutions: Politics of Universal Manhood Suffrage n Nearly all adult white males gain right to vote without property qualification n Appointive offices made elective n Professional politicians emerged n Public benefits of two-party system extolled n Political machines develop at state level

6 Democratic Political Institutions : National Parties n Changes in presidential elections spur party growth n Parties often serve special economic interests n Parties share republican ideology, commitment to equality of opportunity n Parties differ on how to achieve common aims n Neither party seeks to extend rights beyond adult white male constituency n Radical third parties argue the cause of African Americans, women, working people

7 Economic Issues n Interest in government economic policy intensified after 1819 n Some wanted to do away with banks, paper money, and easy credit n Others wanted more government aid n Political parties took stands on the role of the federal government in economic growth

8 Labor Radicalism and Equal Rights n Working mens parties and trade unions emerged in the 1820s and 1830s n They advocated public education reform, a ten-hour workday, an end to debtors prison, and hard currency n They made some gains but they proved to be only temporary n The womens rights movement and abolitionists made little progress

9 Jackson and the Politics of Democracy n Jackson becomes a symbol of democracys triumph n Actions of Jackson and his party refashion national politics in a democratic mold

10 The Election of 1824 and J. Q. Adams' Administration n The election of 1824 a five-way race n Jackson wins popular vote n Adams wins in House of Representatives with Henry Clays support n Clays appointment as Secretary of State leads to charges Adams "bought" the presidency n Mid-term election of 1826 gives Jackson forces control of Congress

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12 Jackson Comes to Power n Jacksonians organized for election of 1828 – appeal to sectional self-interest – make politics exciting to the average man n Jackson wins election as a man of the people n Jackson democratizes presidency – fires at will officeholders he does not like – defends by asserting the right of all men to a government post

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14 Indian Removal n Indian removal policy inherited from prior administrations n Jackson agrees that the federal government had not pushed Indians hard enough n Responds to Cherokee resistance by asking Congress for Indian Removal act of 1830 n U.S. Army forces Cherokees west along the Trail of Tears

15 Indian Removal

16 The Nullification Crisis n John C. Calhoun leads development of intellectual defense of state sovereignty n tariff passed, South Carolina objects but takes no action n tariff passed, South Carolina nullifies n Jackson threatens to send army n Both sides retreat – South Carolina gets lower tariff – Jackson demonstrates federal will

17 The Bank War and the Second Party System n "The Bank War" a symbolic defense of democratic value n Leads to two important results – economic disruption – a two-party system

18 Mr. Biddle's Bank n Bank of the United States unpopular n Open to charges of special privileges n Manager Nicholas Biddle looks and behaves like an aristocrat n Bank possesses great power and privilege with no accountability to the public

19 The Bank Veto and the Election of 1832 n Jackson vaguely threatens Bank in first term n Biddle seeks new charter four years early n Congress passes, but Jackson vetoes – claims the Bank is unconstitutional – defends veto as a blow for equality n Jacksonian victory in 1832 spells Banks doom

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21 Killing the Bank n Jackson destroys Bank by federal deposits n Funds transferred to some state (pet) banks n Biddle uses his powers to cause recession, attempts to blame Jackson n Destruction of Bank provokes fears of dictatorship, costs Jackson support in Congress

22 The Emergence of the Whigs n Whig party a coalition of two forces – opponents of Jackson – Anti-Masonic party n Whigs defend activist government in economics, enforcement of decency n Democrats weakened by – defection of working-class spokesmen – depression produced by Jacksons fiscal policies

23 The Rise and Fall of Van Buren n Martin Van Buren succeeds Jackson in 1836 n Term begins with Panic of 1837 n Laissez-faire philosophy prevents Van Buren from aiding economic distress n Van Buren attempts to save government funds with independent subtreasuries n Whigs block subtreasuries until 1840 n Panic of 1837 blamed on Van Buren

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25 The Rise and Fall of Van Buren (2) n Whigs fully organized by 1840 n Whig candidate William Henry Harrison – image built as a common man who had been born in a log cabin – running mate John Tyler chosen to attract votes from states-rights Democrats n Harrison and Tyler beat Van Buren

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27 Heyday of the Second Party System n Election of 1840 marks rise of permanent two-party system in the U.S. n Whigs and Democrats evenly divide the electorate for next two decades n Parties offer voters a clear choice – Whigs support a "positive liberal state," community – Democrats support "negative liberal state," individual n Parties share a broad democratic ideology

28 Tocquevilles Wisdom n Alexis de Tocqueville praises most aspects of American democracy n Warns of future disaster if white males refuse to extend liberty to women, African Americans and Indians.


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