Presentation on theme: "Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris Draw-A-Man Test by: Mallory Jaryga."— Presentation transcript:
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Florence L. Goodenough and Dale B. Harris Draw-A-Man Test by: Mallory Jaryga
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Florence Laura Goodenough Born August 6, 1886 in Honesdale, PA Youngest of nine children Parents were farmers
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Florence Laura Goodenough She never married Forced to retire early because of a degenerative physical illness Died of a stroke at her sisters home in Florida on April 4, 1959
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Goodenoughs Education 1908 – Bachelor of Pedagogy: Millersville, Pennsylvania Normal School 1920 – Bachelor of Science: Columbia University 1921 – Master of Arts with Leta Hollingworth: Columbia University 1924 – Doctor of Psychology: Stanford University
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Landmarks in Her Career 1921 – Worked with Lewis Terman at Stanford while he developed the Stanford-Binet intelligence test 1925 – Assistant Professor at the University of Minnesota 1931 – Professor at the University of Minnesota 1947 – Professor Emeritus at the University of Minnesota
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Honors 1942 – President of the National Counsel of Women Psychologists – President of the Society for Research in Child Development Listed in the Watson Directory of Outstanding Contributors to Psychology
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Contributions Minnesota Preschool Scale Developed time sampling – Studying a participants behavior for a set period of time Developed event sampling – Studying a participants particular behavior and counting its occurrence First psychologist to critique ratio I.Q. Instructed Ruth Howard, who was the first African- American female to receive a Ph.D. in psychology Draw-a-Man/Draw-a-Woman Test
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Draw-a-Man Test The nature and content of childrens drawings are dependent primarily upon intellectual development. Florence L. Goodenough
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Draw-a-Man Test: Findings of Others In the drawings of young children, a close relationship exists between concept development and general intelligence. To the child, drawing is a form of expression rather than a representation of beauty. A child draws what he knows, not what he sees. The child exaggerates the size of objects which seem interesting or important. Marked sex differences, usually in favor of the girls, are frequently observed.
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Development of the Goodenough Scale Chronological age and school grade were used in establishing norms. Every effort was made to reduce the problem of subjectivity. Standard subject matter and instruction were developed.
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Why a Man? Familiarity Consistency Simple and Complicated Universal Interest
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Dale B. Harris Of the many tests of intelligence, the Goodenough Draw-a-Man Test is perhaps the most unusual in basic conception, brevity, and general convenience. - Harris
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Dale B. Harris Harris worked with Goodenough on the completion of his book: Childrens Drawings as Measures of Intellectual Maturity. His purpose was to revise, not change, Goodenoughs scale, put certain uncompleted aspects of Goodenoughs research in order, and extend the knowledge of the psychology of childrens drawings.
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Harris Extension of Goodenoughs Scale Adolescents New items Extended scale forms Projective uses
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Universal Positives of the Test Versatility Simplicity Age Artistic Ability Time
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Personal Limitations Unequal number of students Racial differences Time Copying, Talking, Distractions
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – A number arrived at by means of intelligence tests, intended to express the degree of intelligence of an individual in relation to the average for the age- group Mental age – A childs level of mental maturity, different from their chronological age and behavioral maturity Cognitive Development – The process that includes perception, conceptualizing, knowing, judging, and reasoning Intellectual Maturity – Intellectual state of maturity as separate from behavioral maturity Raw score – The number of points each child receives for their drawing Standard score – Attempts to represent the measurement theory that intelligence is a mosaic of abilities
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Hypothesis In comparing the two groups of drawings, the children at The Shelton School will display a higher level of cognitive development due to their school situation and social standing. Although the children at Townsell Elementary presumably have not been diagnosed with any learning differences and are the same age as the children tested at Shelton, their level of development will be lower due to their school and social situation. Furthermore, the drawings will possibly lead to questions regarding undiagnosed learning differences in the children at Townsell.
Mallory Jaryga 11/12/04 Websites The Shelton School Irving Independent School District Florence Goodenough Human Intelligence