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Social Environmentalism The Development of the Environmental Movement.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Environmentalism The Development of the Environmental Movement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Environmentalism The Development of the Environmental Movement

2 2 Mans Perspectives on Nature: 1800s Turn of the Century Gilford Pinchot Join Muir Teddy Rossevelt John J. Audubon Perspective Conservation Preservation Multiple Use Game Protection Focus: Land Protection Wildlife (game) Conservation Recreation: National Parks, Monuments Multiple Use

3 3 Anthropogenic Impacts: 1900s Denora, PA (1920) –Thermal inversion Pittsburghs Dark Noon –Steel Mill Smoke Muellenburg Canyon –Where Paradise Lays –Coal mining Ashland, NC Fish Kills –Textile Mills, Colored water Bald Eagles, Osprey –near extinction, DDT NJ & NY Beach Closures Monogahalia River Leaded Gasoline (Pb) –bias studies of babies Lake Erie –Fish Kills The Cayahooga Burns

4 4 Mans Perspectives on Nature: late 1900s Modern Era Rachel Carson –1962 Edward Abbey –1970s 1960s - 80s 1990s Future Focus Polluting Limited Resources –DDT, Bio-accumulation Aesthetic Values –Where is Mans Ecological Niche? Pollution Cleanup Sustainability & Natural Hazards

5 5 Changing Perspectives Early Man –Nature is a resource to use 1800s –Nature is a resource for multiple uses –Nature can assimilate man-made wastes late-1900s –Nature is a required resource for survival –worthy of protecting and not polluting

6 6 Congress takes action.. under pressure! 1970 NEPA & Earth Day National Environmental Protection Act 1972 CWA Clean Water Act 1972 CAA Clean Air Act

7 7 National Environmental Protection Act Trustee of the environment for future generations Assure safe, healthful, productive, aesthetically & culturally pleasing surroundings Attain widest range of beneficial uses of the environment without degradation Preserve important historic, cultural, and natural aspects of our national heritage

8 8 NEPA Achieve a balance between population and resource use Enhance the quality of renewable resources and recycle resources that can be depleted

9 9 NEPA ACKNOWLEDGES STEWARDSHIP ACKNOWLEDGES POLLUTION CONNECTION BETWEEN POPULATION GROWTH & RESOURCE DEPLETION DOES THE PUBLIC NEED IT: BENEFITS.vs. COSTS ANALYSIS

10 10 NEPA Conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIS) Consider the impact on the environment Consider alternative planning measures Consider the Null Alternative –i.e. do nothing

11 11 Polluter Pays Principle No Externalities The user pays their fair share No free riders –Hardin: Tragedy of the Commons Incorporate environmental degradation into costs –bottle deposits –tire disposal charge –waste oil surcharge

12 12 REGULATE Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Enforcement Report directly to President (public relations) Big Stick Approach Sue under Nuisance Law Go After Stationary Sources –Factorys –Big Manufacturers / Deep Pockets lined with $$$ –Energy Producers / Electric Utilities

13 13 Clean Water Act 1972 Clean up point and non-point source pollutants Make American waterways fishable, swimable, and drinkable

14 14 Clean Water Act 1972 Control point and non-point source pollutants Make American waterways fishable, swimmable, and drinkable Polluter Pays Principle The user pays their fair share no free riders (Hardin) incorporate environmental degradation into costs –bottle deposits

15 15 Clean Air Act 1970 Point or Stationary Sources (Factorys) Mobile Sources (Transportation) Primary Pollutants –PM, So2, Nox. O3, CO Secondary Pollutants –189 toxic chemicals, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr

16 16 Clean Air Act 1970 Polluter Pays Principle Point & Mobile Sources Primary Pollutants –PM, So2, Nox. O3, CO Secondary Pollutants –189 toxic chemicals, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr Non-Attainment Areas: Class I, II, III Pollution Standards Index: PSI


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