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Female-Male Nonverbal Communication Chapter Eleven.

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Presentation on theme: "Female-Male Nonverbal Communication Chapter Eleven."— Presentation transcript:

1 Female-Male Nonverbal Communication Chapter Eleven

2 Definitions Sex is the biological and genetic difference between girls and boys, men and women Gender is the psychological, social, and cultural manifestations of what people perceive to be the appropriate behaviors of females and males

3 Three Theoretical Explanations Genetics Modeling of older males and females Conditioning or reinforcement

4 Genetics Males and females inherit different bone structures and body types They determine our walk, gestures, and posture can influence other nonverbal behaviors such as our smiles Females have larger breasts, men have wider shoulders

5 Modeling We learn many of our behaviors by observing others and imitating their behavior

6 Reinforcement or Conditioning Behavior that is reinforced or conditioned will increase

7 Appearance and Attractiveness Culturally, females may have to meet higher standards of attractiveness Attractive people are perceived as more socialable, more likeable, more outgoing, more intelligent and happier

8 Gesture and Movement As early as preschool, girls and boys exhibit body movements and gestures of their biological sex Greater display of dominant gestures from males and a greater display of acquiescing gestures by females

9 Face and Eye Behavior Men tend to mask or hide their emotions more than women Men smile primarily when amused or happy, females smile even when sending negative messages Women look more at the other person in a conversation than men do Females hold eye contact longer Females gaze, men stare

10 Vocal Behavior If we like the sound of a persons voice we are more attentive, more open to listening, and more likely to engage in an extended conversations with that person

11 Space The older we get, the more space we give Women require less space than men Females are expected to yield space to a man Men command the bulk of the available space

12 Touch Touch diminishes from infancy on Women seem to be more concerned about the type of touch they give or receive than men are In male-female interaction, it is the male which frequently initiates touch

13 Courtship Rituals Quasi-courtship cues – courtship- readiness, preening behavior, positional cues, and actions of appeal or invitation

14 Courtship-Readiness Cues Includes such as reduced eye bagginess, higher muscle tone, reduced jowl sag, little slouching, no shoulder hunching, and decreased belly sag

15 Preening Behavior Stroking ones hair Fixing makeup Fixing clothes Looking in a mirror Leaving buttons open on shirts or blouses Adjusting suit coats Pulling up socks Adjusting a tie

16 Positional Cues Reflected in seating arrangements How do we position our bodies – open or closed?

17 Actions of Appeal or Invitation Cues such as rolling the pelvis, casting flirtatious glances, holding anothers gaze, crossing a leg to expose ones thigh, showing ones wrist or palm, and flexing muscles

18 Page 226 Steps to Intimacy

19 Advantages of Immediacy Males and females who appear to be more immediate are perceived as more pleasant and friendly than those who are nonimmediate More immediate people receive more communication People approach and want to communicate more with people who give off cues that say they are more approachable

20 Disadvantages of Immediacy Immediacy leads to more verbal and nonverbal communication Immediacy can lead to misperception Immediate behavior can lead to negative perceptions for both males and females

21 Androgyny Andros – Greek meaning man Gyne – Greek meaning woman One who can associate with both masculine and feminine characteristics


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