2According to Hemingway According to Hemingway, in order to be satisfied with one’s self:one must learnTo be a friendTo have a friendTo endure physical painTo handle the death of a loved oneTo pass knowledge on to others
3According to Hemingway To respect greatness in othersTo win with humilityTo lose with dignityTo struggle with something bigger than yourselfTo handle adversityTo resist being discouraged by failure
4According to Hemingway To appreciate and love natureTo master a skillTo resist following the crowdTo be able to be alone with yourselfTo love an adversary even if you must kill himTo resist worrying about what others think of you
5Copy the following thematic statements into your notes. Life is a series of struggles.Do you believe this is true?What are some of the daily struggles people must face?Do people struggle to achieve goals in life? How?Do life’s struggles become easier or more difficult as a person grows older? Give examples.
6Copy the following thematic statements. The personal qualities of determination, pride, and endurance can triumph over adversity.How would you define each trait?Why are these traits important? How are these traits related to life’s struggles?Can you give examples of successful people who have these traits?
7Copy the following thematic statements. Pushing beyond the normal limits in life is important regardless of whether you win or lose.What does pushing beyond the limits mean?What are the limitations that can be placed on a person? What are some of the limits age places on a person?Give some examples of people from sports or other areas who have had great successes because they have not been content with operating within normal limits. What are the dangers of pushing limits too far.
8Copy the following thematic statements. Suffering makes the human spirit strong.Do you agree or disagree?Can you think of people whose lives prove this statement?What are some of the effects of great or prolonged suffering?Can great suffering turn out to be a great blessing?
9Day One Reading Questions p.1-28 1. In what ways are the negative qualities of Santiago emphasized?The opening paragraph emphasizes the extent of his bad fishing luck. Next he is described as a wrinkled, worn-out. Only his eyes are described in a positive way. The author says they are “the color of the sea, cheerful and undefeated.”
10Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 2. What significance or importance might Santiago’s name have?Santiago is Spanish for Saint James, a fisherman in the bible and one of Christ’s disciples. This is appropriate because this fisherman is surrounded by religious imagery in the story.
11Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 3. How is luck important to Santiago and Manolin? Santiago has been 84 days without a fish. He goes out on day 85, hoping it will be his lucky day. The community thinks luck is important because they are fishing community. The reader learns this when Manolin is forced to quit Santiago’s trips and fish with someone else.
12Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 5. How is Santiago set off from the other fishermen? The younger fisherman laugh at him; the older ones respect him but also feel sorry for him because his luck is so bad. He fits into neither group is kind of an outcast.
13Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 6. How can Santiago be proud and humble at the same time? Hemingway distinguishes pride from true pride, which can coexist with humility. Santiago is proud of his skills, proud of his accomplishments as a fisherman, but not so proud or arrogant that he won’t accept help from Manolin or admit that he is getting too old.
14Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 7. Describe Manolin’s character and discuss why he might behave as he does. Manolin is more mature than his age suggests. He is partly responsible for supporting his family, and has had the benefit of Santiago’s lifetime of experience taught to him since he was five (remember that Hemingway said you have to pass on knowledge to future generations).
15Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 8. What in Santiago’s character makes him a hero? He is strange, has a history of spectacular physical accomplishments and feats of strength. He also rejects the careless ways of other fishermen. He is precise and careful so that he even knows what kind of fish he has hooked before he actually catches it. He also displays courage and intelligence as he battles the marlin, and he is a philosopher because he thinks about his relationship to his opponent, to nature, and the morality of killing a noble animal.
16Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 4. What is the relationship between Santiago and Manolin? They love each other and show it many different ways: first, Santiago is Manolin’s teacher; second, he is also his friend; third, Manolin looks after the old man like a parent would a child. He respects Santiago, and has faith in his ability.
17Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 9. How are the nightly precautions Santiago takes with his fishing equipment both realistic and optimistic? Twice we are told that Santiago knows that no one will steal from him. At the same time, he takes no chances – he takes the gaff and harpoon home.
18Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 10. What do the details of Santiago’s house reveal about him?His basic good nature is revealed by the open door. He trusts people. He is pious: he has religious pictures, and we know of his love for his dead wife by the hidden pictures of her.
19Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 11. Why do Manolin and Santiago talk about their cast net and fish and yellow rice? They both know that there is no cast net or pot of yellow rice and fish but they pretend these things exist. It is how they accept their poverty with grace and good humor: they don’t whine or complain about their poor circumstances.
20Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 12. Describe Santiago and Manolin’s differing reactions to the Yankees defeat.Manolin is disappointed in the Yankees. Santiago reprimands the body for lacking faith. The loss doesn’t discourage Santiago who believe that the important thing is that DiMaggio played at full strength. He is trying to teach the boy a lesson in courage, faith, and endurance.
21Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 13. Why won’t Santiago borrow money?It is a matter of personal philosophy – he believes that borrowing leads inevitably to begging. However, he does accept food and bait which is freely given.
22Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 14. How do Santiago’s and Manolin’s sleeping habits emphasize the contrast of youth and age?The old man wakes up early, perhaps he says, because the old want to have one longer day. Young boys sleep late and hard, perhaps because they expect to have many more days.
23Day One Reading Questions p. 1-28 15. Why does Santiago dream about lions?He saw lions on a far-away beach when he was a boy. Manolin reminds him of his youth, causing dreams of his own childhood. The lions also represent the strength and vigor of the hunter, the strength and vigor (life force) that he needs to survive. The dream also reveals a longing to be free of everyday concern: to be playing instead of working harder and harder ever day.
24Day Two Reading Questions p. 25-57 1. What is the boy’s reaction to being wakened?He doesn’t want to get up but does so without complaint because it is what a man must do. It is a small point, but indicative of his maturity.
25Day Two Reading Questions p. 25-57 2. How does this day’s trip differ from Santiago’s usual pattern?He goes out past the deep wells- much farther out than he normally goes.
26Day Two Reading Questions p. 25-57 3. Why does Santiago call the sea “la mar”?In Spanish, la mar is a feminine name for the sea. Santiago chooses it to name a beautiful, mysterious, and sometimes deadly force. Some younger fishermen who use a masculine name are less deeply moved by the sea. Again, this points to Santiago’s combination of both tough fisherman and sensitive, thoughtful thinker.
27Day Two Reading Questions p. 25-57 4. What are Santiago’s feelings for creatures of the sea?He reacts to each creature according to its situation, usefulness, and “character.” he enjoys the companionship of some birds. He pities small birds which must fly into high winds and stay aloft or die. Others he sees as fishing guides, telling him when and where and sometimes what kind of fish are in the water beneath him.The Marlin he admires for its strength and endurance. He hates the jellyfish because they are beautiful but painful and treacherous. He despises other fish like shovel nosed sharks for being stupid, or being a scavenger.
28Day Two Reading Questions 5. Describe ways in which Santiago demonstrates his fishing skill and explain why this is important to a Hemingway hero.Santiago knows exactly how to row in order to take advantage of the Gulf Stream current. He knows how to disguise his hooks and place at specific depths. He can find food for himself in difficult circumstances, predicts fish behavior, uses a harpoon and knife with deadly accuracy, and so has mastered all the skills of his job.
29Day Two Reading Questions 6. What two signs indicate that there are fish nearby?A circling man-of-war bird and a layer of plankton are signs that fish are near.7. What might the Portuguese-man-of-war symbolize?It is the beauty that hides a deadly poison. The conflict of beauty and treachery is typical of the sea and all nature. This comes up again and again.
30Day Two Reading Quiz8. Why doesn’t Santiago worry about talking to himself?Santiago knows that other fishermen think talking to oneself is a sign that one is crazy but he also knows that he is not crazy so he justifies his chatter on several grounds: other fishermen have companions and he no longer has Manolin, rich people have radios and he doesn’t.
31Day Two Reading Questions p. 25-57 9. How does Santiago know he has hooked a Marlin?It takes the bait a depth inhabited by marlins and nibbles the bait carefully as marlins usually do.10. Describe the steps Santiago must take in order to make sure the fish is caught.He must make sure the fish is hooked, so he lets it take out all the line.
32Day Two Reading Questions 11. How does he know he’s caught a fish of extraordinary size?The marlin pulls the skiff out to sea for hours.12. How does Santiago feel about the Marlin?He believes it to be a worthy opponent because it is strong and noble. He feels sympathy for the fish’s suffering as well as for his own.13. How does the story of Manolin and the two other marlin show that the boy is a suitable partner for Santiago?Manolin and Santiago both felt bad for the female marlin, showing they both have respect and sympathy for their foes.
33Day Three Reading Questions 1. salt2. dolphin3. my two hands4.our fathers, hail marys, hail mary5 DiMaggio, bone-spur6. arm-wrestled, el campeon7. left hand, traitor8. dusk, dusk slept cooked, raw11. sacs, air, deep 12. two feet 13. sharks 14. salt, limes, 15. love, respect
34Day Three Reading Questions 1. Why does Santiago wish the boy were there?For companionship, and to help with the work2. Why does the fish lurch?Santiago thinks the line slipped on the fish’s hump.3. How does Santiago’s comment about the fish’s pain help portray his own physical condition?He can empathize with the fish because his own back is throbbing.
35Day Three Reading Questions 4. What does the fish’s course tell about its strength?He is heading north, but the current is flowing eastward so the fish must be strong to fight the current and pull his boat at the same time.5. Why does he want the fish to jump?He wants it to fill the sacks along its back with air and make it difficult for it to go down deep.
36Day Three Reading Questions 6. Explain how the old man can love the fish yet wish to kill it.According to Hemingway’s hero code, there is no contradiction. The true hunter or fisher respects his prey, and a victory over a worthy opponent makes the struggle that much greater.7. In what ways are the fish and the fisherman alike?Santiago and the fish both are strange, and determined, and powerful in their own ways.
378. Describe Santiago’s right and left hands. Both are injured, but for different reasons, right hand has always been strong, but is injured when the right line rushes through it; the left hand is weaker, and a traitor, because it cramps up.9. How might Santiago’s hands be seen as part of the book’s religious imagery?They contribute to the image of Santiago as a Christ-symbol. Christ was wounded in both hands, the thief on the right (dexter) was saved, the thief on the left (sinister) was condemned.
38Day Three Reading Questions 10. What qualities of the fish are stressed by the description of his jump?The length is emphasized, and Santiago’s astonished reaction stresses the combination of strength, size, grace, and beauty. The purple color suggest royalty.11. Why does Santiago say that the fish is more noble than he?The fish’s struggle is greater than his own.
39Day Three Reading Questions 12. In what ways does Santiago seem an unlikely Christ-symbol?Santiago admits he isn’t religious, says prayers mechanically in moments of stress to use them like bribes to argue or arrange his fate.13. How are Santiago’s thoughts like the thoughts of a Hemingway code hero?He admires the fish for its strength even as he prays for its death. He respects his foe without fearing it.
40Day Three Reading Questions 14. In which direction does that fish turnThe begins to turn east and this tells Santiago its moving with the current perhaps because it is getting tired.15. What things does Santiago think of while the fish pulls? What do these thoughts have in common?He thinks of several things – the lions on the beach, baseball (and Joe DiMaggio), and an arm wrestling contest. They all represent strength and youth
41Day Three Reading Questions 16. What two things does Santiago do to preserve his strength?He eats some dolphin and flying fish, and he tries to get some sleep17. What two things does Santiago’s dreams show about his present situation?At first he seems to be aware of his location and his problem. He dreams of the sea, then he dreams that he is uncomfortable and his arm has fallen asleep. Finally, he dreams of the lions, a peaceful dream, indicating he has left his problems behind for a moment.
42Day Four Pop quiz 1. left, hands 8. 300, 50 2. black spots 9. mako, fingers, forty3. sucking fish 10. look4. kill 11. defeat, defeated, destroyed5. noble 12. fishing sin6. brother, slave 14. galano, ¾7. shrimp 15. tiller broken 17. DiMaggio crucifixion of Christ, 19. S’s death
43Day Four Reading Questions 1. How does Santiago know that the fish is about to circle?He has studied the fishHe recognizes stages of the fish’s struggle
44Day Four Reading Questions 2. Why does Santiago rebuke his left hand?It fails him in the crisisHe considers it a deliberate failure
45Day Four Reading Questions 3. How does Hemingway stress the endurance of Santiago?He emphasizes Santiago’s tiredness while the fish is circlingHe is dizzyHe sweatsHe sees black spotsHe keeps pulling anyway
46Day Four Reading Questions 4. Why does Santiago want the marlin to stop jumping? He is afraid it will tear loose from the hook
47Day Four Reading Questions 5. How is the fish’s size described? Does the description make it easier or harder to visualize the fish?Longer than a scythe blade, uses the words “huge” and “bulk” instead of exact measurementsFor some people, exact measurements help create a better mental image, but others can feel the fish’s size as they sympathize with the old man.The comparison between a scythe and the tail is an analogy, a comparison between two dissimilar things.
48Day Four Reading Questions 6. How does the last battle suggest Santiago’s (and Hemingway’s) respect for the fish?Santiago continues to call the fish brotherHe is awed by its beauty, size, and powerHe says he does not care who wins the battle.Even after the battle, he has to lash the fish ALONGSIDE as an EQUAL. (symbolism)
49Day Four Reading Questions 7. How does the fish finally die? How does this forecast trouble?He must be harpooned in the heartThe spreading blood will attract sharks
50Day Four Reading Questions 8. What is the slave work?Lashing the fish alongside the boatSetting sail for homeIt is something he must do himselfIt is not glamorous the way catching the fish wasIt is the menial, labor intensive part of his job
51Day Four Reading Questions 9. At what time does the fish die? Do you suppose Hemingway chose this time for a special reason?The fish dies at noon of the third day of the voyage (the fourth day of the novel).He was hooked at noon on the first day of the voyage.In the Bible, Christ was crucified, died, and was buried, and rose again on the third day (symbolism)
52Day Four Reading Questions 10. In what new ways does santiago demonstrate his knowledge of the sea as he begins his journey home?He lashes the fish’s mouth shut so it will not cause dragHe sets his homeward course without a compassHe forages for food from the Gulf weeds
53Day Four Reading Questions 11. What is the strangeness Santiago feels after harpooning the marlin?It is never identified, but it seems to disappear when Santiago feels the pain in his hands and back and sees the body of the fish.This suggests that the battle and the victory were so far removed from any other experiences in Santiago’s life that they seemed illusory (like an illusion). Perhaps the strangeness was like the disoriented feeling one has if awakened in the middle of a dreamHave you experienced déjà-vu or felt like you were in a waking dream?
54Day Four Reading Questions 12. How is the shark’s appearance announced?The shark appears out of nowhere an hour after Santiago sets sail for home. Its appearance is announced in the last sentence of a paragraph.Grammatically, the information is not even the main idea of the sentence. It’s as if Hemingway wanted to take the reader by surprise, to make the reader share Santiago’s dismay. Also, since it is stated that this is the first shark, a sense of future attacks being inevitable is created.
55Day Four Reading Questions 13. What qualities of the first shark are emphasized? - It’s terrible beauty, efficiency, and ruthlessness are emphasized. You as a reader can see that Santiago and Hemingway must have a certain amount of admiration for this hunter.
56Day Four Reading Questions 14. Does Santiago despair? How do his reactions help define the behavior of the code hero?He has no hope, but he still fights to win. The real defeat lies in giving up; so when he loses his harpoon, he fashions a crude one with a knife and stick and continues to fight. He is determined and resourceful like an Hemingway hero.
57Day Four Reading Questions 15. What is Santiago’s answer to his questions about sin?At first, he thinks it a sin not to hope to get most of his fish back, but then he decides that he does not know what is a sin and what is not. He decides simply to act as a fisherman must act and not puzzle over such questions
58Day Four Reading Questions 16. What religious image appears in the description of the second shark attack?Santiago is described as making a noise such as a man might make as he is being crucified. This may be the most forthright of the Christ-images in the book.Others include: Santiago’s name, his faith in DiMaggio, and his hands
59Day Four Reading Questions 17. Distinguish the second shark attack from the first.This time are two sharks, shovel-nosed, or galanos, and they travel in packs.They are brown and not as beautiful as the MakoThey are not noble hunters, but merely scavengersSantiago thinks they are cruel and stupid
60Day Four Reading Questions 18. Why do the attacks come in this order?It is appropriate for the Mako to have the “honor” of the first bit because it is a hunter, and tracked the smell of blood first. It was fastest and it came alone.The second pair are scavengers and come only after the Mako has spilled much of the smell of fresh meat into the water. After this, things go downhill for Santiago. It foreshadows more to follow.
61Day Four Readings19. Why does Santiago rebuke himself? Is the rebuke just?He regrets having gone so far out. Perhaps he thinks he should have known he couldn’t take the fish in from so far. Later he says that his luck was taken away to punish him. Clearly there is something heroic even in his defeat. Perhaps Santiago’s pride was foolish or evil, but it is also possible that Santiago is an illustration that even the best of sometimes behave foolishly.
62Day Four Reading Questions 20. Why does Santiago continue even when things are hopeless?This determination is a basic part of the code hero’s character. His achievement, as already pointed out many times in the novel, lies in fighting well, not in victory.
63Day Four Reading Questions 21. How does the description of his arrival home continue the religious imagery?Many of Santiago’s actions recall Christ’s last hours.The old man has to struggle up the hill carrying the mast the way that Christ struggled up the hill to Golgotha with his cross. Santiago stumbles and pauses five times, as did Christ. Perhaps even the sight of the skeleton of the fish as Santiago gazes at it from the hill suggests Golgotha, the Place of the skull.
64Day Five Reading Questions 1. How has the attitude of the other fishermen towards Santiago changed?They seem to have regained respect for himSeveral of them marvel at the size of the fish’s skeleton.The proprietor of the Terrace says he has never seen its equal.The man also pities Santiago for having lost so muchThe more a man has gained, the more he stands to lose. In Santiago’s case, he had all fisherman could want, but did he lose it all? Your answer and your defense of your answer will serve as thematic interpretation.
65Day Five Reading Questions What effect does the tourist’s comment have on the story’s meaning?The tourist’s confusion over the kind of fish caught serves to emphasize the special knowledge of the people who participate in the code- Santiago and Manolin. On the one hand, it makes the tourist look ignorant, but it also puts Santiago’s battle in a new light. The tourist’s statement makes Santiago’s feat seem insignificant when compared to the rest of the world. Why?
66What premonitions of Santiago’s death are there? He feels his luck has run out.He feels he has been beaten.He spat something strange and his chest feels funny.Manolin leaves the shack and cries
67Is the ending hopeful or discouraging? The answer to this question is primarily a matter of interpretation. There is a sadness in Santiago’s despair and hints he will die.There is also hope in his desire to read the papers he has missed and teach Manolin what he learned during his great struggle.
68Words to OwnBecome familiar with the following words as you read each dayPart 1skiff timidgaff resolutiongaunt oakumbenevolentattained
69Words to Own Part 2 thole phosphorescence tern shank tentative garland plummets imperceptibleplankton iridescent pectoralgelatinous filamentscarapace commencedmyriad annulled
70Words to Own Part 3 gunwale coagulated mew Taut longitudinally conscientiously undulationcumulus treacheryptomaine rapierpreceded burnishedsustenance comprehend
71Words to Own Part 4 Part 5 Ceding dorsal Placid interminable Thwart dignityDispersed malignancyVertebraePart 5tempered
72How does Santiago measure up as a Hemingway hero? To be a friendHe is a friend to the boy, Manolin, and has taught him about fishingTo have a friendHe has a friend in Manolin, and allows the boy to do things for him, like take care of him when he is down and outTo endure physical painSantiago endures lots of physical pain, especially in his hands in the novel.What makes his hands so painful for him?
73What traits does he share with other Hemingway protagonists? To handle the death of a loved oneHe has endured the death of a loved one: his wife has diedTo pass knowledge on to othersHe passes on knowledge to Manolin about his craft and experienceTo respect greatness in othersHe respects the greatness of the fish, of DiMaggio, and of the Mako shark
74Does he seem heroic to the reader? To win with humilityWhen he catches the Marlin, he is very humble and very grateful to the fishTo lose with dignityWhen the sharks destroy the fish, he doesn’t cry and on the outside, he is still proud, old SantiagoWhat does he say about being destroyed but not defeated?To struggle with something bigger than yourselfHe struggles with the Marlin, which is bigger than him, and then against the sea and the sharks, which outnumber him and are bigger than him
75Why does Hemingway make such a fisherman into a heroic figure? To handle adversityHe seems to be pretty tough and able to handle a lot of adversity. He is poor, lonely, and just had the catch of a lifetime stolen from him, yet at the end of the novel, Santiago is making preparations to take the boy out again, so he is resilientTo resist being discouraged by failureHe fails to actually bring the marlin back, but that not discourage him from making plans to try again once he has had a talk with the boyTo appreciate and love natureHe appreciates and loves nature very much. He feels a kinship with many different speciesWhat are some of the animals he feels connected with? Why?
76How do Santiago’s troubles mimic the adversity that all of us have to face? To master a skillHe knows what kind of bait to use to catch whatever kind of fish he wantsHe knows what fish is on the line by the way it pulls and where he is in the waterHe knows all the animals and plants that live in the seaHe can fish for more than one fish at a timeHe knows how to tire out a fishHe knows how to use a harpoonHe recognizes different kinds of sharks by sightTo resist following the crowdHe doesn’t give in and believe people when they tell him he is out of luck and laugh at him
77If Santiago is a hero, and overcomes adversity, what is the author suggesting to the Reader? To be able to be alone with yourselfHe is comfortable being alone with himself out on the seaTo love an adversary even if you must kill himHe loves the marlin, even though he must kill it, and he seems to have a certain admiration for the Mako shark, even though he kills itTo resist worrying about what others think of youSantiago never seems concerned about what others think of him, at the beginning or the end of the novel. He is a fisherman and that is what he does.