Presentation on theme: "SOL Standards Chapter 1 STANDARD WHI.2a The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural."— Presentation transcript:
SOL Standards Chapter 1 STANDARD WHI.2a The student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution by a) explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies. Homo sapiens emerged in East Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago. Homo sapiens migrated from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Early humans were hunters and gatherers whose survival depended on the availability of wild plants and animals. b) listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire. Hunter-gatherer societies during the Paleolithic Era (Old Stone Age) Were nomadic (migrated in search of food, water, shelter) Invented the first tools, including simple weapons Learned how to make fire Lived in clans Developed oral language Created cave art
c) describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities. Societies during the Neolithic Era (New Stone Age) Developed agriculture (Domesticated Plants) Domesticated animals Used advanced tools Made pottery Developed weaving skills d) explaining how archaeological discoveries are changing present-day knowledge of early peoples. -Archaeologists study past cultures by locating and analyzing human remains, fossils, and artifacts. -Archaeologists apply scientific tests such as carbon dating to analyze fossils and artifacts. -Stonehenge is an example of an archaeological site in England that was begun during the Neolithic and completed during the Bronze Age.
The study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind. Artifacts are those things that people left behind, they can include: Tools and Weapons Art and SculpturePottery Jewelry Human Remains Ancient Buildings and Monuments
The study of human life and culture The remains of ancient plants and animals. By studying fossils archaeologists and anthropologists can learn about what people ate, what animals they had around, and their way of life. Carbon dating can be used to date organic artifacts, or things that were once alive All living things contain a radioactive isotope of Carbon called Carbon 14 which they absorb from the sun while they are alive. Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5000 years. That means it takes 5,000 years for half of the Carbon 14 in something to break down. If we know how much Carbon 14 something has left we can count back to how much is had to begin with to determine the age of the artifact. Is limited to things 50,000 years old or less.
Humans and other creatures that walk upright on two feet. The first Hominids, they are thought to have emerged in East Africa in the Great Rift Valley between 3-4 million years ago. Homo habilis- meaning handy human was a phase between Australopithecus and Homo Erectus that emerged between million years ago. Second stage in early human development, Homo erectus, which means upright human being, emerged about 1.8 million years ago. These were the first hominids to leave Africa and moved into Europe and Asia. They also used more complex tools
About 250,000 years ago Homo sapiens emerged. Homo Sapiens means Wise Person. This group split into two distinct groups: Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens Sapiens Homo Sapiens Sapiens Neanderthals Discovered in the Neander Valley in Germany. Thought to have lived between 100,000 and 30,000 years ago; they lived in Europe and Turkey. They used stone tools, and buried their dead. It is thought they had some primitive religious beliefs. It was originally thought that they were killed off by homo sapiens sapiens, but new evidence has recently emerged that shows that there was some genetic mixing between the two groups.
Modern Human Beings Believed to have appeared in Africa between 150, ,000 years ago Began to migrate outside of Africa 100,000 years ago. Believed by many to have replaced the Neanderthals by 30,000 B.C.. By 10,000 B.C. Homo Sapiens Sapiens could be found throughout the world due to migration. There are two theories for this migration: One is the out of Africa model which states that homo sapiens sapiens migrated out of Africa and slowly replaced other groups they encountered throughout the world. The other theory is the multiregional model, which states that development from earlier hominids to modern humans occurred in different locations in Africa, Asia, and Europe at different times.
During the last ice age between 100,000 B.C. and 8000 B.C. the water level in the oceans dropped revealing a land bridge over the Bering Strait connecting Asia and North America
Paleo means old Lithic means stone Paleolithic= Old Stone Age. This era was called the stone age because early man used stone to make his tools and weapons. Paleolithic man lived in groups called clans. These clans got their food by Hunting and Gathering Once the food supply ran out they would move to a different area. Because they moved from place to place they were Nomadic. Essential Knowledge Were Nomadic: Wandered from place to place in search of food and shelter Invented the first tools and weapons including simple stone tools. Lived in groups called clans of about people, used caves for shelter. Learned to make and control fire to keep warm and cook their food. Developed oral, or spoken language Made cave art and statues. The role of men was to do the hunting The role of women was gathering and caring for children
Gathering was a more reliable source of food and so in Paleolithic society it is thought that it may have been Matriarchal, or female dominated. Women were often seen at the time as symbols of life and fertility. Many ancient religions were centered around the worship of the earth and the woman was often representative of the earth and life because of the fact that women gave birth. Early ideas about religion are often called sympathetic magic. It is thought that early man often drew, or made representations of what he/she wanted to happen. Fertility statues for having many children, paintings of successful hunts etc.
Use of Fire Early man learned to use fire to adapt to his environment. It was probably discovered from friction, lightning, or accidental hitting two rocks together. Ice Ages Fire was very important during the ice ages. Without fire man would not have been able to survive. Cave Art Man has created art for a very long time. There is some argument as to what this art was for. Was it art as art, or art as a form of religion?
The Mesolithic Age Between the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras there was a transitionary stage known as the Mesolithic age where there was a gradual shift from the old food-gathering and hunting economy to a food-producing one. There was also a gradual taming of animals, these changes led to a new period, the Neolithic age.
Neo means new Lithic means stone Neolithic means new stone age. The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was the change from the Paleolithic period to the Neolithic Period. The thing that allowed for this change was the discovery of agriculture. It is thought that women discovered agriculture. Systematic Agriculture was the consistent growing of crops on a continuing basis. Domestication of Animals: In addition to growing crops Neolithic man also tamed animals for hunting (dogs) and other animals for their food such as sheep, cows, etc... Developed Agriculture Domesticated Animals Used Advanced Stone Tools Developed Weaving (better clothing) Made Pottery (for food storage)
Variations on Agriculture As agriculture spread different areas began to grow different crops that were suited to their environment. These places where people began to settle down, grow crops, and start villages became known as the Cradles of Civilization. Most of these areas were in river valleys. This first was Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys. Other river valleys include The Nile in Egypt, the Indus in India, and the Huang He in China. These villages spread throughout Europe and the rest of the world. The oldest and largest of the villages are found in SW Asia.
Found in ancient Palestine near the Dead sea. It was in existence by 8000 B.C.
Found in Anatolia (Modern Day Turkey) Its walls enclosed 32 acres and up to 6,000 people. Grew many different crops and developed artisans and trade.
Aleppo is one of the oldest inhabited cities in history. Located in Modern-Day Syria; It has been occupied since around 5000 BCE. It occupies a strategic trading point midway between the sea and the Euphrates. The main role of the city was as a trading place.
Monument begun in the Neolithic age and finished in the Bronze Age Located on the Salisbury Plain in England What it may have looked like at completion
-As villages turned into cities, men took over the work of farming. Now men were the primary providers of food and women no longer filled that role. -Because of this the role of women changed to that of family caregiver and society became mostly male dominated (patriarchal) in most cultures Copper The first metal used by ancient man was copper. This was a natural metal And could be cast into tools. Bronze Age Later, copper was mixed with tin to make Bronze. Bronze was the metal of choice from about BCE Iron Age- About 1000 BCE the use of iron became common.
Agricultural Surplus As farming technology improved people were able to grow the food they needed. Because of this not everyone had to work on providing food anymore and so people could do other things. Artisans People who made crafts such as textiles (fabrics), pottery, jewelry, etc... People could do what they were good at instead of having to farm. Specialization of Labor Because people could focus on one particular thing technology and skills improved. Storage of Food Pottery and other devices were invented as ways to grow extra food. This extra food was vital for feeding a growing population. Trade As artisans made goods they began to exchange goods with other villages, and later cities, who had different goods. This was a barter system.
An agricultural surplus led to the emergence of civilization, a complex culture where humans share common elements. Culture The way of life of a group of people Rise of cities Growth of Government. Usually monarchs (King and Queens) Emergence of Religion Priests take an active role. New Social Structure Different social classes emerge Use of Writing First was Cuneiform in Sumer Artistic Activity Temples, Pyramids, Palaces, Painting, and Sculpture
Cities The first civilization developed in river valleys, this allowed for large-scale farming to take place. As populations grew, cities were formed
Government The need for government emerged because there was a need to regulate many aspects of city life including the food supply and the defense of the city. As people had more contact with each other, conflicts also emerged, government helped to regulate these as well. Most early governments were monarchies.
Religion Religion developed originally as a way to explain natural phenomena. People believed that it was important for gods and goddesses to be kept happy because they had a direct impact on the lives of the people-if the deities werent happy things would go poorly for the people. This gave priests special power and make them important figures. Also, many rulers said their power came from the gods.
Social Structure As economic power rose there also rose divisions between the different social classes. The upper class was made up of priests, government officials, and warriors. The lower class was made of free people, farmers, artisans, and craftspeople. Below these groups were the slaves, usually prisoners of war.
Writing Writing developed as a way to keep records. The first written language developed in Sumer in Mesopotamia, it became known as Cuneiform (wedge- shaped writing)
Art Once people had a steady food supply there was more time for artistic activity. Artistic activities included: Building Temples and Pyramids Painting Sculpture Jewelry