2(a) addition rulesimplification rulemodus ponensmodus tollenshypothetical syllogism1.5-3 Let w be the proposition "Randy works hard"Let d be the proposition "Randy is a dull boy", andlet j be the proposition "Randy will get the job" and want to conclude ~jWe set up the proof in two colums, with reasons, as in Example 6Step Reasonw Hypothesiswd Hypothesisd Modus ponens using steps 2 and 3d ~j Hypothesis~j Modus ponens using steps 2 and 3
31.5-6 First we use universal instantiation to conclude from "For all x, if x is a man, then x is not an island" the special case of interest, "If manhattan is a man, then Manhattan is not an island."Then we form the contrapositive (using also double negative): "If manhattan is an island, then Manhattan is not a man."Finally we use modus ponens to conclude that Manhattan is not a man. Alternatively, we could apply modus tollens.1.5-9Let c(x) be "x is in this class", let j(x) be "x knows how to write programs in JAVA," and let h(x) be"x can get a high paying job". We are given premises c(Doug), j(Doug), and x(j(x) h(x)) , and we want to conclude x(c(x)h(x))Step Reason1 x(j(x) h(x)) Hypothesis2 j(Doug) h(Doug) Universal instantiation using Step13 j(Doug) Hypothesis4 h(Doug) Modus ponens using Step2 and 35 c(Doug) Hypothesis6 c(Doug) h(Doug) Conjunction using Step4 and 57 x(c(x)h(x)) Existential generalization using step6
4b) Let c(x) be "x is in this class," let w(x) be "x enjoys whale watching," and let p(x) be "x cares about ocean pollution." We are given premises x(c(x) w(x)) and x(w(x)p(x)), and we want to conclude x(c(x) p(x)). In our proof, y represents an unspecified particular person.step Reason1. x(c(x) w(x)) Hypothesis2. c(y) w(y)) Existential instantiation using step13. w(y) simplification using step24. c(y) simplification using step25. x(w(x)p(x)) Hypothesis6. w(y)p(y) Universal instantiation using step57. p(y) Modus ponens using steps 3 and 68. c(y) p(y) Conjunction using steps 4 and 79. x(c(x) p(x)) Existential generalization using step8
5c) Let c(x) be "x is in this class," let p(x) be "x owns a PC," and let w(x) be "x can use a word processing program." We are given premises c(Zeke), x(c(x) p(x)), and x(p(x)w(x)), and we want to conclude w(Zeke).Step Reason1. x(c(x)p(x)) Hypothesis2. c(Zeke) p(Zeke) Universal instantiation using step13. c(Zeke) Hypothesis4. p(Zeke) Modus ponens using Steps 2 and 35. x(p(x) w(x)) Hypothesis6. p(Zeke) w(Zeke) Universal instantiation using Step 57. w(Zeke) Modus ponens using Steps 4 and 6
6d) Let j(x) be "x is in New Jersey," let f(x) be "x lives within fifty miles of the ocean," and let s(x) be "x has been the ocean." We are given premises x(j(x) f(x)) and x(j(x) ~s(x)), and we want to conclude x(f(x) ~s(x)). In our proof, y represents an unspecified particular person.Step Reason1. x(j(x) ~s(s)) Hypothesis2. j(y) ~s(y) Existential instantiation using Step 13. j(y) Simplification using Step 24. x(j(x) f(x)) Hypothesis5. j(y) f(y) Universal instantiation using Step 46. f(y) Modus ponens using Steps 3 and 57. ~s(y) Simplification using Step 28. f(y) ~s(y) Conjunction using Steps 6 and 79. x(f(x) ~s(x)) Existential generalization using Step 8
71.5-12correct, using universal instantiation and modus tollens.not correct, After applying universal instantiation, it contains the fallacy of denying the hypothesis.not correct, After applying universal instantiation, it contains the fallacy of affirming the conclusion.correct, using using universal instantiation and modus ponens.We know that some x exists that makes H(x) true, but we cannot conclude that Lola is one such x. Maybe one Suzanne is happy and everyone else is not happy. Then xH(x) is ture, but H(Lola) is false.1.5-20a) Suppose that n is even. Then n=2k for some integer k. Therefore n^2 = (2k)^2 = 4k^2 = 2(2k^2). Since we have written n^2 as 2 times an integer, we conclude that n^2 is evenb) Suppose that n^2 is not even. In other words, suppose that n^2 is odd. By the theorem proved in Example 19, we conclude that n is odd, hence not even. Since we have proved that the hypothesis is false under the assumption that the conclusion is false, we have given an indirect proof of the implication.c) Assume that n is even but n^2 is odd. By theorem proved in Example 19, this latter assumption implies that n is odd. This contradicts our assumption that n is even. Since we have derived a contradiction, the theorem is proved.
81.5-22 prove 3n+2 is even, then n is even a) We must prove the contrapositive: If n is odd, then 3n+2 is odd. Assume that n is odd. Then we can write n=2k+1 for some integer k. Then 3n+2 = 3(2k+1) +2 = 6k + 5 = 2(3k+2) + 1. Thus 3n+2 is two times some integer plus 1, so it is odd.b) Suppose that 3n+2 is even and that n is odd. Since 3n+ 2 is even, so is 3n. If we add subtract an odd number from an even number, we get an odd number, so 3n-n=2n is odd. But this is obviously not true. Therefore our supposition was wrong, and the proof by contradiction is complete.Show sum of two int. is even We give a direct proof. Suupose that a and b are two odd integers. Then there exist integers s and t s.t. a = 2s+1 and b=2t+1. Adding, we obtain a+b =(2s+1) + (2t+1) = (s+t+1). Since this represents a + b as 2 times the integer s+t+1, we conclude that a+ b is even, as desired.We give a proof by contradiction. If there were nine of fewer days on each day of the week, this would account for at most 9*7 = 63 days. But we chose 64 days. This contradiction shows that at least ten of the days must be on the same day of the week.
91.5-34 min(a, min(b,c)) = min(min(a,b),c) whenever a,b and c are real numbers. There are three main cases, depending on which of the three numbers is smallest. If a is samllest (or tied for smallest), then clearly a <= min(b,c), and so the left-hand side equals a. On the other hand, for the right-hand side we have min(a,c) =a as well.In the second case, b is smallest (or tied for smallest). the same reasoning shows us that the right-hand side eqauls b; and the left-hand side is min(a,b) = b as well. In the final case, in which c is smallest (or tied for smallest), the left-hand side is min(a,c)=c, whereas the right-hand side is clearly also c. Since one of the three has to be smallest we have taken care of all the casesThe steps are valid for obtaining possible solutions to the equations . If the given equation is true, then we can conclude that x=1 or x=6, since the truth of each equation implies the truth of the next equation . However, the steps are not all reversible; in particular, the squaring step is not reversible. Therefore the possible answers must be checked in the original equation . We know that no other solutions are possible, but we do not know that these two numbers are in fact solutions. If we plug in x =1 we get the true statement 2=2; but if we plug in x =6 we get the false statement 3=-3. Therefore x=1 is the one and only solution of (x+3) = 3-x.We have from algebra that the following equations are equivalent: ax + b = c, ax = c –b. x =(c-b)/a. This shows, constructively, what the unique solution of the given equation is.
101. 5-67 Suppose that we have proved p1 p4 p2 p5 p3 p1 Suppose that we have proved p1 p4 p2 p5 p3 p1. Imagine these implications arranged around a circle. Then to prove that each one of these propositions (say pi) implies each of the others (say pj), we just have to follow the circle, starting at pi, until we come to pj, using hypothetical syllogism repeatedly.