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Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering

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1 MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy
Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH-43210 4/1/2017

2 ABSTRACT Energy technologies have a central role in social and economic developments at all scales. Energy is closely linked environmental pollution, degradation to economic development and quality of living. We are dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels that have been and will continue to be major cause of pollution and climatic change. Petroleum supplies are dwindling. Thus finding sustainable alternatives is an urgent concern. 4/1/2017

3 To empower energy user for a sustainable living.
….ABSTRACT Challenges To develop technology for integration, control of renewable energy sources, control of energy consumption and load management. To empower energy user for a sustainable living. Developing Distributed Generation system where energy user is also an energy producer. 4/1/2017

4 In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use is presented.
…ABSTRACT In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use is presented. Man and Energy --- the past. Man and Energy--- the last hundred years. Man and Energy---the future Then the talk, focuses on some of the challenges and efforts needed to harness renewable energy sources for a sustainable human society. 4/1/2017

5 MAN HISTORY Early human forays into the Middle East from Africa around 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. These early settlers were replaced by Neanderthals in the region about 80,000 years ago. Possible triggers for migration : increase in population, a change in diet, the acquisition of language and climatic change. Around 40,000 years ago, grip of Ice Age loosened, temperature became warmer, humans moved into Central Asia and multiplied quickly. 4/1/2017

6 They became paler and shorter than their African ancestors.
…MAN HISTORY 35,000 years ago small groups of people left Central Asia for Europe. Cold temperatures kept them there. They became paler and shorter than their African ancestors. 15000 years ago, one small clan of arctic dwellers followed the reindeer herd over the Bering Strait land bridge to North America. 4/1/2017

7 But a climatic reversal also could have turned the tables.
…MAN HISTORY Some time in the past, random mutations, which can happen naturally and be harmless, marked a new begging. Climate changes may have coaxed humans out of Africa and encouraged Neanderthals already living there to spread outward into other parts of Asia and southeastern Europe. But a climatic reversal also could have turned the tables. 4/1/2017

8 …MAN HISTORY Europe and Northern Asia were experiencing a cool era at that time, and even hearty Neanderthals probably would have found the warmer climates to the south enticing. “They pushed back probably from the Caucasus region to the north, and drove the humans then living there into retreat” Bar-Yosef suggested. Only a second advance by humans thousands of years later—one that was more permanently successful—ultimately settled the question of which species would prevail. 4/1/2017

9 CLIMATE FACTOR A major mystery in the story of human evolution is how climate affected the environment where creatures that regularly walked upright—the hominids—first emerged. One widely accepted theory holds that after the ape and hominid lineages split, the earliest human ancestors were forced into the expanding tropical grasslands of the African savanna after the continent's thick forests dwindled as a result of climate change. 4/1/2017

10 Sustainable Energy Technology
Primary Energy: All we use comes from the sun. Solar radiation Key to Sustainability: Utilize primary energy resource at the same rate at which it is naturally replenished on earth and without externalities. Source : BMW Group,2000 4/1/2017

Mesopotamia An area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to Iraq , Khuzestan region of southwestern Iran. 8000 B.C people of the area used wood and wood charcoal and oil. Include Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian Empires. Known as “Cradle of civilization” 4/1/2017

IRON AGE The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC. About half a century later, the Babylonians and Assyrians both became provinces of the Persian Empire which gave way to the Achaemenid Empire. Seal of Cyrus, the Great.(550 B.C.) 4/1/2017

EGYPT 5000 B.C, Egyptians used wood and wood charcoal for cooking and heat. Inscriber Egypt. (3000BC.) 4/1/2017

GREECE 750 B.C TO 146 B.C, considered to the seminal culture which provided the foundation for western civilization. Greek culture had a power influence on Roman Empire. The Parthenon is the most memorable symbol of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks. 4/1/2017

INDIA The Indus Valley Civilization (3000–1500 B.C) flourished in the Indus river valleys primarily in Sindh province of Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in north western and western India. According to archaeologists, wheel was probably invented in around 8,000 B.C. in India. Taj mahal Chariots belonging to the Aryans of ancient India 4/1/2017

CHINA China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations (extends 5000 years). Deep Drilling of Gas: Technique developed in 100 B.C. The devices that were used were remarkably large and well crafted for time. The Chinese’s building process was dramatically sped up because of this useful invention. The wheelbarrow emerged in first century BC. 4/1/2017

450 B.C : Herodotus described oil pits near Babylon. 325 B.C : Alexander the great used flaming torches of petroleum products to scare his enemies. 1264 : Marco Polo recorded visiting the Persian city of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in modern Azerbaijan, he saw oil being collected from seeps for use in medicine and lighting. 1814 : One of the first wells that produced oil which was marketed was drilled near Marietta, Ohio 4/1/2017

1895 : Invention of combustion engine. 1896 : Henry Ford's first motorcar. Oil discovered in Persia, Anglo Persian Oil company formed (Later became British Petroleum, BP). Oil discovered in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. World War II - control of oil supply from Baku and Middle East played a huge role in the events of the war and the ultimate victory of the allies. Cutting off the oil supply considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of the war. 4/1/2017

1951 : Anglo Iranian Oil Company nationalized. 1954 : Anglo-Persian Oil Company renamed British Petroleum. : Oil prices rise from $13.00 to $34.00. 1986 : Chernobyl - Nuclear power plant accident. 2003 : (Aug 14) - Major electrical failure causes blackout in New York State and Ontario. 4/1/2017

2004 (July) - US oil imports at a record 11.3MMBO per day. (Nov) George Bush re-elected President in USA. 2004 (Oct 25) - Oil at a record price of $55.67 US per barrel on concerns over high demand and possible supply disruptions in the Middle East and damage on the Gulf Coast from Hurricane Ivan . 2008 (Jan 2) - WTI oil price briefly touches US$100 per barrel for the first time driven by supply concerns and the weak US dollar. 4/1/2017

21 Is an Oil economy Sustainable?
In the long run, an economy that utilizes petroleum as a primary energy source is not sustainable, because the amount of oil in the Earth’s crust is finite. The history of energy use is largely one of substitution. In the 19th century, the world’s primary energy source was wood. Around 1890, wood was replaced by coal. Coal remained the world’s largest source of energy until the 1960s when it was replaced by oil. No one can predict the future, but the world contains enough petroleum resources to last at least until the year 2100. 4/1/2017

22 The above graph shows the Hubbert predictions in 1956 which shows the estimates of the oil production in the future which is compared with the actual production. 4/1/2017

23 The world average oil production per capita from 1920 to 1999
The world average oil production per capita from 1920 to The curve represents the ratio of world oil production (O) and world population (Pop): i.e. ô = O/(Pop) in barrels per capita per year (i.e. b/c/year). Note well that ô grew exponentially from 1920 to Next, growth was negligible from 1973 to the all-time peak in Finally, from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ô decreased at an average rate of 1.20% per year. (i.e. from 5.50 b/c in 1979 to 4.32 b/c in 1999) 4/1/2017

24 World average energy production per capita (ê) grew significantly from 1920 to its all-time peak in 1979. Then from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ê declined at an average rate of 0.33 %/year. 4/1/2017

25 Introduction to Current Energy Use
World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion 21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) 4/1/2017

26 Introduction to current energy use
Trends in World Total Energy Use (last 30 years) BP website 4/1/2017

27 Introduction to current Energy Use
Regional Distribution of Total Energy Use Regional Consumption Pattern 2006 Percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific Oil remains the leading energy source in all regions except Asia Pacific and Europe and Eurasia. Coal dominates in the Asia Pacific Region, while Natural Gas is the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia. The Asia Pacific region accounted for two-thirds global energy consumption last year. 4/1/2017

28 Introduction to current Energy Use
World Energy Use for Electricity Generation 64% combustion 39% coal 15% gas 10% oil 16% nuclear 19% hydro-electric World Nuclear Association, 2008 4/1/2017

29 Introduction to current Energy Use
World Energy Resource Trends Year Year 2020 405*1015 BTU *1015 BTU – 50% increase Source : EIA, U.S, DOE, 2007 4/1/2017

30 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Primary Energy : All We Use Comes from the Sun. Energy sustainability requires use of resources at the same rate at which they are naturally replenished on earth without externalities.” Source : BMW Group, 2000 4/1/2017

31 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night 4/1/2017

32 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Earth at night 2030 4/1/2017

33 Electricity Consumption

34 Introduction to Current Energy Use
World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion 21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

35 Energy Sustainability Discussion
2.5 A small number, BUT, at this IEA forecast average annual growth rate (2.5%) world electricity demand will double by 2030 75 IEA forecasts world carbon dioxide emissions due to power generation to increase over 75% from 2002 to 2030 (from 9417 metric tons to metric tons) 1.5 billion 2006 world population equals 6.7 billion. The UN forecasts population will grow to 8.2 Billion by That’s another 1.5 billion people who will need electricity…equivalent to adding 5 new USA’s to the globe.

36 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Current overall “effectiveness” of energy consumption is DEPRESSING We Would be better off burning a lump of coal at home to produce light? Highly poor end-use efficiency - Transport emissions/efficiency challenges. - End-use emissions.

37 Global Climate Solar irradiation enters atmosphere primarily as UV radiation Earth radiation to space is primarily Infra-red radiation Composition of atmosphere affects how much energy is absorbed, reflected, transmitted through,…. Similar to a car window IPCC, 2006 ; 4/1/2017

38 Global Climate Many factors influence climate One cannot prove that human activity is causing climate change, but, preponderance of evidence is certain IPCC, 2006 ; 4/1/2017

39 Co2 Emission Around the World

40 Production of CO2 Since 1700 4/1/2017

41 Global Climate Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, sea level continue to rise long after emissions are reduced. IPCC, 2006 ; 4/1/2017

42 Global Climate Departures in temperatures ( degree celsius ) from average IPCC, 2006 ; 4/1/2017

43 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2007 4/1/2017

44 Energy Sustainability Discussion
We SHOULD move towards “clean” energy Technologies “Green Tech” and “clean energy” have become Wall Street darlings – GOOD. Need much more than hype. Global Installation/Production Growth : Solar, Wind, Biofuels 2003 2007 2017(est.) Solar PV installations 620MW 2821MW 22760MW Wind Power Installed 8000MW 20060MW 75781MW Biofuels Produced 7 Billion Gallons 15.6 Billion Gallons 45.9 Billion Gallons Source : Clean Energy, Inc. 4/1/2017

45 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Proven Energy Resources around the world Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Region 2002 preserved Resources (10^9 bbls) R/P (years) 2002 proved Reserves (10^12 SCF) R/P years 2002 preserved Reserves (10^9 tonnes) North America 49.9 10.3 252.4 9.4 257.8 240 S. & Cent.America 98.6 42 250.2 68.8 21.8 404 Europe & Eurasia 97.5 17 2155.8 58.9 355.4 306 Middle East 685.6 92 1979.7 >100 ???? >500 Africa 77.4 27.3 418.1 88.9 55.3 247 Asia Pacific 38.7 13.7 445.3 41.8 292.5 126 World 1047.7 40.6 5501.5 60.7 984.5 204 Reserves-to-production (R/P) : R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. It is calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year. BP website – 4/1/2017

46 Energy Sustainability
Proved reserves at end 2006 4/1/2017

47 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Caifornia Global Climate Initiatives Achieving goals will require “remarkable” and “significant” adoption of new technologies affecting all economic sectors. Electricity generation sector example 4/1/2017 Source : Ferguson, CEERT, March2,2007

48 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Oil Discovery and Production Trends Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005 4/1/2017

49 Energy Sustainability
Historical and projected Oil production vs. Region 4/1/2017 Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005

50 Introduction to Current Energy Use
Petroleum Production Projected Peak oil ( ) Source : Oil and Gas Journal, 2004 4/1/2017

51 Introduction to Current Energy Use
World Oil Demand Growth (change from previous year) Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2008

52 Sustainable Energy Technology
Dish Stirling Engine Uses Carnot Cycle High heat capacity working fluid (usually Hydrogen)

53 The age of petroleum is coming to an end, and the future is dangerously insecure.
Oil demand will shortly exceed the production capacity of even the largest suppliers. The world economy is moving towards an uneasy transition. The open question is when the peak oil usage occur. Can the world renewable and green sources of energy be able to continue the industry in the same way as it is at present. Global warming is an engineering problem, not a moral crusade. Until we solve the problem, it's hypocrisy to pretend we can stop. 4/1/2017

54 Remarks: Accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years. It took billion of years to produce world oil, gas and coal reserve. Recorded history of Homo Sapiens is about 5000 years old. For 5000 years, man used wood , wood charcoal , wind and water power . Since the industrial revolution, man has been using coal. Man has been using oil for one hundred years. How long would it last? 4/1/2017

55 …Remarks: Man has been present on earth : 5000/4000000=0.1%
Man has been using energy : 5000/100000=5% Man has been using oil : 100/5000=2% Results: Man has populated the earth and exhausted it resources. 4/1/2017

56 Renewable and Green Energy
…CONCLUSION The parallel issue that is also in a concern is the Global warming. For a sustainable life and preventing Global warming, man must minimizing the dependence on oil. Renewable and Green Energy 4/1/2017

57 Introduction What is the Concept of Green Energy ?
Power generation using environmental-friendly energy sources. Hydrogen Based Resources Fuel cells Renewable Energy Sources Photovoltaic cells Wind power Storage Devices Ultra capacitors Batteries Flywheels 4/1/2017

58 Distributed Generation System Technologies

59 Introduction What are the Benefits of Distributed Generation Systems ?
Installation near to the local loads. Power losses of distribution network can be reduced by reducing the power flow in the transmission lines. On-site standby power systems during grid outages Peak load shaving Modular structure makes system expansion easy. e.g. fuel cell-micro turbine or micro turbine-battery systems. Combined heat and power (CHP) applications. 4/1/2017

60 Germany Solar Initiative
The "Feed-in Law" in Germany permits customers to receive preferential tariffs for solar generated electricity depending on the nature and size of the installation. Under the new tariff structure introduced in 2004, the base level of compensation for ground-mounted systems can be up to 45.7 euro cents/kWh. PV installations on buildings receive higher rates of up to 57.4 euro cents/kWh. 4/1/2017

61 Germany Solar Initiative
The Feed-in Law fixes tariffs for approved renewable energy projects for a 20-year period from the plant commissioning and will apply incremental price cuts. Tariffs were initially set at 48.1 cents per kilowatt hour for solar energy, 8.6 cents per kWh for wind, from 9.6 to 8.2 cents per kWh for biomass, 8.4 to 6.7 cents per kWh for geothermal and 7.2 to 6.3 cents per kWh for hydropower, waste and sewage gas. The Feed-in Law requires that the tariff paid for solar electricity be reduced by 5% per year, and by 6.5% per annum for ground-mounted systems. 4/1/2017

62 Germany Solar Initiative
Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed in 2003, almost twice the volume installed in the previous year. The total solar electricity capacity in Germany is now estimated at over 400 Megawatts. Germany saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far the largest PV market in the world. 4/1/2017

63 Germany Solar Initiative
968 Megawatts of PV were installed in Germany in The German solar market generated total revenues of over 800 million euros in The German PV industry generates over 10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. Over 90% of solar PV installations are in grid-tied applications in Germany. The balance is off-grid (or stand alone) systems 4/1/2017

64 Germany Solar Initiative
PV Installations by Year in Germany (in Megawatts) 1990( 0.60 MW) 1991(1.00 MW) 1992(3.10MW) 1993 (3.5 MW) 1994 (4.0 MW) 1995 (5.9 MW) 1996 (10.6 MW) 1997 (14.5 MW) 1998 (12.6 MW) 1999 (16.5 MW) 2000 (44.0 MW) 2001 ( 80.0 MW) 2002 (83.0 MW) (145.0 MW) 4/1/2017

65 Germany Solar Initiative
The world's largest PV installation is in Germany, at Hemau in Bavaria. It consists of 32,740 solar modules with a combined peak power output of 4 Megawatts. Some German states have subsidy programs for PV installations that can be used in combination with the national Feed-in Law. 4/1/2017

66 Germany Solar Initiative
German Energy and Electricity Industry German domestic energy sources in 1998 were: Coal: 46%, Nuclear power: 31%, Natural Gas: 14%, Renewable Energy: 6% and Oil: 3%. In consumption terms, though, oil accounted for 44%, or 2.8 million barrels per day. Of the renewable energy segment, wind energy accounts for about 58%, Hydropower 30%, Biomass 12%, and solar and other source for the balance. 4/1/2017

67 Electricity consumption kWhr per capita
Selected Energy Statistics by Country (1998) Source: International Energy Agency Population GDP (US $) Electricity consumption kWhr per capita CO2 per capita CO2 per unit of GDP Brazil 165.87 576.41 1.78 0.51 Canada 30.30 666.72 15.75 0.72 China 805.26 871.91 2.30 3.54 France 58.85 6.38 0.28 Germany 82.02 10.45 0.46 India 979.67 499.31 415.75 0.93 1.82 Japan 126.49 8.92 0.34 United Kingdom 59.24 9.28 0.49 United States 269.09 20.10 0.77 4/1/2017

68 4/1/2017 Company Name Country Address
Contact details Aleo Solar Germany Staugraben 4, D Oldenburg, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Alfasolar Vertriebsgesellschaft GmbH Calenberger Str. 28, D Hannover, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Aplicaciones Tecnicas de las Energía (ATERSA) Spain Embajadores 187, Madrid 28045, Spain Tel: Fax: E Mail: AXITEC Vertrieb Deutschland Heimsheimer Straße 62, Weil der Stadt (Hausen), Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: BIOHAUS PV Handels GmbH Otto-Stadler-Str. 23, D Paderborn, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Canadian Solar Inc. Canada 4056 Jefton Crescent, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1Z3, Canada Tel: Fax: E Mail: Centennial Solar Inc 8114-B Trans Canada St-Laurent, Québec H4S 1M5 Canada Tel: 1 (514) Fax: 1 (514) E Mail: Crown Renewable Energy United States 805 Aerovista Place, Suite 202 San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

69 DaSol Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., Ltd
China Fantan industrial park, Anji, Zhejiang, China, Tel: Fax: E Mail: Day4 Energy Canada #101 – 5898 Trapp Avenue Burnaby, BC V3N 5G4, Canada Tel: Fax: E Mail: Energy Solutions S.A. Bulgaria 1 Vladaisko vastanie Str. 2304, Pernik, Bulgaria Tel: Fax: E Mail: ET Solar Shan Xi Road Nanjing Jiangsu China Tel: Fax: E Mail: Gällivare PhotoVoltaic AB (GPV) Part of SolarWorld Group Sweden Företagscentrum Hus 60, Box 840, Gällivare, Sweden Tel: Fax: E Mail: Gebaude-Solarsysteme GmbH (GSS) Germany Windmuehlenstrasse 2, Loebishau, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Gloria Solar Co., Ltd. Taiwan No. 498, Section 2, Bentian Road, An-Nan Dist., Tainan 70955, Taiwan, R.O.C Tel: ext Fax: E Mail: Hellas Solar Greece 3 P. Ioakim 5th fl. Athens Greece Tel: Fax: E mail: 4/1/2017

70 4/1/2017 Heliodinâmica Brazil
Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 41, Vargem Grande Paulista - CEP , Caixa Postal 111, São Paulo, Brasil Tel: Fax: E mail: Ilyich Iron & Steel Works Ukraine Mariupol, Levchenko str. 1, Ukraine, Donetsk Region 87504 Tel: 38 - (0629) Fax: 38 - (0623) E Mail: Innergy Power Corporation United States 9375 Customhouse Plaza Bldg 1, Suite J, San Diego, CA 92154 Tel: Fax: E Mail: ISSOL S.A./N.V. Belgium Quai de la Vesdre 7 B-4800 Verviers Belgium Tel: Fax: E Mail: Istar Solar s.r.l. Italy Corso Garibaldi, 83, Potenza (PZ), Italy Tel: Fax: E mail: ITALCOEL s.r.l., Via della bonifica, sn, Vallemare, Pescara, I-65010, Italy Tel: Fax: E Mail: KD Solar Co., Ltd South Korea 12Fl, KD B/D , 4-4 Sunae, Bundang, Sungnam, Kyounggi, Korea Tel: Fax: E mail: 4/1/2017

71 4/1/2017 Liselo (Pty )Ltd. South Africa
PO Box Wierda Park, 0149 South Africa Tel: Fax: E Mail: Lucky Power Technology Taiwan No. 348, Shanying Rd., Gueishan Township, Taoyuan County 33341, Taiwan Tel: Fax: E Mail: MSK Corporation (part of Suntech Power) Japan 17F Stec Joho Building , West Shinjuki, Tokyo , Japan Tel: Fax: E Mail: NexPower Technology Corp. 8F, No.1, Jin-Shan 7th St., HsinChu, 300, Taiwan, ROC 5 Tel: Fax: E Mail: Pacific SolarTech United States 44843 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94539 Tel: Fax: E Mail: Power4Africa Namibia P O Box 1316 Tsumeb Namibia Tel: (067) Fax: (067) E Mail: PST (Perfect Source Technology Corp.) No. 26, Huaya 1st Rd., Guishan Shiang, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan (Huaya Technology Park) Tel: ext 1105 Fax: E Mail: Romag Ltd United Kingdom Leadgate Industrial Park, Leadgate, County Durham DH8 7RS, UK Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

72 Saint-Gobain Glass-Solar
Germany Julicher Strasse 495, Aachen, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Scheuten Solar Systems BV The Netherlands Van Heemskerckweg 9, NL-5928 LL Venlo (Blerick), The Netherlands Tel: Fax: E Mail: Shenglong PV-Tech Co., Ltd China Suzhou Shenglong-solar PV-Tech Co.,Ltd Gangkou Development Zone Fenghuang Town, Zhang Jiagang City Jiangsu Province China Tel: Fax: E Mail: Siliken Spain Massamagrell, 36, Pol. Ind. Rafelbunyol, 46138, Rafelbunyol (Valencia), Spain Tel: Fax: E Mail: Solar Factory GmbH Ferdinand-Reich Strasse 1, D Freiberg/Saxony, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

73 4/1/2017 Solara AG Germany
Behringstr. 16, D Hamburg, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Solar-Fabrik AG Munzinger Str. 10, Freiburg, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: SOLARIS d.o.o Croatia 52466 NOVIGRAD, Sv. Vidal 32b, Croatia Tel: 385 (0) Fax: 385 (0) E Mail: Solarnova, Produktions und Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH Am Marienhof 6, Wedel, Germany Tel:   Fax:   E Mail: Solartron Co. Ltd Thailand 38 Chavanich Bldg. 2/FL, Soi Salinimit Sukhumvit 69, Bangkok 10110, Thailand Tel: 66 (0) Fax: 66 (0) E Mail: Solarwatt Solar-Systeme GmbH Grenzstraße 28, D Dresden, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: SOLON Photovoltaik GmbH Ederstrasse 16, D Berlin, Germany Tel: / Fax: E Mail: Spire Solar Chicago United States The Chicago Center for Green Technology, 445 North Sacramento Blvd., Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

74 4/1/2017 Total Energie SA France
Z.A.C. de la Tour 12/14 allée du Levant la Tour de Salvagny, France Tel: 33 (0) Fax: 33 (0) E Mail: TENESA (PTY) Ltd. South Africa 22 Harris Drive, Sunset Park, Ottery, Cape Town, South Africa 7790 Tel: Fax: E Mail: Trina Solar Limited China Changzhou Jiangsu China Tel: Fax: E Mail: Webasto Systemcomponeneten GmbH & Co KG Germany Krainger Strasse 5, D Stockdorf, Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co.,Ltd Huanshan Road, Eco.&Tech. Develop Zone, Weihai, China Tel: Fax: E Mail: Wuxi Suntech Power Co., Ltd 17-6 Chang Jiang South Road,Wuxi New District, China Tel: Fax: E Mail: Xi'an REW co., Ltd No.11 WenJing North Road, The Economic & Technological Development Zone, Xi'an, China. Tel: Fax: E Mail: Xl Telecom Ltd India 335, Chandralok Complex, Secunderabad India Tel: Fax: E Mail: Yuhuan Solar Energy Source Co, Ltd No 101 Chengzhong Road, Zhugang Town, Yuhuan City, Zhejiang Province, China Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

75 SunWize Technologies United States 1155 Flatbush Road, Kingston, NY USA Tel: Fax: E Mail: Titan Energy Systems Ltd India 16 Aruna Enclave, Trimulgherry, Secunderabad, , India Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

76 Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd. China. 4-6/F, No
Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd China 4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang Industrial Park II Xili Town, Nanshan District Shenzhen Guangdong China Tel: (86 755) Fax: (86 755) E Mail: SunWare GmbH & Co. KG Germany Dusseldorfer Strasse 80, DE-47239, Duisburg (Rumeln), Germany Tel: Fax: E Mail: Sunworld (Shanghai) Solar Energy Technology Co., Ltd China Rm.1501, Tongquan Building, No.678 Gubei Road Changning District, Shanghai, China Tel: Fax: E Mail: 4/1/2017

77 Energy Sustainability Discussion
Where does sun’s energy go? 4/1/2017

78 Sustainable Energy Technology
Other Solar Thermal Reflecting mirrors, troughs,etc. Various designs, some “tracking” All use working fluid and turbine 4/1/2017

79 Sustainable Energy Technology
Photovoltaics Around for at least 6 decades Roots in space program (1950s) Many useful applications Not typically economical in central station generation. System capital cost of approx. $4,500-9,500/kW Power cost of $0.15 to $0.5/kWh Intermittent power (usually requires energy storage) Peak output often coincident with peak electrical demands. 4/1/2017

80 Sustainable Energy Technology
Large wind(>50kW) – large and utility applications. 4/1/2017

81 4/1/2017

82 Sustainable Energy Technology
Fuel Cells: System operation Fuel Cell Stack Fuel Processing Electric power Conversion Balance of plant System integration is very important for both “simple cycle” & “hybrid” fuel cell system 4/1/2017

83 Sustainable Energy Technology
Fuel Cell types 4/1/2017

84 Sustainable Energy Technology
Renewable hybrid Systems 4/1/2017

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