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MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State.

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Presentation on theme: "MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH-43210 6/10/

2 ABSTRACT Energy technologies have a central role in social and economic developments at all scales. Energy is closely linked environmental pollution, degradation to economic development and quality of living. We are dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels that have been and will continue to be major cause of pollution and climatic change. Petroleum supplies are dwindling. Thus finding sustainable alternatives is an urgent concern. 6/10/

3 ….ABSTRACT Challenges To develop technology for integration, control of renewable energy sources, control of energy consumption and load management. To empower energy user for a sustainable living. Developing Distributed Generation system where energy user is also an energy producer. 6/10/

4 …ABSTRACT In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use is presented. Man and Energy --- the past. Man and Energy--- the last hundred years. Man and Energy---the future Then the talk, focuses on some of the challenges and efforts needed to harness renewable energy sources for a sustainable human society. 6/10/

5 MAN HISTORY Early human forays into the Middle East from Africa around 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. These early settlers were replaced by Neanderthals in the region about 80,000 years ago. Possible triggers for migration : increase in population, a change in diet, the acquisition of language and climatic change. Around 40,000 years ago, grip of Ice Age loosened, temperature became warmer, humans moved into Central Asia and multiplied quickly. 6/10/

6 …MAN HISTORY 35,000 years ago small groups of people left Central Asia for Europe. Cold temperatures kept them there. They became paler and shorter than their African ancestors. 15000 years ago, one small clan of arctic dwellers followed the reindeer herd over the Bering Strait land bridge to North America. 6/10/

7 …MAN HISTORY Some time in the past, random mutations, which can happen naturally and be harmless, marked a new begging. Climate changes may have coaxed humans out of Africa and encouraged Neanderthals already living there to spread outward into other parts of Asia and southeastern Europe. But a climatic reversal also could have turned the tables. 6/10/

8 …MAN HISTORY Europe and Northern Asia were experiencing a cool era at that time, and even hearty Neanderthals probably would have found the warmer climates to the south enticing. They pushed back probably from the Caucasus region to the north, and drove the humans then living there into retreat Bar-Yosef suggested. Only a second advance by humans thousands of years laterone that was more permanently successful ultimately settled the question of which species would prevail. 6/10/

9 CLIMATE FACTOR A major mystery in the story of human evolution is how climate affected the environment where creatures that regularly walked uprightthe hominidsfirst emerged. One widely accepted theory holds that after the ape and hominid lineages split, the earliest human ancestors were forced into the expanding tropical grasslands of the African savanna after the continent's thick forests dwindled as a result of climate change. 6/10/

10 Sustainable Energy Technology Primary Energy: All we use comes from the sun. Solar radiation Key to Sustainability: Utilize primary energy resource at the same rate at which it is naturally replenished on earth and without externalities. Source : BMW Group,2000 6/10/

11 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY Mesopotamia An area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to Iraq, Khuzestan region of southwestern Iran. 8000 B.C people of the area used wood and wood charcoal and oil. Include Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian Empires. Known as Cradle of civilization 6/10/

12 …EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY IRON AGE The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC. About half a century later, the Babylonians and Assyrians both became provinces of the Persian Empire which gave way to the Achaemenid Empire.provinces Seal of Cyrus, the Great.(550 B.C.) 6/10/

13 …EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY EGYPT 5000 B.C, Egyptians used wood and wood charcoal for cooking and heat. Inscriber Egypt. (3000BC.) 6/10/

14 …EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY GREECE 750 B.C TO 146 B.C, considered to the seminal culture which provided the foundation for western civilization. Greek culture had a power influence on Roman Empire. The Parthenon is the most memorable symbol of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks. 6/10/

15 …EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY INDIA The Indus Valley Civilization (3000–1500 B.C) flourished in the Indus river valleys primarily in Sindh province of Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in north western and western India. According to archaeologists, wheel was probably invented in around 8,000 B.C. in India. Taj mahal Chariots belonging to the Aryans of ancient India 6/10/

16 …EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY CHINA China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations (extends 5000 years). Deep Drilling of Gas: Technique developed in 100 B.C. The devices that were used were remarkably large and well crafted for time. The Chineses building process was dramatically sped up because of this useful invention. The wheelbarrow emerged in first century BC. 6/10/

17 CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 450 B.C : Herodotus described oil pits near Babylon. 325 B.C : Alexander the great used flaming torches of petroleum products to scare his enemies. 1264 : Marco Polo recorded visiting the Persian city of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in modern Azerbaijan, he saw oil being collected from seeps for use in medicine and lighting. 1814 : One of the first wells that produced oil which was marketed was drilled near Marietta, Ohio 6/10/

18 …CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 1895 : Invention of combustion engine. 1896 : Henry Ford's first motorcar. 1908 - Oil discovered in Persia, Anglo Persian Oil company formed (Later became British Petroleum, BP). 1938 - Oil discovered in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. 1939-1945 - World War II - control of oil supply from Baku and Middle East played a huge role in the events of the war and the ultimate victory of the allies. Cutting off the oil supply considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of the war. 6/10/

19 …CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 1951 : Anglo Iranian Oil Company nationalized. 1954 : Anglo-Persian Oil Company renamed British Petroleum. 1979-1981 : Oil prices rise from $13.00 to $34.00. 1986 : Chernobyl - Nuclear power plant accident. 2003 : (Aug 14) - Major electrical failure causes blackout in New York State and Ontario. 6/10/

20 …CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 2004 (July) - US oil imports at a record 11.3MMBO per day. 2004 - (Nov) George Bush re-elected President in USA. 2004 (Oct 25) - Oil at a record price of $55.67 US per barrel on concerns over high demand and possible supply disruptions in the Middle East and damage on the Gulf Coast from Hurricane Ivan. 2008 (Jan 2) - WTI oil price briefly touches US$100 per barrel for the first time driven by supply concerns and the weak US dollar. 6/10/

21 Is an Oil economy Sustainable? In the long run, an economy that utilizes petroleum as a primary energy source is not sustainable, because the amount of oil in the Earths crust is finite. The history of energy use is largely one of substitution. In the 19th century, the worlds primary energy source was wood. Around 1890, wood was replaced by coal. Coal remained the worlds largest source of energy until the 1960s when it was replaced by oil. No one can predict the future, but the world contains enough petroleum resources to last at least until the year 2100. 6/10/

22 The above graph shows the Hubbert predictions in 1956 which shows the estimates of the oil production in the future which is compared with the actual production. 6/10/

23 The world average oil production per capita from 1920 to 1999. The curve represents the ratio of world oil production (O) and world population (Pop): i.e. ô = O/(Pop) in barrels per capita per year (i.e. b/c/year). Note well that ô grew exponentially from 1920 to 1973. Next, growth was negligible from 1973 to the all-time peak in 1979. Finally, from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ô decreased at an average rate of 1.20% per year. (i.e. from 5.50 b/c in 1979 to 4.32 b/c in 1999) 6/10/

24 World average energy production per capita (ê) grew significantly from 1920 to its all-time peak in 1979. Then from its peak in 1979 to 1999, ê declined at an average rate of 0.33 %/year. 6/10/

25 Introduction to Current Energy Use World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion 21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) 6/10/

26 Introduction to current energy use Trends in World Total Energy Use (last 30 years) BP website 6/10/

27 Introduction to current Energy Use Regional Distribution of Total Energy Use Oil remains the leading energy source in all regions except Asia Pacific and Europe and Eurasia. Coal dominates in the Asia Pacific Region, while Natural Gas is the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia. The Asia Pacific region accounted for two-thirds global energy consumption last year. North America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East AfricaAsia Pacific Regional Consumption Pattern 2006 Percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6/10/

28 Introduction to current Energy Use World Energy Use for Electricity Generation 64% combustion 39% coal 15% gas 10% oil 16% nuclear 19% hydro-electric World Nuclear Association, 2008 6/10/

29 Introduction to current Energy Use World Energy Resource Trends Year 2000 Year 2020 405*10 15 BTU 610*10 15 BTU – 50% increase Source : EIA, U.S, DOE, 2007 6/10/

30 Energy Sustainability Discussion Primary Energy : All We Use Comes from the Sun. Energy sustainability requires use of resources at the same rate at which they are naturally replenished on earth without externalities. Source : BMW Group, 2000 6/10/

31 Energy Sustainability Discussion Earth at night - 2007 6/10/

32 Energy Sustainability Discussion Earth at night 2030 6/10/

33 Electricity Consumption 6/10/2014Keyhani.1@osu.edu33

34 Introduction to Current Energy Use World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion 21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004)

35 Energy Sustainability Discussion 2.5 A small number, BUT, at this IEA forecast average annual growth rate (2.5%) world electricity demand will double by 2030 75 IEA forecasts world carbon dioxide emissions due to power generation to increase over 75% from 2002 to 2030 (from 9417 metric tons to 16771 metric tons) 1.5 billion 2006 world population equals 6.7 billion. The UN forecasts population will grow to 8.2 Billion by 2030. Thats another 1.5 billion people who will need electricity…equivalent to adding 5 new USAs to the globe.

36 Energy Sustainability Discussion Current overall effectiveness of energy consumption is DEPRESSING We Would be better off burning a lump of coal at home to produce light? Highly poor end-use efficiency - Transport emissions/efficiency challenges. - End-use emissions.

37 Global Climate Solar irradiation enters atmosphere primarily as UV radiation Earth radiation to space is primarily Infra-red radiation Composition of atmosphere affects how much energy is absorbed, reflected, transmitted through,…. Similar to a car window IPCC, 2006 ; 6/10/

38 Global Climate Many factors influence climate One cannot prove that human activity is causing climate change, but, preponderance of evidence is certain IPCC, 2006 ; 6/10/

39 Co2 Emission Around the World 6/10/2014Keyhani.1@osu.edu39

40 Production of CO2 Since 1700 6/10/

41 Global Climate Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, sea level continue to rise long after emissions are reduced. IPCC, 2006 ; 6/10/

42 Global Climate Departures in temperatures ( degree celsius ) from 1961-1990 average IPCC, 2006 ; 6/10/

43 Energy Sustainability Discussion Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2007 6/10/

44 Energy Sustainability Discussion We SHOULD move towards clean energy Technologies Green Tech and clean energy have become Wall Street darlings – GOOD. Need much more than hype. 200320072017(est.) Solar PV installations 620MW2821MW22760MW Wind Power Installed 8000MW20060MW75781MW Biofuels Produced7 Billion Gallons 15.6 Billion Gallons 45.9 Billion Gallons Global Installation/Production Growth : Solar, Wind, Biofuels Source : Clean Energy, Inc. 6/10/

45 Energy Sustainability Discussion Proven Energy Resources around the world PetroleumNatural GasCoal Region 2002 preserved Resources (10^9 bbls) R/P (years) 2002 proved Reserves (10^12 SCF) R/P years 2002 preserved Reserves (10^9 tonnes) R/P ( years) North America 49.910.3252.49.4257.8240 S. & Cent.America 98.642250.268.821.8404 Europe & Eurasia 97.5172155.858.9355.4306 Middle East 685.6921979.7>100????>500 Africa 77.427.3418.188.955.3247 Asia Pacific 38.713.7445.341.8292.5126 World 1047.740.65501.560.7984.5204 Reserves-to-production (R/P) : R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. It is calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year. BP website – 6/10/

46 Energy Sustainability Proved reserves at end 2006 6/10/

47 Energy Sustainability Discussion Caifornia Global Climate Initiatives Achieving goals will require remarkable and significant adoption of new technologies affecting all economic sectors. Electricity generation sector example Source : Ferguson, CEERT, March2,2007 6/10/

48 Energy Sustainability Discussion Oil Discovery and Production Trends Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005 6/10/

49 Energy Sustainability Historical and projected Oil production vs. Region Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005 6/10/

50 Introduction to Current Energy Use Petroleum Production Projected Peak oil (2016-2028) Source : Oil and Gas Journal, 2004 6/10/

51 Introduction to Current Energy Use World Oil Demand Growth (change from previous year) Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2008

52 Sustainable Energy Technology Dish Stirling Engine Uses Carnot Cycle High heat capacity working fluid (usually Hydrogen)

53 The age of petroleum is coming to an end, and the future is dangerously insecure. Oil demand will shortly exceed the production capacity of even the largest suppliers. The world economy is moving towards an uneasy transition. The open question is when the peak oil usage occur. Can the world renewable and green sources of energy be able to continue the industry in the same way as it is at present. Global warming is an engineering problem, not a moral crusade. Until we solve the problem, it's hypocrisy to pretend we can stop. 6/10/

54 Remarks: Accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years. It took billion of years to produce world oil, gas and coal reserve. Recorded history of Homo Sapiens is about 5000 years old. For 5000 years, man used wood, wood charcoal, wind and water power. Since the industrial revolution, man has been using coal. Man has been using oil for one hundred years. How long would it last? 6/10/

55 …Remarks: Man has been present on earth : 5000/4000000=0.1% Man has been using energy : 5000/100000=5% Man has been using oil : 100/5000=2% Results: Man has populated the earth and exhausted it resources. 6/10/

56 …CONCLUSION The parallel issue that is also in a concern is the Global warming. For a sustainable life and preventing Global warming, man must minimizing the dependence on oil. Renewable and Green Energy 6/10/

57 I NTRODUCTION What is the Concept of Green Energy ? Power generation using environmental-friendly energy sources. 1. Hydrogen Based Resources Fuel cells 2. Renewable Energy Sources Photovoltaic cells Wind power 3.Storage Devices Ultra capacitors Batteries Flywheels 576/10/

58 Distributed Generation System Technologies 586/10/

59 I NTRODUCTION What are the Benefits of Distributed Generation Systems ? Installation near to the local loads. Power losses of distribution network can be reduced by reducing the power flow in the transmission lines. On-site standby power systems during grid outages Peak load shaving Modular structure makes system expansion easy. e.g. fuel cell-micro turbine or micro turbine-battery systems. Combined heat and power (CHP) applications. 596/10/

60 Germany Solar Initiative The "Feed-in Law" in Germany permits customers to receive preferential tariffs for solar generated electricity depending on the nature and size of the installation. Under the new tariff structure introduced in 2004, the base level of compensation for ground-mounted systems can be up to 45.7 euro cents/kWh. PV installations on buildings receive higher rates of up to 57.4 euro cents/kWh. 6/10/

61 Germany Solar Initiative The Feed-in Law fixes tariffs for approved renewable energy projects for a 20-year period from the plant commissioning and will apply incremental price cuts. Tariffs were initially set at 48.1 cents per kilowatt hour for solar energy, 8.6 cents per kWh for wind, from 9.6 to 8.2 cents per kWh for biomass, 8.4 to 6.7 cents per kWh for geothermal and 7.2 to 6.3 cents per kWh for hydropower, waste and sewage gas. The Feed-in Law requires that the tariff paid for solar electricity be reduced by 5% per year, and by 6.5% per annum for ground-mounted systems. 6/10/

62 Germany Solar Initiative Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed in 2003, almost twice the volume installed in the previous year. The total solar electricity capacity in Germany is now estimated at over 400 Megawatts. Germany saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far the largest PV market in the world. 6/10/

63 Germany Solar Initiative 968 Megawatts968 Megawatts of PV were installed in Germany in 2006. The German solar market generated total revenues of over 800 million euros in 2003. The German PV industry generates over 10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. Over 90% of solar PV installations are in grid-tied applications in Germany. The balance is off-grid (or stand alone) systems 6/10/

64 Germany Solar Initiative PV Installations by Year in Germany (in Megawatts) 1990( 0.60 MW) 1991(1.00 MW) 1992(3.10MW) 1993 (3.5 MW) 1994 (4.0 MW) 1995 (5.9 MW) 1996 (10.6 MW) 1997 (14.5 MW) 1998 (12.6 MW) 1999 (16.5 MW) 2000 (44.0 MW) 2001 ( 80.0 MW) 2002 (83.0 MW) 2003 (145.0 MW) 6/10/

65 Germany Solar Initiative The world's largest PV installation is in Germany, at Hemau in Bavaria. It consists of 32,740 solar modules with a combined peak power output of 4 Megawatts. Some German states have subsidy programs for PV installations that can be used in combination with the national Feed-in Law. 6/10/

66 Germany Solar Initiative German Energy and Electricity Industry German domestic energy sources in 1998 were: Coal: 46%, Nuclear power: 31%, Natural Gas: 14%, Renewable Energy: 6% and Oil: 3%. In consumption terms, though, oil accounted for 44%, or 2.8 million barrels per day. Of the renewable energy segment, wind energy accounts for about 58%, Hydropower 30%, Biomass 12%, and solar and other source for the balance. 6/10/

67 PopulationGDP (US $) Electricity consumption kWhr per capita CO2 per capita CO2 per unit of GDP Brazil165.87576.411850.781.780.51 Canada30.30666.7216348.6815.750.72 China1238.60805.26871.912.303.54 France58.851349.207175.106.380.28 Germany82.021883.536481.5110.450.46 India979.67499.31415.750.931.82 Japan126.493303.588008.338.920.34 United Kingdom59.241123.215800.119.280.49 United States269.097043.6413388.1120.100.77 Selected Energy Statistics by Country (1998) Source: International Energy Agency 6/10/

68 Company NameCountryAddressContact details Aleo SolarGermanyStaugraben 4, D-26122 Oldenburg, Germany Tel: 49 441 219 88-0 Fax: 49 441 219 88-15 E Mail: Alfasolar Vertriebsgesellschaft GmbH Germany Calenberger Str. 28, D-30169 Hannover, Germany Tel: 49 5 11 131 71 90 Fax: 49 5 11 131 71 92 E Mail: Aplicaciones Tecnicas de las Energía (ATERSA) SpainEmbajadores 187, Madrid 28045, Spain Tel: 34 915 178 452 Fax: 34 914 747 467 E Mail: AXITEC Vertrieb Deutschland Germany Heimsheimer Straße 62, 71263 Weil der Stadt (Hausen), Germany Tel: 49 7033 30 42 0 Fax: 49 7033 30 42 222 E Mail: BIOHAUS PV Handels GmbH Germany Otto-Stadler-Str. 23, D-33100 Paderborn, Germany Tel: 49 5251 500 500 Fax: 49 5251 500 5010 E Mail: Canadian Solar Inc.Canada 4056 Jefton Crescent, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1Z3, Canada Tel: 1 905 828 2437 Fax: 1 905 828 9062 E Mail: Centennial Solar IncCanada 8114-B Trans Canada St-Laurent, Québec H4S 1M5 Canada Tel: 1 (514) 461-9822 Fax: 1 (514) 461-9824 E Mail: Crown Renewable EnergyUnited States 805 Aerovista Place, Suite 202 San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Tel: 1 805-269-1260 Fax: 1 805-269-1270 E Mail: 6/10/

69 DaSol Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., Ltd ChinaFantan industrial park, Anji, Zhejiang, China, 313300 Tel: 0086-572-5119058 Fax: 0086-572-5119077 E Mail: Day4 EnergyCanada #101 – 5898 Trapp Avenue Burnaby, BC V3N 5G4, Canada Tel: 1 604 759 3294 Fax: 1 604 759 3295 E Mail: Energy Solutions S.A.Bulgaria1 Vladaisko vastanie Str. 2304, Pernik, Bulgaria Tel: 30 2106861461 Fax: 30 2106861399 E Mail: ET Solar ChinaShan Xi Road Nanjing Jiangsu 210009 China Tel: 86 25 86898098 Fax: 86 25 86898097 E Mail: Gällivare PhotoVoltaic AB (GPV) Gällivare PhotoVoltaic AB (GPV) Part of SolarWorld Group Sweden Företagscentrum Hus 60, Box 840, 98228 Gällivare, Sweden Tel: 46 970 15830 Fax: 46 970 15898 E Mail: Gebaude-Solarsysteme GmbH (GSS) GermanyWindmuehlenstrasse 2, 04626 Loebishau, Germany Tel: 49 36602 509676 Fax: 49 9573 9224 24 E Mail: Gloria Solar Co., Ltd.Taiwan No. 498, Section 2, Bentian Road, An-Nan Dist., Tainan 70955, Taiwan, R.O.C Tel: 886 6 384 0689 ext. 3511 Fax: 886 6 384 0733 E Mail: Hellas Solar Greece3 P. Ioakim 5th fl. Athens 10673 Greece Tel: +30 210 7295506 Fax: +30 210 7257892 E mail: 6/10/

70 HeliodinâmicaBrazil Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 41, Vargem Grande Paulista - CEP 06730-970, Caixa Postal 111, São Paulo, Brasil Tel: 11 4158-3511 Fax: 11 4158-3755 E mail: Ilyich Iron & Steel WorksUkraine Mariupol, Levchenko str. 1, Ukraine, Donetsk Region 87504 Tel: 38 - (0629) - 39-33-78 Fax: 38 - (0623) - 32-26-32 E Mail: Innergy Power CorporationUnited States 9375 Customhouse Plaza Bldg 1, Suite J, San Diego, CA 92154 Tel: 1 619-710-0758 Fax: 1 619-710-0755 E Mail: ISSOL S.A./N.V.BelgiumQuai de la Vesdre 7 B-4800 Verviers Belgium Tel: 32 498 294 782 Fax: 32 87 33 81 64 E Mail: Istar Solar s.r.l.ItalyCorso Garibaldi, 83, Potenza (PZ), 85100 Italy Tel: 39 0971 485157 Fax: 39 0971 651970 E mail: ITALCOEL s.r.l.,Italy Via della bonifica, sn, Vallemare, Pescara, I-65010, Italy Tel: 39 085 9777 1 Fax: 39 085 9777 250 E Mail: KD Solar Co., LtdSouth Korea 12Fl, KD B/D, 4-4 Sunae, Bundang, Sungnam, Kyounggi, Korea Tel: 031 738 1901 Fax: 031 738 1999 E mail: 6/10/

71 Liselo (Pty )Ltd.South Africa PO Box 52869 Wierda Park, 0149 South Africa Tel: 012 - 6616604 Fax: 012 - 6617165 E Mail: Lucky Power Technology Taiwan No. 348, Shanying Rd., Gueishan Township, Taoyuan County 33341, Taiwan Tel: 886-3-3500730 Fax: 886-3-3500731 E Mail: MSK Corporation MSK Corporation (part of Suntech Power) Japan 17F Stec Joho Building 1-24-1, West Shinjuki, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan Tel: 81 3 3342 3881 Fax: 81 3 3342 6534 E Mail: NexPower Technology Corp. Taiwan 8F, No.1, Jin-Shan 7th St., HsinChu, 300, Taiwan, ROC 5 Tel: 886 3 666 8286 Fax: 886 3 666 8285 E Mail: Pacific SolarTechUnited States 44843 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94539 Tel: 1 510 979 1920 Fax: 1 510 979 1930 E Mail: sales@PacificSolar Power4AfricaNamibiaP O Box 1316 Tsumeb Namibia Tel: (067) 22 2219 Fax: (067) 22 2251 E Mail: PST (Perfect Source Technology Corp.) Taiwan No. 26, Huaya 1st Rd., Guishan Shiang, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan (Huaya Technology Park) Tel: 886 3 3180288 ext 1105 Fax: 886 3 3186118 E Mail: Romag Ltd United Kingdom Leadgate Industrial Park, Leadgate, County Durham DH8 7RS, UK Tel: 44 1207 500 000 Fax: 44 1207 591 979 E Mail: 6/10/

72 Saint-Gobain Glass-Solar Germany Julicher Strasse 495, 52070 Aachen, Germany Tel: 49 241 96 67 351 Fax: 49 241 96 67 241 E Mail: info.SGG- Scheuten Solar Systems BV The Netherlan ds Van Heemskerckweg 9, NL- 5928 LL Venlo (Blerick), The Netherlands Tel: 31 77 463 3779 Fax: 31 77 463 3228 E Mail: info@scheutensolarsyste Shenglong PV- Tech Co., Ltd China Suzhou Shenglong-solar PV- Tech Co.,Ltd Gangkou Development Zone Fenghuang Town, Zhang Jiagang City Jiangsu Province 215612 China Tel: 86 512 5848 7618 Fax: 86 512 5848 7851 E Mail: sales@shenglong- SilikenSpain Massamagrell, 36, Pol. Ind. Rafelbunyol, 46138, Rafelbunyol (Valencia), Spain Tel: 34 96 141 22 33 Fax: 34 96 141 05 14 E Mail: Solar Factory GmbH Germany Ferdinand-Reich Strasse 1, D-09599 Freiberg/Saxony, Germany Tel: 49 3731 30145 50 Fax: 49 3731 30145 67 E Mail: 6/10/

73 Solara AGGermany Behringstr. 16, D-22765 Hamburg, Germany Tel: 49 40 39 10 65 0 Fax: 49 40 39 10 65 99 E Mail: Solar-Fabrik AGGermany Munzinger Str. 10, 79111 Freiburg, Germany Tel: 49 761 4000 0 Fax: 49 761 4000 199 E Mail: SOLARIS d.o.oCroatia 52466 NOVIGRAD, Sv. Vidal 32b, Croatia Tel: 385 (0)52 758 630 Fax: 385 (0)52 726 030 E Mail: Solarnova, Produktions und Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH Germany Am Marienhof 6, 22880 Wedel, Germany Tel: 49 4103 91 208 0 Fax: 49 4103 91 208 10 E Mail: Solartron Co. LtdThailand 38 Chavanich Bldg. 2/FL, Soi Salinimit Sukhumvit 69, Bangkok 10110, Thailand Tel: 66 (0) 2392 0224-6 Fax: 66 (0) 2381 2971 E Mail: Solarwatt Solar- Systeme GmbH Germany Grenzstraße 28, D-01109 Dresden, Germany Tel: 49 351 88 95 - 0 Fax: 49 351 88 95 - 111 E Mail: SOLON Photovoltaik GmbH Germany Ederstrasse 16, D-12059 Berlin, Germany Tel: 49 30 /81 87 9 100 Fax: 49 30 81 87 9 110 E Mail: Spire Solar ChicagoUnited States The Chicago Center for Green Technology, 445 North Sacramento Blvd., Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA Tel: 1 773 638-8700 Fax: 1 773 638-8701 E Mail: 6/10/

74 Total Energie SAFrance Z.A.C. de la Tour 12/14 allée du Levant 69890 la Tour de Salvagny, France Tel: 33 (0)4 78 48 88 50 Fax: 33 (0)4 78 19 44 83 E Mail: TENESA (PTY) Ltd.South Africa 22 Harris Drive, Sunset Park, Ottery, Cape Town, South Africa 7790 Tel: 27 21 70 41 575 Fax: 27 21 73 96 11 E Mail: Trina Solar LimitedChinaChangzhou Jiangsu 213031 China Tel: 86-519-5485801 Fax: 86-519-5485802 E Mail: Webasto Systemcomponenete n GmbH & Co KG Germany Krainger Strasse 5, D-82131 Stockdorf, Germany Tel: 49 89 85794 940 Fax: 49 89 8577259 E Mail: Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co.,Ltd China Huanshan Road, Eco.&Tech. Develop Zone, Weihai, China Tel: 86 631 5969535 Fax: 86 631 5960535 E Mail: Wuxi Suntech Power Co., Ltd China 17-6 Chang Jiang South Road,Wuxi New District, China Tel: 86-510-5343323 Fax: 86-576-7278009 E Mail: Xi'an REW co., LtdChina No.11 WenJing North Road, The Economic & Technological Development Zone, Xi'an, China. Tel: 86-29-86512451 Fax: 86-29-86530350 E Mail: Xl Telecom LtdIndia 335, Chandralok Complex, Secunderabad - 500 003 India Tel: 91 40 27173827 Fax: 91 40 2784 0081 E Mail: Yuhuan Solar Energy Source Co, Ltd China No 101 Chengzhong Road, Zhugang Town, Yuhuan City, Zhejiang Province, China Tel: 86-576-7278148 Fax: 86-576-7278009 E Mail: 6/10/

75 SunWize Technologies United States 1155 Flatbush Road, Kingston, NY 12401 USA Tel: 1 845-336-0146 Fax: 1 845-336-0457 E Mail: Titan Energy Systems Ltd India 16 Aruna Enclave, Trimulgherry, Secunderabad, 500 015, India Tel: 91 40 779 1085 Fax: 91 40 779 5629 E Mail: 6/10/

76 Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd China 4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang Industrial Park II Xili Town, Nanshan District Shenzhen Guangdong China Tel: (86 755) 27653478Fax: (86 755) 27653475 E Mail: SunWare GmbH & Co. KG Germany Dusseldorfer Strasse 80, DE-47239, Duisburg (Rumeln), Germany Tel: 49 2151 406045 Fax: 49 2151 406208 E Mail: Sunworld (Shanghai) Solar Energy Technology Co., LtdChina Rm.1501, Tongquan Building, No.678 Gubei Road Changning District, Shanghai, China Tel: 86 21 6295 9165Fax: 86 21 6295 9216E Mail: 6/10/

77 Energy Sustainability Discussion Where does suns energy go? 6/10/

78 Sustainable Energy Technology Other Solar Thermal Reflecting mirrors, troughs,etc. Various designs, some tracking All use working fluid and turbine 6/10/

79 Sustainable Energy Technology Photovoltaics Around for at least 6 decades Roots in space program (1950s) Many useful applications Not typically economical in central station generation. System capital cost of approx. $4,500-9,500/kW Power cost of $0.15 to $0.5/kWh Intermittent power (usually requires energy storage) Peak output often coincident with peak electrical demands. 6/10/

80 Sustainable Energy Technology Large wind(>50kW) – large and utility applications. 6/10/

81 6/10/

82 Sustainable Energy Technology Fuel Cells: System operation Fuel Cell Stack Fuel Processing Electric power Conversion Balance of plant System integration is very important for both simple cycle & hybrid fuel cell system 6/10/

83 Sustainable Energy Technology Fuel Cell types 6/10/

84 Sustainable Energy Technology Renewable hybrid Systems 6/10/

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