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Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man. Henry Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn (1948) in Personality.

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Presentation on theme: "Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man. Henry Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn (1948) in Personality."— Presentation transcript:

1 Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man. Henry Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn (1948) in Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture

2 Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man. Small group discussion Find something that your whole group has is common, something some of you have in common, something that makes each of you unique. What kind of differences have you observed (or would you expect) in a typical classroom?

3 Individual Differences Intelligence Personality Interests

4 Importance of physics class UnimportantSlightly Neutral Slightly Important unimportant important Entire physics class

5 Group differences in importance UnimportantSlightly Neutral Slightly Important unimportant important Other non-majors Engineering majors Physics majors

6 Personalized system of instruction

7 Group differences in PSI

8 Aptitude theory Aptitude-Treatment Interactions (ATI) Adapting instruction to meet students individual characteristics improves outcomes

9 Intelligence Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Mental age/chronological age x 100 Mean is 100, 68% of population between 85 and 115, only 16% above 115 Correlates with academic achievement r=.50

10 Spearmans theory g SSSSS

11 Thurstones Primary Mental Abilities Verbal comprehension Word fluency Number facility Spatial visualization Associative memory Perceptual speed Reasoning

12 General Intelligence Gc (Crystallized) Gf (Fluid) Verbal Comprehension Numerical Ability Word fluency Spatial Rotations Perceptual Speed Reasoning

13 Crystallized intelligence Volume, depth and breadth of knowledge in various domains Content knowledge specific to domains May be product of Gf Efficiency in well- practiced domains Stable or increases with age Fluid Intelligence Analytic problem-solving abilities General ability applicable to new situations Efficiency in new domains Decreases with age

14 Gc and Gf tests What month comes right before December? What is the capital of France? Who was Mark Twain? What's the difference between a civil and criminal court trial?

15 When is Gf or Gc more important?

16 What does intelligence predict? School achievement (r=.50) Verbal intelligence scores predict reading achievement (r=.83) General intelligence predicts career success (r=.41) Work evaluations (r=.50) Occupational status, changes in occupational status, acquisition of knowledge in occupational settings, and income

17 Aptitude-Treatment Interactions with Intelligence Speed of learning and amount of practice required Amount of structure needed, scaffolding

18 Personality traits Enduring tendencies to behave in a certain way across situations Big Five personality traits

19 Example personality questions Rate each of the adjectives below as they apply to you on a scale 1 to 9, extremely inaccurate to accurate Talkative Sympathetic Orderly Envious Deep

20 Openness to Experience Conservatism Big Five Personality Traits Imaginative, intellectual, variety-seeking Down-to-earth, prefers routines

21 Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Conservatism Spontaneity Big Five Personality Traits Organized, planful, dependable Pleasure-seeking, undependable

22 Extroversion Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Introversion Conservatism Spontaneity Big Five Personality Traits Talkative, sociable, assertive Quiet, solitary, reserved

23 Extraversion Openness to Experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness Introversion Conservatism Individualism Spontaneity Big Five Personality Traits Warmhearted, trusting, compassionate Skeptical, self-serving

24 Emotional Stability Neuroticism Extraversion Openness to Experience Agreeableness Conscientiousness Introversion Conservatism Individualism Spontaneity Big Five Personality Traits Calm, even-temperedEmotional, anxious, irritable

25 Work performance interaction

26 Adapting instruction to personality Grouping extroverts and introverts What personality dimension would relate to having high test anxiety? Encouraging students to explore other cultures or perspectives Social skills training Homework and project reminders

27 Interests Enduring preferences for certain activities, hobbies, or occupations. Hollands vocational personality or interest types Individuals may have many or few interests

28 Example interest questions Check Yes/No Are you... Mechanical? Persuasive? Friendly? Can you... Start projects? Play a musical instrument? Lead a group? Do you like to... Perform experiments? Do volunteer service? Work in groups?

29 Realistic Conventional Enterprising Social Artistic Investigative Occupational interests and environments Architect, Firefighter Accountant, Librarian Journalist, Stockbroker Nurse, Teacher Musician, Writer Scientist, Engineer

30 Anyone preparing to teach: How might individual differences affect your instruction? Pick a specific example of how you might have to adapt to differences in intelligence, personality, interests, or cultural backgrounds. Anyone interested in measurement: Do individual differences ever act as construct-irrelevant sources of error on tests? Consider personality and interest traits. Anyone interested in health care: how do individual differences in patients affect how you interact with them? Anyone interested in counseling: What kind of assessments have you given clients to better assess their counseling needs? How could you use the traits we talked about today for career counseling? Marriage counseling? Occupational counseling?

31 Areas of controversy Heritability of traits All traits are influenced by experience

32 Take away messages General intelligence is an important predictor of learning and life outcomes. Intelligence is a hierarchy of general and specific abilities that help us to adapt to a variety of situations. Personality is an important contributor to success in life beyond intelligence. Interest help us understand why individuals with the same level of intelligence choose different paths in life. Individual differences are important to adapting instruction in the classroom to optimize learning.


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