Presentation on theme: "“Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man.” Henry Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn (1948) in Personality."— Presentation transcript:
1 “Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man.”Henry Murray and Clyde Kluckhohn (1948) in Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture
2 “Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man.”Small group discussion—Find something that your whole group has is common, something some of you have in common, something that makes each of you unique.What kind of differences have you observed (or would you expect) in a typical classroom?
12 Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Word fluency Speed Spatial Reasoning General IntelligenceGc(Crystallized)Gf(Fluid)VerbalComprehensionNumericalAbilityWord fluencySpatialRotationsPerceptualSpeedReasoningDefine gc and gf here and narrower abilities
13 Crystallized intelligence Volume, depth and breadth of knowledge in various domainsContent knowledge specific to domainsMay be product of GfEfficiency in well- practiced domainsStable or increases with ageFluid IntelligenceAnalytic problem-solving abilitiesGeneral ability applicable to new situationsEfficiency in new domainsDecreases with ageLet’s talk about gc and gf in more detail
14 Gc and Gf tests What month comes right before December? What is the capital of France?Who was Mark Twain?What's the difference between a civil and criminal court trial?
16 What does intelligence predict? School achievement (r=.50)Verbal intelligence scores predict reading achievement (r=.83)General intelligence predicts career success (r=.41)Work evaluations (r=.50)Occupational status, changes in occupational status, acquisition of knowledge in occupational settings, and income
17 Aptitude-Treatment Interactions with Intelligence Speed of learning and amount of practice requiredAmount of structure needed, scaffolding
18 Personality traitsEnduring tendencies to behave in a certain way across situationsBig Five personality traits
19 Example personality questions Rate each of the adjectives below as they apply to you on a scale 1 to 9, extremely inaccurate to accurateTalkativeSympatheticOrderlyEnviousDeep
20 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to ExperienceConservatismImaginative, intellectual, variety-seekingDown-to-earth, prefers routines
21 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to ExperienceConservatismConscientiousnessSpontaneityOrganized, planful, dependablePleasure-seeking, undependable
22 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to ExperienceConservatismConscientiousnessSpontaneityIntroversionExtroversionTalkative, sociable, assertiveQuiet, solitary, reserved
23 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to ExperienceConservatismConscientiousnessSpontaneityIntroversionExtraversionAgreeablenessIndividualismWarmhearted, trusting,compassionateSkeptical, self-serving
24 Big Five Personality Traits Openness to ExperienceConservatismConscientiousnessSpontaneityIntroversionExtraversionAgreeablenessIndividualismEmotional StabilityNeuroticismCalm, even-temperedEmotional, anxious, irritable
26 Adapting instruction to personality Grouping extroverts and introvertsWhat personality dimension would relate to having high test anxiety?Encouraging students to explore other cultures or perspectivesSocial skills trainingHomework and project reminders
27 InterestsEnduring preferences for certain activities, hobbies, or occupations.Holland’s vocational “personality” or interest typesIndividuals may have many or few interests
28 Example interest questions Check Yes/NoAre you...Mechanical?Persuasive?Friendly?Can you...Start projects?Play a musical instrument?Lead a group?Do you like to...Perform experiments?Do volunteer service?Work in groups?
30 Anyone preparing to teach: How might individual differences affect your instruction? Pick a specific example of how you might have to adapt to differences in intelligence, personality, interests, or cultural backgrounds.Anyone interested in measurement: Do individual differences ever act as construct-irrelevant sources of error on tests? Consider personality and interest traits.Anyone interested in health care: how do individual differences in patients affect how you interact with them?Anyone interested in counseling: What kind of assessments have you given clients to better assess their counseling needs? How could you use the traits we talked about today for career counseling? Marriage counseling? Occupational counseling?
31 Areas of controversy Heritability of traits All traits are influenced by experience
32 Take away messagesGeneral intelligence is an important predictor of learning and life outcomes.Intelligence is a hierarchy of general and specific abilities that help us to adapt to a variety of situations.Personality is an important contributor to success in life beyond intelligence.Interest help us understand why individuals with the same level of intelligence choose different paths in life.Individual differences are important to adapting instruction in the classroom to optimize learning.