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6th Grade Social Studies

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1 6th Grade Social Studies
Geography Terms Unit! Part I: GLE’s G-1A-M1 and G-1B-M1

2 G-IA-MI – maps & data interpretation.
MAP KEY: Also called a map “legend” it’ the part of a map that explains the symbols and/or colors on the map; sometimes it includes the title of the map. These are ALL “Map Keys” or Legends – note that they can be fairly simple and easy to use—while others can get quite involved and complex. Now let’s use one!

3 Use the Map Key to: This is a map of World War One Europe.
1.) Identify 3 countries that belonged to the Triple Entente 2.) Identify 3 countries that belonged to the Central Powers also known as the Triple Alliance. 3.) Identify 3 neutral countries

4 This is a map of the provinces in the country of the Netherlands
Use the Map Key to: 1.) Identify the provincial capital of Utrecht. 2.) What type of city is Rotterdam? 3.) What are the provincial capitals of North Holland– and 4.) South Holland? 5.) What type of City is Amsterdam?

5 Use the Map Key to answer:
This is a Tourist Map of sites in New Orleans! Use the Map Key to answer: 1.) What street(s) will help you locate the Audubon Aquarium of the Americas? 2.) Between what two streets would you “shop Magazine Street”? 3.) The National World War II Museum is along/near what two streets? 4.) If you would want to take a ferry across the Mississippi to Algiers, you would go to the end of what street? 5.) Along what street can you find the Lilette Café?

6 Key Terms … Map Symbols: lines and/or pictures that represent various information on a map. Distance Scale: a segmented line on a map that helps convert the distances between locations on the map to the actual miles or kilometers between those locations on the earth. Compass rose: direction indicator on a map that usually includes the cardinal directions as well as intermediate directions (usually with points/pointers). Cardinal directions: The compass directions of North, South, East and West. Intermediate directions: The compass directions that include those found between the cardinal directions, such as northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest, north-northeast, south southwest, east-southeast, etc.

7 Can you find? -The Distance Scale? -The Compass Rose?
-The Cardinal Directions? -The Intermediate Directions? -Some Map Symbols? -Where is a toll road? -Traveling from Shreveport to New Orleans, in what direction are you traveling? -You’re in Monroe, what direction are you from Lafayette? -About how many miles traveling from Lafayette to Shreveport, and in what direction will you travel? What US Highway could you take from New Orleans to get to Lafayette? -If you wanted to cross from Shreveport to Monroe, what Interstate Highway would you take?

8 What can you find/learn from this map?
The Legend? A Distance Scale? Map Symbols? Compass Rose? Cardinal Directions? Intermediate Directions? What State is Texas south of? In what direction must you travel to get from Arkansas to Texas? From Dallas to Amarillo? Locate three Interstate Highways in Texas. Which way will you travel to get from San Antonio to Dallas? To Houston? To El Paso?

9 Now let’s learn about finding places on our planet: Earth!
As you can see—our Earth is a “round” ball-shaped object called a “SPHERE”. The Greek word sounded as “hemi” means “half”, so if we want to look at half of our planet—we want to look at a “hemisphere”. But which way do we cut it in half to look at the two “Hemispheres”? Well, Geographers and map makers chose two ways to “cut” the Earth in half. One down the middle, giving us the East and West hemispheres as the two halves. Another was across the center—giving us the Northern and Southern hemispheres, if cut that way.

10 Now here is where the two cuts are made—we give those cut lines a name!
Remember: You can only have TWO hemispheres to make the earth; but with TWO ways of cutting it—there are FOUR possible hemispheres!

11 Let’s look at slicing it from the North Pole down to the South Pole, first.
Here on the left is the WESTERN Hemisphere. Notice it’s both Americas, a little of Western Europe and Africa, Greenland and the Caribbean, and most of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Here on the right is the EASTERN Hemisphere. Notice it has the most land, with most of Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, most of Europe and the entire Indian Ocean.

12 Remember, we told you the line we “slice” has a name
Remember, we told you the line we “slice” has a name. This N/S line separating East from West line is called the Prime Meridian. Notice the ORANGE line cutting north-to-south. THIS is the line we call the Prime Meridian. Notice it passes directly through the town of Greenwich, England. For this reason it is also called the Greenwich Meridian. This is the first line of many we call “LONGITUDE” lines, it is ZERO degrees longitude and separates the Western hemisphere (left) from the Eastern hemisphere (right)—more on that later. Remember you can ONLY separate the East and West hemispheres through this line. See that red line—we’ll cover that next!

13 Now let’s look from top and bottom.
Here on the left you see the top, or NORTH view of the Earth—the Northern Hemisphere. Note that seen this way you see most land. North America, part of South, Europe, Asia, and most of Africa are all found in the northern hemisphere. Here on the right you see the SOUTH view of Earth—the Southern Hemisphere. Note it is mostly water, with only most of South America, part of Africa, Australia, and Antarctica, parts of all the major oceans are in the southern hemisphere.

14 The E to W LINE separating North and South has a name, too: The Equator!
Let’s go back to this map. NOW look at the RED line. That is the place you slice the earth to separate the northern hemisphere from the southern. These lines, cutting from east to west also have a name—LATITUDE; but for now, we only focus on the line that is ZERO degrees of latitude. It’s that red one called the Equator. So now we know those lines that separate the hemispheres: the Prime Meridian separates the Eastern and Western hemispheres; the Equator separates the Northern and Southern hemisphere.

15 We call the points where ALL lines of longitude meet, the POLES
We call the points where ALL lines of longitude meet, the POLES. They meet at the top of the Northern Hemisphere (Below) and bottom of the Southern; hence the North “pole” and the South Pole! The “Poles” are the imaginary points around which the Earth ROTATES on its AXIS (the imaginary pole passing through the Earth that it spins on.

16 LATITUDE! Let’s learn about locating places on a map using these two terms: Latitude, (Remember the EQUATOR is ZERO degrees latitude.) and Longitude, (Remember the Prime Meridian is ZERO degrees Longitude.) We’ll start with the Equator, (zero) and work up (NORTH) and down (SOUTH) using lines that run like the Equator does (east to west)—THESE are the lines of “Latitude”. Look CAREFULLY at the diagram! Note that the EQUATOR is at ZERO. As you move toward the North Pole, you have lines—North Latitude lines; as you move to the South Pole, you have lines—South Latitude Lines. These are measured from the center in DEGREES, just like you would using a protractor. Do you notice how all the lines are the SAME distance apart, and ALL run in the same E/W direction? They are also called, Parallels!

17 Because latitude lines run all the way around the world, horizontally, once the measure in degrees reaches 90 (north pole) they begin to go back down to zero on the opposite side of the pole. Latitudes lines (parallels) run from the east to the west, circle the globe, and measure distance in degrees about how for NORTH or SOUTH of the equator the line is. (Example: New Orleans is on the 30 degrees, NORTH latitude line. Notice how knowing that is NOT enough to find the exact location of New Orleans—for that you need another line, cutting from top to bottom so you can see where they cross—that will be covered in the next topic! Because of the “tilt” of the Earth in space, we have given four more lines of latitude special names. Besides the Equator, these lines are the two tropics: Tropic of Cancer at 23.5 N, and Tropic of Capricorn at 23.5 S. We also have the Arctic Circle at 66.5 N, and the Antarctic Circle at 66.5 S. We’ll now examine how this came to be!

18 Note how the Earth’s TILT, creates an area always in light, or in shadow, above the 66.5 N line, or below the 66.5 S. That’s because the Earth is tilted over by 23.5 degrees from a perfect vertical position. So the two “circles” are at 90 – 23.5, or 66.5 degrees North and South. Arctic Circle: N. Lat. Antarctic Circle: S. Lat. Again, because of this TILT, the sun is DIRECTLY overhead up to 23.5 degrees NORTH (our summer), then when the Earth swings to the opposite side of the sun, it is then overhead at 23.5 degrees SOUTH (our winter). These opposite points of overhead sun create the lines we call the TROPICS!

19 Latitude Wrap-up ! The Tropics !
We now can account for SEVEN lines or points of Latitude. The North Pole: 90 degrees North Lat. The Arctic Circle: 66.5 degrees North Lat. The Tropic of Cancer: 23.5 degrees N. Lat. The Equator: at ZERO degrees Latitude. The Tropic of Capricorn: 23.5 degrees S. Lat. The Antarctic Circle: at 66.5 degrees S. Lat. The South Pole: 90 degrees South Lat.

20 Longitude Now let’s learn about those “other” lines. “LONGITUDE” also called “Meridians”. These lines do NOT completely circle the earth, like latitude; they only run from the North Pole, down to the South Pole. Since they don’t go all the way around, we get twice as many lines per hemisphere. Using that protractor we find we can fit 180 degrees in each hemisphere, east, and west.

21 PRIME MERIDIAN Let’s look first at the earth without the maps, so we can see clearly how the longitude lines look. Notice, they run from North Pole to South Pole, and remember, they are called “meridians” and begin at ZERO degrees, on a line called the “Prime Meridian” –the difference between this line and the equator, is that it is vertical, and only goes around HALF of the globe—the Back half has a different name! Here you can see the lines are in “degrees” just like the latitudes only they measure angular distance EAST or WEST of the Prime Meridian. Since they all meet at the poles they are NOT parallel, and seem to slice the Earth in wedges. There are 180 degrees East and 180 degrees West Long.

22 Now let’s review: Just knowing latitude will NOT help us pinpoint one location.
Same for just knowing longitude, both only tell you an entire LINE a location is on. But having both latitude AND longitude we create a “GRID”. The lines now criss-cross, and NOW we can pinpoint an exact location, by knowing it’s exact line of latitude (N or S) and its exact line of longitude, (E or W).

23 Here you see a large FLAT grid
Here you see a large FLAT grid! It’s a Mercator map of the world, showing the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) zones. You do NOT need to know that; but it is a good example of how a GRID can help you find a place on a map. Let’s Find New Orleans. Remember we said it was at 30 degrees NORTH latitude. Find that line first—look across it! Good, now look at the lines of longitude and find -90 (That’s 90W) Look up and down that line till you hit the 30 N. Lat line. And Presto! If you did it right, you’ll see EXACTLY where New Orleans is: 30 degrees N Lat and 90 degrees W long. This is called a “co-ordinate”

24 Now here we have the more common (every FIVE degrees) map showing latitude and longitude. It seems to fan wider because the Earth is, after all, a sphere. Of course since the United States is ONLY in the Northern Hemisphere, and ONLY in the Western, all coordinates WILL be N. Latitude, and W Longitude. Now from what we’ve learned about using a “grid” like this to locate a place on a map, see if you can find these locations: 30˚ N Lat. 95˚ W Long ; 34˚ N 119˚ W; 41˚ N, 74˚ W. This one was right near Houston, Texas! And these bring you to New York City! These coordinate bring you near Los Angeles! The other two arrows point to Chicago, Illinois, and Las Vegas, Nevada. Can you estimate the coordinates? Chicago is approx. 42 N, 88 W. Las Vegas is approx. 36 N, and 115 W.

25 We already know that the ZERO line of longitude is the Prime Meridian, we also know longitude lines go from pole to pole and do NOT wrap all the way around the earth, like latitude lines do. So what is on the “flip” side of the Prime Meridian? What about that 180 degree line? While there is a STRAIGHT longitude line at 180 degrees, the most commonly mentioned “opposite” of the Prime Meridian is this Zig-Zag line we call The International Date Line. It begins at the North Pole, 180 degrees, and for the most follows that longitude line to the South Pole; but because of national BOUNDARIES, that want to stay inside the same DATE, this line (also called the IDL) Zigs and Zags around those borders. Notice how in ONE location, the line REALLY takes a weird shape; that’s because of the island nation of Kiribati which decided it wanted to stay on the WESTERN side of the IDL. (Eastern Hemisphere)

26 Look carefully at the map below, and you’ll see WHY we have an International Date Line. There MUST be a place where one day becomes the next—so the opposite side from the Prime Meridian was chosen. There are 24 hours in a day—so the earth was divided into 24 TIME ZONES. That said, the DAY always flips if you cross the IDL. Traveling from West to East, you change to the NEXT DAY. Traveling from East to West—(across the IDL) you change to the PREVIOUS DAY! Tuesday Monday

27 The earth rotates across fifteen degrees of longitude in about an hour
The earth rotates across fifteen degrees of longitude in about an hour. (360 divided by 15 is 24= 24 hours/day.) So every 15 degrees of longitude means a difference in time of approximately 1 hour. To handle this, we have created TIME ZONES. Below, the Yellow is EASTERN time (standard/daylight [DST]), the Green is CENTRAL, the Blue is MOUNTAIN, and the Red is PACIFIC. (Alaska is Purple and Hawaii is Orange because they are much further to the WEST). If it is NOON in New York City, (EST/EDT) as you go west it gets EARLIER, so it would be 11 AM in New Orleans, (CST/CDT) 10 AM in Denver (MST/MDT) and 9 AM in Los Angeles (PST/PDT). It is important to remember when using a Time Zone map that you do NOT count the time from the starting zone in calculating the time to your destination. Example Problem: If you take off from Washington DC on a jet, and fly west to Denver, Colorado. The Flight takes TWO HOURS, You leave Washington DC at 3:00 PM. What time is it when you land in Denver? (hint: don’t forget to take your FLIGHT TIME into consideration. 3:00 PM in Denver!

28 Key Terms … Equator: The imaginary line that circles the earth in an east-west direction, halfway between the north and south poles and measured as 0 degrees latitude. Latitude/Longitude: Latitude lines are imaginary lines that circle the earth in an east-west direction, tell north-south locations from the equator to the North or South Pole, and are parallel to each other. Latitude lines are measured from 0˚ to 90˚ north of the equator and from 0˚ to 90˚ south of the equator. Longitude lines are imaginary lines that do NOT circle the earth and are NOT parallel. These lines are drawn between the North and South Poles, intersecting at these points, telling east-west locations from the Prime Meridian (0˚ longitude). Longitude lines are measured from 0˚ to 179˚ east OR west of the Prime Meridian. There is only one 180˚ longitude: the International Date Line somewhat follows this line of longitude.

29 Prime Meridian: The imaginary line drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole, through Greenwich, England, and measured as 0˚ Longitude. North and South Poles: The North Pole is the northern point of the earth’s axis; it is measured as 90˚ N. Latitude and is the farthest distance north of the equator on earth. The South Pole is the southern point of the earth’s axis; it is measured as 90˚ S. Latitude and is the farthest distance south of the equator on earth. Tropic of Capricorn: an imaginary line measured 23˚ S. Latitude; it is the southern-most boundary of the tropics and the place on earth where the most direct rays of the sun strike directly overhead during the winter solstice. (approx. Dec. 22)

30 Tropic of Cancer: an imaginary line measured at 23˚ N
Tropic of Cancer: an imaginary line measured at 23˚ N. Latitude; it is the northern-most boundary of the tropics and the place on earth where the most direct rays of the sun strike directly overhead during the summer solstice. (approx. June 22) Hemisphere: means half a sphere. Dividing the earth at the equator creates the Northern Hemisphere (all north of the equator) and the Southern Hemisphere (all south of the equator). Dividing the earth at the Prime Meridian and 180˚ creates the Western Hemisphere (all the earth west of the Prime Meridian to 180˚) and the Eastern Hemisphere (all the earth east of the Prime Meridian to 180˚) Time Zones: created by committee in zones drawn approx every 15˚ of longitude, that begin (and end) at 180˚; locations west of 180˚are the day ahead of locations east of 180˚

31 Types of Maps Physical maps: are maps that use lines, colors and/or symbols to show natural features (landforms and bodies of water) of the earth’s surface. Political maps show man-made features, national boundaries, state boundaries, cities, etc. of the earth’s surface. General Purpose Maps: use lines, colors, and/or symbols to show specific information such as roads, economic activity, demographics (populations), location of minerals, natural resources, etc. Relief maps: are maps that show elevation of the earth’s surface, it’s topography, mountains, canyons and often use contour lines.

32 Physical Map: of Africa
While we don’t have a key, THIS IS a “Physical” map. It focuses primarily on landforms, bodies of water, and, in general the physical features of the earth, such as: Lowlands and plains. Highlands and mountains. Rivers and lakes. Seas: (Mediterranean and Red here) Islands and oceans: Island of Madagascar, Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean here!

33 Political Map: of Africa
Notice the difference in a Political Map, and the previous Physical Map. Here, on the Political map, we focus primarily on the COUNTRIES– the national BOUNDARIES, the CITIES, etc. Yes, it does show some of the obvious bodies of water, like the Mediterranean Sea, and the two oceans; but the purpose of this map is exactly what title state: Political! And political means nationally, man-made features, usually shown in different color blocs for each nation, and dots for cities on the map.

Here we see THREE “examples” of general purpose maps. The top left is a demographic map showing the concentration of Mormon population in the United States. The lower left is a map showing how the land areas are primarily used in the island nation of Ireland. Finally we see a general purpose map of the natural resources found in Africa, things like, gas, oil, diamonds, copper, gold, etc. all have their own symbol and you can see where they are found.

35 Relief and Contour Maps:
Some “Relief” maps are practically the same as a “physical map”—but others, like the map on the left, show a good 3-dimensional view of the landforms without a lot of names and lines. Still others are really “contour” maps, like the one to the right. Those lines are called “contour” lines and here they show lines of equal elevation. As you cross a line you either gain altitude (height), or lose it.

36 Can you identify these types of maps?

37 Types of GRAPHS Graphs come in many types, the most common are the
Circle or Pie Graphs Bar Graphs Line Graphs Pictographs You need to KNOW that each of these graphs are useful ways to present information visually and condense large amounts of data. Graphs show trends and the relationships between two or more sets of data!

38 Circle or Pie Graphs: The pie graph on the left shows how much of US energy comes from different sources. Can you answer: What is the largest source of energy? What percentage is Nuclear? Fossil fuels include anything from petroleum, natural gas, and coal. What is the total percentage of US energy that comes from fossil fuel? This circle graph to the left, indicates the ethnicity (race or nationality) of a group of students in a particular class. Use it to answer these questions: What demographic group (population) represents the largest share of students? What group is the smallest? What percentage of the class is either Hispanic OR African American?

39 Using a BAR Graph This is your typical “Bar” graph—this one is vertical (up and down). Look at all the different kinds of data you can get from it. It tells the percentage of people working (jobs) by age groups in two different years ( ) Can you find out: What age group was the largest percentage in 2001? In 2006? Did the people between ages go up or down from 2001 to 2006? What about the people aged 60 to 64? Other bar graphs, like this “rain” one may be horizontal, (left-to-right). It too can tell us a lot of data. Can you tell: What is the rainiest month of the year? How many inches of rain falls in the driest month? Does it seem to have the most rainfall in the first half of the year, or the last half? How much more rain falls in June, than in August?

40 Using a LINE Graph: Some graphs combine the bars with the lines. Here the bars tell the temperature, and the blue line the average rainfall in Manaus, Brazil. What month shows the least rain? The highest temperature? How many months average more than 10 inches of rainfall? This is a standard line graph. It is on a GRID, and you look to the left or right, and bottom to get your data! This one uses many lines to compare data. Can you tell which product had the greatest increase in sales? Decrease? How much did Z make in November?

41 Using PICTOGRAPHS Pictographs use drawings and/or pictures to represent data in a graph. On this first pictograph see if you can answer the following: What is the least popular sport? How many children like baseball? How many more prefer soccer to basketball? –can you see why these graphs are used, and how they can offer a LOT of data. Now use THIS pictograph to see if you can answer these questions? How many students are in the Science Club? How many are in the Drama Club? How many are in the Writer’s Club? How many are in the CHESS Club? How many students are in clubs – total?

42 Using Graphic Organizers!
Graphic Organizers are mental maps that illustrate how information is organized. They help visualize information as a set of relationships, rather than isolated facts. They can be used to interpret, evaluate and draw conclusions about information and to prepare essays, reports and presentations. Some examples include the following: Venn Diagrams Tables Webbing Fishbone mapping Storyboards Timelines Concept Maps

43 Let’s look at some Graphic Organizers, and GET the Information! (DATA)
The Venn Diagram (left) is very common, and used when certain demographics or characteristics overlap. The storyboard (below) is used to help plan a course of action, or to show a natural sequence of events. See if you can answer the teacher directed questions. See if, from these, you can come up with some “conclusions” of your own!

44 More Graphic Organizers
Webbing is very similar to concept mapping. (Usually just a matter of names). Above you see the concept of “specialization of labor – in the center – and around it, are the things that caused it to happen—a “web” of causes! Here we see that some webs can become quite complicated. This is a “food web” and it shows all the different ways and places animals and plants fit into the food scheme of all the other organisms within an ecosystem. This is much more complex than a simple chain, or pyramid—both of with are also graphic organizers. Here we see a so-called concept MAP—see the similarity? I know it’s not easy to read but it shows the interconnections that led to the development of the Sumerian Civilization in ancient Mesopotamia. Can YOU make a web, or concept map about your family? Try it!

45 More Graphic Organizers
The “Fishbone” (well named) map is usually used to illustrate and explain, causes and effects that led to a specific goal—such as all the developments AND their causes, that led to CULTURE in the diagram done below!

46 The TIMELINE Timelines are very handy tools that allow us to see events in their sequence of time and compare them to surrounding events. Some timelines are vertical, others horizontal. The one at left is about the civilizations that developed in Mesopotamia—beginning with Sumer. The bottom is one of World Events AND events in the history of Rome. You MUST be very careful in using them to answer questions based on where you see words like “after” and “before”.

47 More Graphic Organizers
Finally, we look at the “flowchart” (left) which shows a path of possible outcomes, sometimes using diamond an rectangle shapes—and a “table” of information like the two shown below. See if you can answer teacher generated questions—or make some yourself!

48 Types of Precipitation
Precipitation is ALL forms of water (snow, rain, sleet, or hail) that falls from the atmosphere onto the earth’s surface. Timing and volume of precipitation are aspects of CLIMATE! Geographers divide precipitation into three types: Convectional, Orographic, and frontal. Frontal is when a cold, or warm front pushes the air up, condenses-then precip. Convectional is caused by warm air rising in air currents and falling as precip. Orographic is caused by physical terrain pushing air up.

49 Borders: The limit or extent within which a system exists or functions, including a social group, a state, or physical features. These are also called boundaries. Strategic Location: A place whose importance relies on its relative location to other places. (example Mesopotamia, Rome, New Orleans) Topography of bodies of water and major land forms: (mountains, barrier islands,) The shape of the earth’s surface to include its land forms and bodies of water. Natural Resources: (coal, oil, gold, forests/timber) materials that humans take from the natural environment to survive and satisfy their needs and wants.

50 Altitude: The heightof a place above sea level.
Climate : is the kind of weather a place has over a period of years and decades. Climate Zones: Your book claims SIX climate zones: Tropical: Humid, warm, often with rainforests. Dry: also called “arid” and “desert” – very little precip. Moderate: also “Temperate” mild summers/winters precip. This is also sometimes called “subtropical”. Continental: Hot moderately dry summers, and Cold winters, often with a lot of precip/snow. This is because inland the water can’t keep it cool in summer or warm in winter. Polar: Also “Arctic” VERY cold, near the poles, LOTS of ice and snow, very little vegetation. Highland: A zone that gets rain on the windward side, but because of altitude is cooler than the lower lands.

51 Arable: Soil that is capable of being cultivated and farmed.
Non-arable: soil that lacks the nutrients to support crops. Naturally plants grow almost everywhere on earth, but they do not grow alone. GROUPS of plants tend to be interdependent and regions are classified by their natural “vegetation” (types of plant life). Forests: Most prominent vegetation are trees. Grasslands: (includes prairies) Lands where the vegetation are mostly types of grass from tall, to scrub. Deserts: vegetation must be hardy and capable to go long periods without water—such as cacti. Tundra: Very little vegetation but what is there MUST be able to survive bitter cold, and little/no trees.

52 Coastlines: Refers to land along an ocean
Coastlines: Refers to land along an ocean. Countries without coastlines are said to be “LANDLOCKED”. Time Zones: A division of the earth, approximately 15 degrees of longitude, within which the time at the central meridian of the division represents the whole division. (in other words they all have the same time in a particular time zone!) Human Characteristics of places: These can be social, cultural, and economic processes. They are patterns of behavior and custom in different locations. Migration: the movement of people within a country or region to live elsewhere within that country/region. Immigration: The movement of people from one country to live in ANOTHER country.

53 Industrial: used for manufacturing and other industries.
Land Use: is the range of uses of the earth’s surface by humans. Some uses are classified as: Urban: development of cities and city areas. Rural: maintains country-farming regions—not heavily populated, lots of farms, trees, very small communities. Agricultural: used for large farms, growing of crops and other plants for human use. Forested: covered with heavy unpopulated areas of trees. These can be “sub-classed” into: Low-density residential: mostly homes/houses used for living families, but spread out and not overcrowded. Industrial: used for manufacturing and other industries. Nursery crops: growing of small amounts of small food crops to be sold for growth in other or larger areas.

54 Economic Development: of a region is measured by the way its people earn a living, its level of technological development, its level of urbanization and other demographic factors. Demography: the study of population statistics, (these can be simply human, or based on sub-groups of different human populations such as by wealth, ethnicity, religion, etc. and changes and trends based on various measures of population growth, decline and migration. Population centers: measure the percentage of a regions population that lives urban or rural. Population density: is the number of individuals occupying an area derived from dividing the number of people by the area they occupy.

55 Settlement Patterns: The spatial distribution and arrangement of human habitations (dwellings) including rural and urban centers. Cultural Diversity – Religions: Cultural diversity is the makeup of many different cultural and belief systems, languages, social relationships, institutions, organizations and material goods to include religions. Economic Activities: categories of the ways people earn a living. These include: Primary: those directly in contact with natural resources, such as forestry, agriculture, fishing, mining and drilling. Secondary: those activities involved in mass production and manufacturing, such as a bakery, bottling plants, a refinery and/or other factories. And: Tertiary: those jobs that are service industries, such as: doctors, teachers, repair people, nurses, secretaries and bus drivers. The use of computers and electronic communications is changing some service industries, which they consider a subdivision of tertiary industries.

56 Historic Events: Events/things that happened, which have impacted history, and are of an importance to understand history and its context, such as: The Battle of Tours, The development of writing, the invention of the wheel, the Black Death, and countless others. Cultural diffusion: The process of spreading cultural traits from one person or society into another. Imperialism: Activities of a stronger nation/culture in establishing political or economic control over other countries or areas—often against the will of those other countries.

57 Precipitation Patterns: A diagram or model which shows how much precipitation is distributed over an area and/or how much these are subject to change. These maps of the US show precipitation patterns during a counter-El-niňo year—notice the shifts from start to finish! This map shows the average rainfall across the United States in any given year—another precipitation “pattern”.

58 Population Patterns: similar to precipitation patterns, these show and illustrate where different populations and societies of human populations are found, how densely they are populated, and often other demographic patterns such as where most Irish, German or French immigrants have moved to. Settlement Patterns: Another illustration that shows where specific areas of development into settlement areas took place, such as along rivers, and other strategic locations and how or why they grew and developed.

59 This is a map of the colonial development of the Americas
This is a map of the colonial development of the Americas. See if you can find settlement patterns, borders, strategic locations, demographics, what about terms like “imperialism”? Use what you already know to find the key, which country controlled most of each continent. With this you have learned the first half of all the “Geography” terms and concepts you MUST learn, and understand fully before iLEAP testing. If there is ANYTHING you have difficulty with on ANY of these frames—take it up in class. Ask questions, do research and try to find or make an example of at least five of these terms/concepts EVERY DAY!

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