2.1 Paris Ile-de-France2.2 Champagne Lorraine Alsace2.3 Nord-- Pas-de-Calais Picardy Normandy Brittany2.4 The Loire Valley Central France2.5 Burgundy Franche-Comté2.6 Lyon-Rhône-Alpes2.7 Poitou-Charentes Limousin2.8 Bordeaux Perigord Gascony Basque Country2.9 Toulouse Quercy Aveyron2.10 Roussillon Languedoc Cévennes2.11 Provence Côte d'Azur2.12 Corsica Regional cuisines Midi Pyrenees, Aquitaine & Languedoc, Roussillon Brittany & Normandy Paris & Isle de France Massif Alpin, Lyon Alsace & Lorraine Pays de Loire / Center Riviera / Provence
950000 – 80000 BC - Homo Erectus - Earliest humans found in France followed by the Neanderthals and the Homo Sapiens. 2500 – 50 BC The Celts ruled Gaul, much of the area we call France today 58 BC invasion of Julius Caesar led Romans 52 BC Lutetia is built, the future Paris 43 AD Lugdunum (Lyon) becomes the capital of Gaul 458-511 – Reign of Clovis I, King of the Franks 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers, stopping Arab invasion 768-814: Charlemagne rules as King of the Franks 800: Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III 1066: William of Normandy invades England; Battle of Hastings 1453: English out of France except for Calais after the 100 year war 1589-1593: Henri IV becomes 1st Bourbon King – converts to Catholicism ending the wars of religion (Catholics – Protestants) 1789: French Revolution, storming of La Bastille 1792: Louis XVI tried for treason; monarchy abolished and guillotined in Paris History of France
1799: General Bonaparte enters Paris then expands the Empire 1804: Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor Napoleon I 1814: Congress of Vienna begins to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon 1852: Napoleon I's nephew crowned as Emperor Napoleon III 1914-18: World War I 1919: Versailles Treaty returning Alsace and Lorraine back to France 1939: France declares war on Germany 1944-45: D-Day and Allied victory and Fourth Republic led by de Gaulle 1958: De Gaulle initiates 5th Republic History of France
French Eating Habits Its the birthright of every French to eat (and live) well. French cuisine is peasant cooking in its purest and best form. Meals are an important part of French leisure activity. Meals are about culture and tradition and not just food or drink. French cuisine drives from any product the land, the sea or the air provides. Native vegetables, fruits, herbs, local cheeses, fresh milk and cream, freshly baked breads, fish and seafood, game reared from forests as well mushrooms, truffles and animals, poultry, beef, lamb and pork. Products are to be celebrated and enjoyed rather than provide fill or a necessity to live. Masters in getting the best and all out of any product. Beef used is not just steaks, ribs and roasts, but the brain, pancreas kidneys and liver are all used and turned into specialties. Pork is used similarly with pigs feet, smoked ham, and saucisson (sausage) cured, smoked or salted all become regional specialties. Poultry is used in as stuffed necks, gizzards, liver and in the case of geese and duck that includes the foie gras (liver) Lake, river and the oceans provide a vast array of fish and shellfish. And there is also rabbit, frogs legs and snails.
Breakfast - Petite Dejeuner Breakfasts are small often a baguette or croissant with butter and jam, accompanied by cafe au lait (coffee with milk). Viennoisserie A term generally describing breakfast pastries including Pain au chocolat, Brioche, Baguette, Milk bread, raisin bread and croissants are all included in this term Laperitif Lapéritif is a national custom in France. It is the drink that precedes a lunch or dinner. A time to gather, socialize and nibble on small snacks. Depending on the region this might be canapés, olives, vegetable sticks (crudités) or small baked goods.
Lunch - Dejeuner Lunch is traditionally a leisurely affair, and can have several courses. Hors doeuvres The first course is meant to wet the appetite and can include salad, soup, quiche, pate, terrine, cold cuts (sausages) or rillettes. Often served family style for the cold items where as the soup is served warm at the end of the Hors doeuvres Les Plats Main courses can be anything from seafood to meats or poultry, or even dishes as simple as sausages all depending on the season and the regional specialties. Les Fromage (cheeses) & Les Entremets (dessert) Cheeses, Fruits and desserts. Cheese are a must together with fruits wile desserts are often done either at lunch or dinner. Bread must be served to any meal and throughout the courses.
Dinner - Dinner Served fairly late at around 8 pm it is the social occasion that winds down the day. Generally similar to lunch but often less heavy. The first course mostly consists of soup or salad. Hors doeuvres might or might not be served for dinner. The main courses can be roast lamb, pork, beef or fish and seafood served with corresponding vegetables. The evening family meal is smaller, but not necessarily less elaborate. The main course can include fish, roasted chicken, or lamb stew, all served with vegetables. This course can be preceded by complementary soups, salads, or egg dishes. Cheese and fruit follow as well. Supper - Souper Late night snack. Light fare or a simple sandwich of cold cuts with baguette.
French culinary History & description French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. It evolved from centuries of social and political change. The Middle Ages brought lavish banquets to the upper class with ornate, heavily seasoned food prepared by chefs such as Guillaume Tirel. The era of the French Revolution, however, saw a move toward fewer spices and more liberal usage of herbs and refined techniques, beginning with François Pierre La Varenne and further developing with Napoleon Bonaparte and other dignitaries. Under Marie-Antoine Carême, French cuisine was codified and in the 20th century by Georges Auguste Escoffier restructured and complete the work started by Careme to become the modern version of haute cuisine. Escoffier's major work, however, left out much of the regional character to be found in the provinces of France.
Gastro-tourism and the Guide Michelin helped to bring people to the countryside during the 20th century and beyond, to sample this rich bourgeois and peasant cuisine of France. Basque cuisine has also been a great influence over the cuisine in the southwest of France. Ingredients and dishes vary by region. There are many significant regional dishes that have become both national and regional. Many dishes that were once regional have proliferated in variations across the country. Cheese and wine are a major part of the cuisine, playing different roles regionally and nationally with their many variations and Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) (regulated appellation) laws. Wikipedia!
The importance of TERROIR Terroir is a French term describing the origin of a product, its the soil it has been grown in the or raised on, the topographical landscape of the region it comes from of the land or simply the climate and the weather. Produits du terroir, gout du terroir or recette du terroir are terms often used to describe products or dishes made with products from a specific region. It recognizes the difference in taste from local raised and bread meats and poultry or locally grown produce as opposed to produce from a different region which differs in taste due to the different climate, weather, soil, feed or upbringing in general. In more than one way, the terroir, underlines the principle of AOC (Appelation dorigine controllee) which recognizes a particular product as unique to a specific area.
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