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Spiritual-based Leadership Leadership lessons learned from Nelson Mandela for the Health Industry Dr Rica Viljoen Dr Rica Viljoen.

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Presentation on theme: "Spiritual-based Leadership Leadership lessons learned from Nelson Mandela for the Health Industry Dr Rica Viljoen Dr Rica Viljoen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Spiritual-based Leadership Leadership lessons learned from Nelson Mandela for the Health Industry Dr Rica Viljoen Dr Rica Viljoen

2 SPIRITUAL-BASED LEADERSHIP The art of leadership... As I have said, the first thing is to be honest with yourself. You can never have an impact on society if you have not changed yourself.. Great peacemakers are all people of integrity, of honesty, but humility. Nelson Mandela Quote

3 Doctor in Business Leadership (SBL Unisa) International Organisational Development specialist and practitioner focusing on optimising individual, group and organisational behaviour Focus on creating Engagement in multi-cultural organisations through Inclusivity Consulted to and facilitated in various countries e.g. America, Peru, Australia, Spain, Zambia, Mali, Tanzania, Namibia, Zambia, Ghana Associated with numerous academic institutions as subject matter expert e.g. da Vinci Institute, SBL – UNISA, UJ, and Village of Leaders – Stellenbosch Managing Director of Mandala Consulting Work extensively in both private and public Health Care in South Africa Rica Viljoen

4 Hersey & Blanchard Covey Kouzes & Posner Koestenbaum Kotter African Leadership Value-based leadership Steward Leadership Participative Evolution Ethical Leadership Spiritual based leadership Leadership Theories

5 Servant Leadership Leadership Role Model b Leadership Process b Leadership task Relationship Character A servants heart Building up others 1 Doing the work of a leader U Ubbivat Innovation Impacting society and culture

6 Although the state contributes about 40% of all expenditure on health, the public health sector is under pressure to deliver services to about 80% of the population The public sector is under-resourced and over-used, while the mushrooming private sector, run largely on commercial lines, caters to middle- and high-income earners who tend to be members of medical schemes (18% of the population) Advances in medical technology are driving growth in the South African healthcare market. The introduction of less invasive technologies is leading to a greater number of procedures Technological advances are reducing the risks associated with the performance of certain procedures. Challenges in Health Industry in South Africa

7 There is a strong trend towards promoting accessibility to healthcare in South Africa Private sector groups are extending their services into rural areas The serious lack of healthcare professionals could lead to a severe crisis in the South African healthcare industry Public-private partnerships Brain Drain "Since the public sector serves 80 per cent of the population, improved infrastructure is required to improve access and quality of services to the population with the latter relying to a great extent on human capital." Frost & Sullivan research Challenges in Health Industry in South Africa

8 Releasing voice in organisations – Sustainable Transformation OD Interventions New world of work Nature of the world Why we adaptEssence of Change New Sciences We adapt differently Rising levels of conciousness The Individual The Team The Organisation How individuals adapt How groups adapt The What Context: Industry South Africa Africa Global Leadership Doing Being Disconnect Apathy Engagement / Voice Inclusivity Organisation Group Individual EQ Journey Dialoguing World CafeStorytelling Appreciative Inquiry Organisational Leadership Trust Leadership Team Dynamics Individual Diversity factors How organisations adapt The way Viljoen, 2008

9 Spiritual-based Leadership INTR 4.6 We see the World not as it is, but as we are. Stephen Covey Spirituality in Business Today The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning "breath" (compare spiritus asper), but also "soul, courage, vigor.Latinbreathspiritus asper

10 Spiritual-based Leadership INTR 4.6 We see the World not as it is, but as we are. Stephen Covey –Increased search for meaning internationally –External actions and internal reflections should be mutually supportive (spirituality and rationality) –Leaders can achieve success, recognition, peace of mind and happiness WHILE serving needs of all they serve with leadership when they lead with wisdom from a spiritual core, which may or may not be associated with an organised religion (Pruzan & Mikkelsen, 2004) Leadership Tendencies internationally

11 Being aware of self – emotional intelligence Being aware of complexities – complexity handling ability Being aware of others – cultural intelligence Being aware of justice – moral intelligence Being aware of greater impact of behaviour – spiritual intelligence Finding your own voice


13 And as we let our own light shine, we unconsciously give other people permission to do the same. Nelson Mandela Emotional Intelligence

14 Individuals who are UNDERUTILISED may become Frustrated Bored Anxious Individuals who are OVEREXTENDED may feel Anxious, worried Perplexed Overwhelmed WORK CHALLENGES INDIVIDUAL CAPABILITY FLOW (Effective decision-making) Adapted from Csikszentmihalyi, M (1975) Beyond boredom and anxiety Complexity handling ability – optimal functioning

15 A good head and a good heart are always a formidable combination. Nelson Mandela Complexity handling ability – optimal functioning

16 1.Communication styles 2.Attitudes towards conflict 3.Approaches to completing tasks 4.Decision-making styles 5.Attitudes towards disclosure 6.Approaches to knowing Whats different? 1.Beliefs 2.Values 3.Perceptions 4.Expectations 5.Attitudes 6.Assumptions Whats hidden below surface? Visible cultural differences Invisible cultural roots Kotelnikov, 2005 Cultural Intelligence

17 UK & USA = O.K. RUSSIA = ZERO JAPAN = MONEY BRAZIL = INSULT Cultural Intelligence

18 The ability to act with wisdom and compassion while maintaining inner and outer peace (equanimity), regardless of the circumstances. Zohar, 2000 Comfort with chaos Comfort with dichotomy Comfort with paradox Spiritual Intelligence

19 Passion (EQ) Vision (IQ) Conscience (SQ) Discipline (PQ) Covey – Finding yourself


21 21 Historical context Claire Graves What is a Psychologically healthy human being? Copyright Al-Q-Mie 2007 Known by many names: Levels of Human Existence Open System Theory of Values Spiral Dynamics Graves

22 22 Adaptation 1. Expressive of self 2. Taking care of other humans beings Copyright Al-Q-Mie 2007 1. Adjustment-of-the-organism-to-the- environment 2. Adjustment-of-the-environment-to-the- organism Graves

23 Beck and Cowan, 1994 Graves

24 MemeNature of Existence Problems of ExistenceLevel of Existence Beige ANAutomaticMaintaining physiological stability First Subsistence He leaves Eden Purple BOTribalisticAchievement of relative society Second Subsistence Find a way to foster individual survival Red CPEgocentricLiving with self awareness Third Subsistence He seeks salvation Blue DQSaintlyAchieving everlasting piece of mind Fourth Subsistence Build life for pleasure here and now Orange ERMaterialisticConquering the physical universe so as to overcome want Fifth Subsistence Success but does not know self and wants to belong Green FSSocio-centricLiving with the human element Sixth Subsistence Want to be more than only for others – for self in relation to universe Yellow GTCognitiveRestoring viability to a disordered world First Being Distinctly Human. Adjusting to the reality that you can only be, you can never really know Turquoise HU ExperientialisticAccepting existential dichotomies Second Being Graves, 1978 Our rainbow nation – cultural DNA

25 25 Circular tribal structure. Led by elder(s), shaman, or chief who makes decisions. Roles determined by kinship, strength, sex, age. Ways of the tribe are sacred and rigidly preserved. Demands obedience to leader(s) Tribe Organisation of equals for mutual benefit. Little concern with status or privilege. The people make decisions as a group. Frequent communication in all directions. Emphasis on consensus, sensitivity to feelings, and human needs. Social Network Power-orientated – strongest survives best. Most powerful person makes decisions. Big Boss directs Work Bosses who drives the masses. Communication downwards only. Strength determines relationships Empire Rigid rules for structure and rank. Person with appropriate position of power makes decisions. Divine authority speaks through secular authority. Communication downward and horizontally across classes. People stay in their rightful places. Authority Structure Bureaucratic and status-orientated. Person with the delegated authority makes decisions. Distribution of specific amount of responsibility. Communication down, up and across. Power relates to prestige and position within the structure allows for upward mobility. Strategic Enterprise Systemic Flow Structure according to task at hand. Project-centred with changing functional leadership. Competent person makes decision. Communication only as needed. May adopt Tribe through Social Network if appropriate to situation Our rainbow nation – cultural DNA

26 Personal and strategic agendas (Unconscious dynamics) Values, Career anchors (What is important For you ) Temperament (The instrument you play) Complexity handling ability (How difficult you play) Emotional Maturity (How well you can play with your instrument) Individual voice Worldview (What questions of existence do you ask and how do you solve this) Viljoen, 2008 Determining voice

27 My lifes purpose My potential My Unique gift Self Mastery Growth Personal Power Actualisation Personal Optimisation

28 Quote Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. Nelson Mandela

29 You must be authentic to lead authentically. There is no softer pillow than a clear conscience. – Ken Blanchard Spiritual-based leadership

30 Mandela on being authentic As I have said, the first thing is to be honest with yourself. You can never have an impact on society if you have not changed yourself... Great peacemakers are all people of integrity, of honesty, but humility

31 You must true to self if you want to build trust. -Spiritual based leadership requires you to have strong relationships with the people who follow you. "The most essential quality for leadership is not perfection, but credibility. People must be able to trust you, or they wont follow you." – Rick Warren, The Purpose Driven Life Spiritual-based leadership

32 Mandela on being leadership and trust It is better to lead from behind and to put others in front, especially when you celebrate victory when nice things occur. You take the front line when there is danger. Then people will appreciate your leadership.

33 You must define a path for others to follow. At an organisational level you must have: - a well defined vision and mission - a set of core operating principles or values - a strong leadership team with the ability and courage to execute the first two "It is impossible even to think without a mental picture." - Aristotle Spiritual-based leadership

34 Mandela on vision During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people, I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if it needs be it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die

35 You must believe that doing the right thing is profitable. Companies where majority of employees trusted top managers had shareholder returns 40% higher than companies where distrust was dominant. – Christian Ethics in the Workplace Spiritual-based leadership

36 Mandela on being leadership and trust For to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others

37 .... Interiorizing the management Controlling vs Self-management Formulating attitude to business Individual vs Organisation/Skills vs. Values Aspiration Concentration Self- Introspection Within-to- without principle Core Beliefs 1. The key is within! 2.Technology makes things possible, but it is the people who make it happen 3. Only in peace one can know what is the best thing to do 4. What is within, that is without. 6. Consciousness cant be borrowed or imparted ready-made 7. Intellect can go to moon, but the heart can conquer the world 1 2 3 Humanizing the organization Worker vs Man; Self vs Others Adapted from Bibikova & Kotelnikov, 2007 Leading with Consciousness in the Health Care World

38 Vadim Kotelnikov: 2007 Business Effectiveness Taking the birds-eye view of your business strategies Building and balancing your business system Harmonizing men, material and methods to achieve sustainable growth, human development, and social benefit Yang Active, Creative Yin Passive, Receptive Business Efficiency Spotting and pursuing opportunities Making fast decisions and implementing them under the time pressure Innovating and creating outside-the-box solutions Working IN Your Business Brain-storming Working ON Your Business Brain-stilling Manage with Consciousness in the Health Care World

39 Courage is not the absence of fear its inspiring others to move beyond it Lead from the front but dont leave your base behind Lead from the back and let others believe they are in front Know your enemy and learn about his favorite sport Keep your friends close and your rivals even closer Appearances matter and remember to smile Nothing is black or white Quitting is leading too Richard Stengel

40 Spiritual based Leadership Bringing the heart back into the organisation company.

41 SPIRITUAL-BASED LEADERSHIP The art of leadership... I have walked that long road to freedom. I have tried not to falter, I have made missteps along the way. But I have discovered the secret that after climbing a great hill, one only finds that there are many more hills to climb. I have taken a moment here to rest, to steal a view of the glorious vista that surrounds me, to look back on the distance I have come. But I can only rest for a moment, for with freedom comes responsibilities, and I dare not to linger, for my long walk is not ended. Nelson Mandela Quote

42 We must use time wisely and forever realize that the time is always ripe to do right.

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