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Agenda Explore how engaging pedagogies can motivate adolescent English Learners and improve learning outcomes Apply a model transformative inquiry to.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Explore how engaging pedagogies can motivate adolescent English Learners and improve learning outcomes Apply a model transformative inquiry to."— Presentation transcript:


2 Agenda Explore how engaging pedagogies can motivate adolescent English Learners and improve learning outcomes Apply a model transformative inquiry to enhance professional learning experiences of teachers Learn about 3 cases of teachers who enacted Pedagogies of Questioning to inform their practices and improve students learning experiences and outcomes

3 Motivation

4 What motivates us?

5 Self Fulfillment Sense of Community Interest/Enjoyment Knowledge Confidence/Self Esteem Skill Development Rewards Punishments Money/Goods Advancement Rankings Reputation Rewards Punishments Money/Goods Advancement Rankings Reputation

6 Behavioral scientists often divide what we do on the job or learn in school into two categories: algorithmic and heuristic. An algorithmic task is one in which you follow a set of established instructions down a single pathway to one conclusion. A heuristic task is the opposite, you have to experiment with possibilities and devise a novel solution. Intrinsic motivation is required to solve heuristic tasks because it exercises creativity. Algorithmic and heuristic tasks

7 Abraham Maslow Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–96. Retrieved from

8 Intrinsic Motivation In 1949, Harry F. Harlow conducted research on motivation using eight rhesus monkeys. He found that monkeys solved puzzles when offered no reward. Upon offering reward, monkeys quickly lost interest in solving puzzles. Result: The behavior obtained in this investigation poses some interesting questions for motivation theory, since significant learning was attained and efficient performance maintained without resort to special or extrinsic incentives. Harlow, H.F. (1953) Motivation as a factor in the acquisition of New Responses. Current Theory and Research on Motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

9 Does money spark motivation? Edward Deci from Carnegie Mellon University devised a study where participants had to solve Soma puzzle pieces like those on the right. He offered some participants money for solving the puzzles, and other did not receive any reward. Results: Monetary rewards sparked interest in tasks however, when money is used as an external reward for some activity, the subjects lose intrinsic interest for the activity. Deci said, human beings have an inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise their capacities, to explore, and to learn. One who is interested in developing and enhancing intrinsic motivation in children, employees, students, etc., should not concentrate on external- control systems such a monetary rewards. Deci, E. (1972) Intrinsic motivation, extrinsic reinforcement, and inequity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 22:119-120.

10 Economics and Motivation American psychologist Daniel Kahneman won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on prospect theory. This theory seeks to explain what motivates people to make certain economic decisions. His research revealed that we werent always rational calculators of our economic self- interest and that the parties often didnt bargain to a wealth- maximizing results. He found emphasis on the human, not the economic.

11 Wikipedia and Firefox: Contemporary examples of intrinsic motivation Wikipedia and Firefox are examples of open collaboration and innovation. Volunteers devote time and effort to create and improve user experience on these sites. A study interviewed open source developers mostly in North America and Europe, about why they participated in projects without pay. They uncovered a range of motives, but they found that enjoyment-based intrinsic motivation, namely how creative a person feels when working on the project, is the strongest and most pervasive driver. Lakhani, K. & Wolf, R.G. (2005). Why hackers do what they do: Understanding motivation and effort in free/open source software projects in Perspectives on Free and Open Software. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

12 Undermining Intrinsic Motivation Researchers Greene and Nisbett watched a classroom of preschoolers for several days and identified children who chose to spend their free play time drawing. They split children into 3 groups. Two groups were given rewards for drawing during free play, the last group was given no reward. Results showed that children in the reward group lost interest in drawing, whereas those children in the no reward group continued to draw and enjoy drawing. Contingent rewards, like those offered to the children for drawing, have a negative effect. If-then rewards require people to forfeit some of their autonomy. People use rewards expecting to gain the benefit of increasing another persons motivation, but in doing so, they often incur the unintentional and hidden costs of undermining that persons intrinsic motivation toward the activity. Lepper, M., Greene, D., & Nisbett, R. (1973). Undermining childrens intrinsic interest with extrinsic rewards: A test of the overjustification hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 28:1, 129-137.

13 Do all rewards undermine motivation? Pink, D.H. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Penguin Group, USA Inc. New York: New York. According to Daniel Pink, rewards can be used delicately to boost performance.

14 3 essentials of Intrinsic Motivation 1.Autonomy: The need to be self directed. 2.Mastery: Creating new knowledge, applying skills, and expanding existing knowledge. 3.Purpose: Doing something that matters, doing it well, and doing it in the service of a cause larger than ourselves.

15 RSAnimate: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us

16 The Autonomy Audit 1. How much autonomy do you have over your tasks at work- your main responsibilities and what you do in a given day? 2. How much autonomy do you have over your time at work- for instance, when you arrive, when you leave, and how you allocate your hours each day? 3. how much autonomy do you have over your team at work- that is, to what extent are you able to choose the people with whom you typically collaborate? 4. How much autonomy do you have over your technique at work-how you actually perform the main responsibilities of your job? Pink, D.H. (2009). Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Penguin Group, USA Inc. New York: New York.

17 Overview of Transformative Inquiry Change agency Dialogue with community of learners Examining research and life story Questioning Descriptive Phase Personal Interpretative Phase Transformative Phase Critical Phase Lavadenz, M. (Ed.). (2011). Pedagogies of Questioning: Bilingual Teacher Researchers and Transformative Inquiry. Covina, CA: California Association for Bilingual Education.

18 Phase 1: Descriptive Phase The question here is What do I want to learn about and with the community of learners that I am focusing on? Read, write and record observations of the situation, persons/learners, the related professional literature.

19 What do I want to know about my students? What information can I gather to know my students better? What has been written about already that can inform me about what other teachers have done? How will I record this information?

20 Phase 2: Personal Interpretative Phase Educators reflect on what they have written based on their own past experiences, beliefs and attitudes. This connects the text with their own past. The question posed here is What did I learn about my own history, socialization and beliefs as a result of what I found in the Descriptive Phase? This phase includes learning about what others have written.

21 Phase 3: Critical Phase What did I learn about my own history, socialization and beliefs as a result of the Descriptive Phase How will I plan for reflection? How will I record my reflections?

22 Phase 4: Transformative Phase How will I serve as a change agent together with the community of learners I worked with?


24 Key Questions In what ways did students share and recognize the value of their voices through writing? How did student writing improve? What did we learn about our students and our practice?

25 Methodology Used to Answer Key Questions The entire class participated in writers workshop. We conducted case studies on nine students whose work was at different writing levels – Proficient (3) Intermediate (3) Emergent (3)

26 Methodology Used to Answer Key Questions We collected and analyzed the following data over a period of one school year: Four writing samples from each student from October to April, student interviews, observations, self-evaluation and writing questionnaire, student- created rubrics, accountability records, and teachers reflective journals.

27 Collaborative Student Work Example Poemas con salsa -Federico V. Y Efraín V. Estos poemas que yo invento, yo los hago con mucho intento. Salgo a la calle con mi escopeta le tiro a chupacabras y le doy a un poeta. Poems with Salsa -Federico V. Y Efraín V. These poems that I invent I write them with much intent. I go out in the street with my musket I aim at a chupacabras But instead I hit a poet.

28 Students Voice about Their Writing What I like about writing is that its an outlet for me and I can tell my stories. I like poetry because it encourages me to write. I have more stories than poems because I have much to tell.

29 Student Outcomes Several of the case study students: Increased quantity and quality of writing Showed improvement in their writing Made consistent gains each quarter.

30 Student Outcomes At the end of the year all students contributed with one or more writing genres that they considered to be their best work for a class anthology. This demonstrates that they were able to reflect and evaluate their own writing.

31 Our Learning Marías learning – The importance of providing structured opportunities for students to think and talk with peers, to generate ideas, and for the teachers to honor their experiences, thoughts, and home language, motivated students to write and develop the confidence to share their writing with others. Gigis learning – Reflecting together on our practice is very powerful. We both viewed the class through our own lens and were better able to meet the needs of the whole class.


33 Key Questions How can I help my students become metacognitive strategic writers? Are their summaries more fully developed after using their strategies?

34 Methodology Used to Answer Questions Students were given pre and post tests and were classified as Advanced (2students) Intermediate (2 students) Beginner (2 students) The class was trained in metacognitive strategies and applied them to their summaries.

35 Methodology: Sample Interview/questionnaire Strategies you use to write a summary 1.Was it easy for you to write the summary? 2. Do you know what strategies are? 3. Can you name some strategies you used in the summary writing process?

36 Methodology: Note-Taking Strategies Organize the most important information. Write freely not paying attention to form. Transcribe only formulas or precise data. Create your own acronyms for frequently used words. Reread your notes, include information that was missing

37 Methodology: Metacognitive symbols and acronyms 5 Always 4 Usually 3 Occasionally 2 Rarely1 Never 1. If you did not understand the text did you go back to find out the answers ? 2. As you read, were you able to generate questions to find out the main idea? 3. As you read were you able to use graphic organizers to aid you in your comprehension? 4. Did you use the ACRONYM R Read, reread E Envision the context A Add your own words D Dialogue with peer/teacher ?

38 Methodology: Summary Writing Identify the main idea. Yes, No Leave out unnecessary details. Yes, No Combine ideas found in different paragraphs or sections of the article.Yes, No Revise and edit the summary. Yes, No

39 Results: In their own words Luis: I already know Spanish so why I am going to learn some more? Besides reading and writing are the most boring activities that I know. The strategies were very useful and really made me think and plan how to write a summary.

40 Results Students became more strategic as a result of explicit teaching. Students became metacognitive writers. Summaries improved in quality and precision. Students now enjoyed reading and writing. As a teacher do not take anything for granted. Grow with your students.


42 Goals and Purpose Apply Literacy Strategies in Mathematics Improve students: Metacognitive mathematics knowledge Self-esteem Grades

43 Learning About My History- Socialization and Beliefs Students experienced fears towards mathematics Students felt lesser then other students due to: Legal status Limited English and/or Mathematics skills Difference in culture

44 Strategies 1. Double-entry Journals

45 Strategies… 1. Leader 2. Secretary 3. Logistics 4. Discipline and Appraisal 2. Literature and/or Work Groups

46 Strategies… 3. Carrousel Brainstorming

47 4. Mandalas 1. The Problem 2. Formula, equation or expression that will help solve the problem 3. Solve the problem 4. Check 5. Drawing, graph, or visual representation of the problem

48 Mandala

49 Sharing What I Learned with Students About Practices and Beliefs Students took active part in their studies to work with Literacy Strategies in Math Students with no formal education pushed themselves to keep up with other peers Students improved in Mathematics and Native Language

50 Learning and Changes for Teachers and Students Students: Improved their grades Developed a metacognitive process in mathematics Increased and improved their native languages Learned to share feelings in their groups Increased their self- esteem Teacher: Literacy Strategies can be adapted to include Mathematics Continuous modification of different strategies to fit students necessities A person is responsible for his/her education

51 Grades by Quarters

52 Learning as Teacher Researcher Collecting and evaluating student data helps to evaluate my teaching strategies. Discussing with other teachers is an opportunity to exchange and better understand educational philosophies Adapting new strategies in mathematics allows me to be more creative

53 The 7Ps Framework How to play: Use these items as a checklist. When preparing for a meeting, thinking through the 7Ps can improve focus and results, even if you have only a few moments to reflect on them. Purpose: Why are we having this meeting? Product: What specific artifact will we produce out of the meeting? People: Who need to be here, and what role do they play? Process: What agenda will these people use to create a product? Pitfalls: What are the risks in this meeting, and how will we address them? Could be as simple as ground rules, or specific topics that are designated out of scope. Prep: What would be useful to do in advance? Practical Concerns: Logistics of the meeting- the where and when, and importantly, whos bringing lunch. Gray, D., Brown, S. & Macanufo, J. (2010). Game Storming: A Playbook for Innovators, Rulebreakers, and Changemakers. OReilly Media Inc. Sebastopol: CA.


55 The World Café

56 Purpose: The World Café is a method for improving large-group discussion by borrowing concepts from the informal café conversations that we have all the time: round tables, cross pollinating ideas, and pursuing questions that matter. Setup: The leader will have to find the questions that matter which will guide the rounds of discussion. How to play: The event consists of rounds of 20- minute group discussions at tables, followed by a group synthesis. After each round, one person stays behind to serve as a host of the next round, while the rest travel to other tables as ambassadors.

57 Spend the first few minutes talking about the last conversation. The host can present ideas left at the table, and the ambassadors should talk about what theyve brought from their respective places. Leave evidence. Draw key ideas out on the table. For the next group to appreciate the previous conversation, they will need some artifacts to respond to. Connect diverse viewpoints and respect contributions. If needed, use a talking stick or button to manage each others input. Look for patterns: By the second and third rounds, themes and larger patters will emerge in the discussion. After the last round, its time for a town hall discussion to synthesize what the groups have discovered. Referring back to the questions that matter, ask what the answers were at the different tables and how they are connected.


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