2What’s Happening?Term assignment – Groups, topics, deliverables and timing.
3The Creative Strategy Establish objective Identification of target market/consumerCreate a message themeSupporting InformationIdentify constraintsNeed a creative concept, or “big idea” to express that messageExamples:Bell’s Whiskey -United Church of Canada – wonder café campaignSony’s waterproof walkman
4The Creative BriefA document used to articulate a strategy to the creative department.Each creative brief may vary, but generally answer the following questions:Who are we talking to?What is the objective?What is the message?Why should they believe us?Where and when are we telling them (timing and source(s))?
5Marketing Communications Theory There are three primary theoretical frameworks used to evaluate the creative development process:Hierarchy of Effects ModelMeans-end chain ModelElaboration likelihood Model
7Hierarchy of Effects Model CognitiveAwarenessAffectiveKnowledgeConativeLikingPreferenceConvictionPurchase
8Means-End TheoryModel suggests that marketing communication should contain a message, means that leads the consumer to a desired end state.The end states include personal values, listed in Figure 5.4The theory is the basis of a model called the Means-End Conceptualization of Components for Advertising Strategy (MECCAS)The MECCAS is also used in Business to business messages
9Means-End TheoryThe MECCAS model suggests using five elements in creating ads:The product attributesConsumer benefitsLeverage pointsPersonal valuesMessage tactics
10Means-End Chain Theory ProductAttributesExecutional FrameworkLeveragePointConsumerBenefitsPersonalValue
11Importance of the Leverage Point Both the hierarchy of effects model and the means-end chain model lead to a leverage pointThe feature of the ad that leads the viewer to transform the advertising message into a personal value.To be effective, it must build a pathway that connects a products benefits with the potential buyer’s value system.
13Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) This model examines how likely a person is to spend time thinking deeply (elaborating) about any specific piece of marketing communicationPremise is that marketing communication influences audiences based on how much the audience thinks about the message.There are three routes in which consumers process messages:Central RoutePeripheral RouteLow Involvement Route
15Types of Marketing Communication Appeals Rational AppealsEmotional AppealsPricePerformanceScarcityFearHumorSex
16The decision-making process for cars involves both emotional and rational elements Copyright Pearson Canada Inc.
17Rational Appeals Based on hierarchy of effects model. Print media is well suited for rational appeals.Used by business-to-business advertisers.Well suited for complex and high involvement products.
18Rational Appeals Commonly used as a base for messages Price AppealsPerformance AppealsCommonly used as a base for messagesPrice is often relative to competitors pricesTypical in sales promotions such as couponsUsually involve some sort of value equation by the consumerA premise of outperforming their competitors
19Rational Appeals Scarcity Appeals Based on limited supply Based on limited time to purchaseOften tied with promotion tools such as contests, sweepstakes and couponsEncourages customers to take action
20Emotional Appeals Based on three ideas: Consumers ignore most ads.Rational ads go unnoticed.Emotional ads can capture attention.Viewed by creatives as key to developing brand loyalty
22Emotional Appeals Fear Appeals Numerous companies use fear to sell their products, i.e., life insurance, dandruff shampooFear appeals can be highly effective if used correctlyThe behaviour response model helps to explain the way a fear appeal can work
23Emotional Appeals Humour Appeals Used in 30% of all advertisements Excellent at capturing attentionScore high in recall testsShould be related directly to customer benefitHumour causes audiences to:WatchLaughRemember
24F I G U R E 5. 11 Reasons for Using Humor in Ads Captures attention Holds attentionOften wins creative awardsHigh recall scoresConsumers enjoy funny adsEvaluated as likeable ads
25Emotional Appeals Sex Appeals Like humor, this type of appeal can break through clutterSex appeals can be presented in different manners:Subliminal techniquesNudity or partial nuditySexual suggestivenessGay and lesbian themesEncourages use of imaginationRequires greater mental processingOvert sexualitySensuality
26Are Sex Appeals Effective? Sex and nudity do increase attentionRated as being more interestingOften leads to strong feelings about the advertisementBrand recall is lowerOften interferes with message comprehensionMay impact feelings toward the brand