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Satish V. Kulkarni Presented at First National Conference on Energy and Environment University of Pune February 20, 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Satish V. Kulkarni Presented at First National Conference on Energy and Environment University of Pune February 20, 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Satish V. Kulkarni Presented at First National Conference on Energy and Environment University of Pune February 20, 2014

2 This presentation will discuss: World energy scene US perspective Role of universities Partnerships and collaborations, energy education Fracking and the Energy/Water tensions Critical materials and energy US-India Joint Clean Energy R&D Center Summary



5 Globally, sustainability* is our greatest challenge Per capita fossil fuel Carbon emissions (2007, in tons) are increasing (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, ORNL) Per capita availability of resources is decreasing *Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising those of future generations. (UN, 1987)

6 U.S. energy flow-2009 SupplyEfficiencyDemandTransmission/Distribution/Storage Energy efficiency is the low hanging fruit

7 US energy security goals An All-of-the-Above strategy that translates into: continued use of coal (with carbon capture and storage) and natural gas nuclear power for clean energy with a focus on lowering capital costs and proliferation risks biofuels with the caveat of food security wind and solar power with lower costs and without subsidies with adequate storage capacity modernization of the energy transmission/distribution infrastructure enhancing energy efficiency in the stationary, transportation and manufacturing sectors through appropriate policies and incentives inculcating an energy conservation culture, and educating the next generation energy workforce

8 US energy security goals (cont.) By 2020, make non-residential buildings 20% more energy efficient By 2022, Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) biofuels blending mandate to 36 billion gallons By 2025, reduce oil imports by 1/3 By 2025, Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) Standards @ 54.5 mpg By 2035, 80% of electricity will come from clean energy sources By 2050, reduce GHG emissions to 50% of 2000 emissions, i.e., to 12.8 Gt/yr

9 9 25.7 Gt/yr 50.6 Gt/yr +97% (24.9 Gt/yr) -75% (-37.7 Gt/yr) 1 Includes fossil and other industrial CO 2. Source: Climate Change Science Program. 2007. Scenarios of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Atmospheric Concentrations (Estimates based on MINICAM model results and other data). 2000 Emissions 2050 Reference Emissions 2050 Global Emissions at 50% of 2000 Emissions CO 2 Emissions (Gt CO 2 /yr) 12.8 Gt/yr In order meet G-8 leader goal to cut global CO 2 emissions 50% by 2050, projected annual emissions must be cut by 40 gigatons 50 % Global Goal Requires ~40 Gigaton Reduction

10 10 Install 1,000 sequestration sites like Norways Sleipner project (1 MtCO 2 /year) Only 3 sequestration projects of this scale exist today Geologic Sequestration Build 273 zero-emission 500 MW coal-fired power plants * Equivalent to about 7% of current global coal-fired capacity of 2 million MW Coal-Fired Power Plants Convert a barren area about 2 times the size of the UK (over 480,000 km 2 ), using existing production technologies Biofuels Install about 750 GW of solar PV Roughly 125 times current global installed capacity of 6 GW * Solar Photovoltaics Actions that Provide One Gigaton CO 2 / Year of Mitigation or OffsetsTechnology Convert a barren area greater than the combined size of Germany and France (over 900,000 km 2 ) CO 2 Storage in New Forest Install about 270,000 1 MW wind turbines Roughly 3 times the global total installed wind capacity at end of 2007. Wind Energy Deploy 273 million new cars at 40 miles per gallon (mpg) instead of 20 mpg New CAFÉ rules would accomplish about half that Efficiency Build 136 new nuclear 1 GW power plants instead of coal-fired without CCS Equivalent to about one third of existing worldwide nuclear capacity of 375 GW Nuclear Gigatons = 10 9 Metric tons (1000 Kilograms) *Instead of coal-fired power plants Source: Climate Change Technology Program Strategic Plan, September 2006. How Big is One Gigaton of CO 2 ?

11 Role of universities Typically, a research universitys mission is knowledge creation, educating the next generation and dissemination of knowledge for the public good Thus innovation, which is translating ideas for societal benefit, is the genetic code of the university The energy enterprise is a complex one requiring the application of every conceivable discipline, and interdisciplinary research is essential for success Universities can create the environment to foster interdisciplinary teams without unnecessary barriers and develop partnerships (including international) among research centers, national labs and industry, thus providing an intellectual and operational framework Universities can provide a neutral ground for dialog among stakeholders with competing agendas

12 Public and Land-Grant Universities in the US In 2012, the US celebrated the 150 th Anniversary of the Morrill Act establishing the Land-Grant University System under President Lincoln on July 3, 1862 The three-fold mission of land grant universities remains: education research and practical innovations to address societal problems These universities are part of the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities (APLU) They have made remarkable progress in the dissemination of knowledge to practitioners for widespread adoption within the states they serve The focus has been on agriculture production, farm and home safety and consumer issues Today, emphasis has to be also placed on energy, sustainability and urban issues APLU launched the Energy Initiative in 2012

13 13 Univ of California-National Labs* Partnership Model * Berkeley, Los Alamos and Livermore

14 Two entities can coexist without loss of identity 14 UniversitiesNational Laboratories

15 Corporate, university and local govt. partnerships Charlotte, North Carolina, aims to become the energy capital of the US (WPost, Sep 11, 2011) Since 2007, Charlotte has added ~5,600 new energy-related jobs, taking the total to roughly 27,000 at 250 energy-oriented firms Duke Power and Cisco are teaming up to upgrade 12m sqft of office space with smart grid technology that will reduce energy use by 20% over 5 years Univ of North Carolina at Charlotte has completed the $57 million, 200,000 sqft Energy Production and Infrastructure Center, which aims to pool academic and industry research in partnerships with companies such as Duke Energy and Areva Austin, Texas, is defying conservative, fossil-fueled Texas to become the countrys clean-tech hub (Time, Feb 12, 2012) Austin has long been a science-and-technology hub, with the presence of the University of Texas and Sematech; this has been leveraged effectively for clean-tech ~15,000 Austin residents are employed in the broader green economy, and Austin Energy has pledged to get 35% of its electricity from renewable sources by 2020 Pune can replicate this model!

16 National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA) A research collaboration that combines NETL's expertise in technology development and demonstration with the diverse capabilities of industry and university partners NETL (Morgantown, W. Virginia and Pittsburgh, PA) is a Government Owned Government Operated (GOGO) DOE national lab with a focus on Coal Oil and Gas The Marcellus shale formation covers the states of PA, WVA, VA, Ohio and NY Non-fossil energy research Energy analysis The 5 partner universities are part of an Appalachian Alliance They have also established the University Energy Partnership (UEP) and collaborated on several major energy initiatives

17 Energy education-Energy 101 US DOE recently developed the curricular framework for Energy 101 in collaboration with APLU First taught at University of Maryland Energy 101 Fundamentals and Concepts (Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US DOE)

18 Virginia Tech has also developed a broad, interdisciplinary energy education curriculum Sustainable Energy Solutions for a Global Society ESM/ME undergraduate/graduate course (Dave Dillard/Mike Ellis) It has four parts: energy fundamentals, transitional energy sources, renewable energy sources, and energy consumption and conservation Presented in the context of global political, economic and environmental impacts Green Engineering Program and Minor MSE undergraduate course (Sean McGinnis) Environmental impacts of the design, manufacture and use of engineered products, processes and systems Energy issues across the life cycle of products are a fundamental theme in the course An exemplar of an institution with an unusually comprehensive approach to undergraduate education in sustainable engineering is Virginia Tech. 2008 EPA Benchmarking Sustainable Engineering Education Report

19 Shales growing thrust for water Financial Times, Feb 6, 2014

20 The No 1 issue in fracking is the tension among the various uses of water It takes 407 million gallons to irrigate 640 acres to grow about $200,000 worth of corn on an arid land* The same amount of water can be used to frack enough wells to generate $2.5 billion worth of oil and create employment for thousands The recent drought in the US has exacerbated the tension between food and energy (fracking as well as biofuels) Several states are enacting laws to regulate unprecedented uses of enormous amount of water that has the potential for chaos and conflicts This issue will be magnified in India *Wall Street Journal, Dec. 6, 2011

21 In our quest for renewable energy, potential critical materials shortages* will have to be factored in Market, economics and politics will play a role Alternative materials/approaches will have to be developed * A Path to Sustainable Energy, Jacobson and Delucci, Scientific American, Nov 2009

22 Critical Materials Energy Innovation Hub- a partnership among universities, national labs and industry The NETL-RUA Team, led by Virginia Tech, responded to this DOE call Virginia Tech is now supporting Ames Laboratory in Iowa

23 The US-India Joint Clean Energy R&D Center In 2012, US and India launched the Center with the selection of three consortia with a total funding of $125M These consortia are a partnership among universities, national labs and industry in both countries. They are: Solar Energy – NREL and IISc 2 nd Generation Biofuels - Univ of Florida and IICT, Hyderabad Energy Efficiency of Buildings - LBNL and CEPT Univ, Ahmedabad US Energy Secy Moniz will be India In March to further expand the US-India partnership in clean energy

24 Summary Universities have a central role to play in the energy enterprise The energy/water/climate change nexus coupled with education is uniquely a university grand challenge Need better understanding of Impact of natural events, policies and politics Sustainability Wells to wheels, front-end to back-end, cradle to grave Education of the next generation and public is critical to energy security

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