Presentation on theme: "Terror in Mumbai Kerry Cao Tian Qin Marcus Chong Edmond Chen Huang Juncheng."— Presentation transcript:
Terror in Mumbai Kerry Cao Tian Qin Marcus Chong Edmond Chen Huang Juncheng
Contents Introduction Causes Impacts Role of Governments Lessons to be learnt Measures against terrorism
Why Mumbai? Mumbai – Formerly Bombay – Most populous city in India – Second most populous city worldwide – Commercial & Entertainment centre of India – Richest city in India ie. Perfect terrorist target
Why Mumbai? Aimed at getting international attention Hatred for Europeans (eg. British) and Americans Payback for western strikes on terrorists around the world Successful and deadly Mumbai bombings in 2006 prompted terrorists to strike again.
Summary Started on 26 November 2008 Lasted for three days. Killed 179 people Including at least 22 foreigners. Over 300 injuries
Timeline 21 November – Pakistani terrorists leave Pakistan by boat. 23 November – They hijack an Indian crawler, Kuber, and force the captain to sail to India. 26 November – Attacks begin
Attacks 2 terrorists attack Leopold Café, a popular restaurant and bar. 10 people are killed. Terrorists plant bombs on two taxis, killing 5 people.
Attacks 2 terrorists attack the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus railway station. They open fire and throw grenades, killing 52 people, wounding 109. After they attempt to hit the Cama Hospital and flee, police kills one and arrests the other. The arrested, Ajmal Kasab, is the only one to be captured alive.
Attacks At the Taj Mahal Hotel – Huge standoff between police and terrorists, gun battles, grenade explosions, emergency evacutations. At the Oberoi Trident Hotel – Terrorists hold many foreigners hostage – Fierce gun battles At the Nariman House – Hostages taken, rescue operations
Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Taiba – aka. LeT – Based in Pakistan – Most active Islamic terrorist group – Deep hatred against India
Causes Domestic causes: – Dispute between Pakistan and India over unclear territorial boundaries of Kashmir. (Since 1947)
Causes Anger over American attacks on Islamist groups like Al-Qaeda Evidence: – Leopold Café Frequented by foreigners – Hotels Where many foreign VIPs were staying – eg. European Parliament Committee on International Trade Took many foreigners hostage
Causes Hotels targeted were old and iconic of India Owned by Indians Thus terrorists attacked to show their hatred towards India and Indian people.
Causes Widening gap between rich and poor Large population Unbalanced social and economical development in different regions Discontent amongst minorities Leads to serious problems with terrorists.
Impacts Surface Impacts – Damage to Taj Mahal Hotel – Including historical artifacts and artwork – Bad reputation – Estimates Needs to be closed for a year Reparations cost : $112 million USD (Rs. 500 crore) – Maximum security measures put in place Inconvenience for public
Impacts Surface Impacts – Disruption of train services – Cancellation of planes bound for Mumbai – Originally scheduled meetings of Indian groups cancelled – Offices, schools, shops closed
Impacts Economical repercussions – Decrease in tourism in Mumbai – Decrease in spending in Mumbai shopping district – Affects Indias economy since Mumbai is the countrys economic capital General air of uncertainty and fear amongst Indian public
Impacts Extreme political tension between Pakistan and India governments. Pakistan government moved troops towards the border. Due to concerns about whether India would attack if they did not cooperate. Eventually resolved after talks between them. Support from Bush and Obama for India.
Impacts On Singapore – Death of Singaporean Lo Hoei Yen, 28 – She was staying in the Oberoi Trident and taken hostage by terrorists, then murdered. This gives Singapore a wake-up call that no one is safe from terrorism.
Role of Governments Tension between Indian and Pakistani governments built up. Pakistan denied the nationality of the terrorists at first Eventually registered a case against the Pakistani nationals India supplied evidence to Pakistan and blamed Pakistan for assisting these terrorists, which was denied by Pakistan.
Role of UN (and of USA) Under the pressure of the United Nations Pakistan arrested members of Jamaat ud- Dawa, an alias of the LeT
India Criticism that the government was not doing enough to prevent attacks India's security agencies have long been criticized for lacking a cohesive counter-terrorism plan and poor intelligence gathering and analysis. Police are badly armed and often have nothing more than a stick with which to fight militants. Indifferent attitude not only landing the citizens of India but foreigners
Before the Attack Admitted the coast guard and navy had intelligence that a vessel carrying militants could enter Indian waters. But the boat couldn't be intercepted due to lack of manpower/arms
Measures taken by India (Reuters) - More spies and police, modern gadgets and a national investigation agency are among a slew of measures India is taking to prevent militant attacks Create a Coastal Command to secure India's 7,500 km (4,650 miles) shoreline, fill vacancies in intelligence agencies, upgrade technology, raise new commando units and build counter-insurgency and terrorism schools. Strengthening laws relating to prevention, investigation and punishment of terrorist acts.
Lessons Learnt (Singapore)
1. Need to have crisis management teams in buildings which could provide information to the authorities as well as evacuate people. 2. Random checks on guests and restricting access to guest floors through the use of card keys. 3. Seaborne threats were also being looked into, as the Mumbai attackers entered the city by boat. 4. Hotels beefed up security measures against possible attacks since five-star hotels were the targets in Mumbai. ANTI – TERRORISM POLICY
References /Story/STIStory_ html /Story/STIStory_ html terror-attacks-india8 terror-attacks-india8 journalism-in-mumbai-terrorist-attacks/ journalism-in-mumbai-terrorist-attacks/ of-terror-attack-on-daily-life-in-mumbai_ html of-terror-attack-on-daily-life-in-mumbai_ html arundhati-roy arundhati-roy