3TAESUS502A Identify and apply current sustainability education principles and practice to learning programsElement 1 – Identify effective learning and teaching principles and practice. Element 2 – Research development of current sustainability education principles and practice. Element 3 – Apply current sustainability education principles and practices to learning program.
4Objectives of two-day workshop At the end of this workshop, you should know how to:identify and apply principles of effective learning and teachingdescribe various definitions of sustainability, cite key historical developments in sustainability education and know where to research significant international and Australian initiatives and policies on EfSarticulate the difference between education about sustainability and education for sustainability and it applies to VETcustomise a learning program by applying current sustainability education principles and practice.
5Introductions Your name. Your industry area. What is your secret to a good life?5
7ecosystem degradation The future isn’t what it used to be – how do we prepare our students?complexityecosystem degradationclimate changeinequitypopulation pressureover-consumptioncarbon dioxidespecies extinctionpeak oilEmphasise how all of these are linked and mostly fall out of population pressure and consumption.water scarcityuncertaintyresource depletion
8World Café activity What is sustainability? There are many definitions of sustainability .In a group, develop your own definition of sustainability regarding key words, concepts, principles. Appoint a scribe.The scribe stays with the ideas, other group members move to another scribe.Rework, fill in gaps from previous group.Report back to the whole groupForm a definition that the whole group is happy with
9The important distinction between EaS and EfS Education about sustainability:is an awareness lesson, or theoretical knowledge about sustainabilityis not necessarily oriented to achieving change.Education for sustainability:is the use of education as a tool to achieve a sustainable futureEfS is focused on empowering people to take actionEfS includes elements of EaS.
10Historical development of Sustainability Education Nature Study (19th century)Environmental Education (EE)Education for Sustainability (or Education for Sustainable Development – ESD).
11From EE to EfS EfS was originally one of three strands of EE: education ABOUT the environment – an awareness of environmental concepts (from Science)education IN the environment – (from Outdoor Education , Geography)education FOR the environment (EfS) – all the above plus social/economic systems and explicit values and action towards a sustainable future.
12The world's first intergovernmental conference (UNESCO/UNEP) on Environmental Education, Tbilisi, Georgia (USSR) October , 1977Agenda 21, called for all countries to develop and implement an ESD strategy by 2002.UN Decade for Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) 2005–2014.The Talloires Declaration ten-point action plan for incorporating sustainability and environmental literacy in teaching, research, operations and outreach at colleges and universities. Signed by over institutions in in over 40 countries.
13‘There are over 60 million teachers in the world – and each one is a key agent for bringing about the changes in lifestyles and systems that we need [to achieve a sustainable future]’ , UNESCO, 2002.
14Sustainability skills – Why now? 14Sustainability skills – Why now?Key initiatives and policies EfS:Green Skills Agreement (2009)Living Sustainably: the Australian Government’s National Action Plan for Education for Sustainability (2009)National VET Sector Sustainability Policy and Action Plan (2009–2012)14
16Activity – What constitutes effective learning? In pairs/a group – brainstorm the following questions and record:Drawing from your own VET practice or other teaching experience, what do you do well as a teacher/facilitator?How do you know good learning is taking place?What are some characteristics of engaged learning?What are some characteristics of student disengagement with learning?
17Activity – The importance of prior knowledge … By yourself, draw a spider. (apologies to arachnophobes ...)When you have finished, describe your drawing to a partner – number of body parts, number of legs, other appendages.Compare with a partner.What do you need to know now?New learning builds on what is already known (called ‘prior knowledge’) which in turn depends on the learners’ backgrounds, i.e. their gender, culture, age, experiences, educational background, socioeconomic status and interests. Prior knowledge also strongly depends on values, attitudes, worldviews and beliefs, which is very important in Education for Sustainability (EfS)Discussion: - Why are there so many different representations of a spider in the group?- What prior knowledge did the learners bring to do their drawings?- How did your facilitator set up the ‘need to know’ that engaged you more deeply in learning what a spider looks like, rather than simply tell you the answer?In order to draw your spider you had to draw on your own prior knowledge and memory.Although we have all seen a spider in everyday life, you will see a range of different representations in the group, varying in numbers of legs, body parts and appendages.By asking for a drawing of a real spider, you have engaged with learning about the structure of a spider far more deeply than if they were simply shown the same picture at the beginning of the group.The activity above demonstrates the importance of prior knowledge in building new learning and understanding. Prior knowledge also includes understanding of our worldviews, and the beliefs and values they give rise to.
19Importance of Prior Knowledge By asking learners to draw a spider then providing a picture of a real spider, they have actively engaged with learning about the structure of a spider far more deeply than if they were simply shown the same picture at the beginning of the session.These processes draw from a constructivist approach to teaching and learning.Notes for the facilitator (optional to include)
20Uncovering prior knowledge Using teaching approaches that uncover and building on prior knowledge provide:an investment in finding out the answer by setting up ‘the need to know’recognition of the range of prior knowledge and the variety of prior knowledge within any group of humansa state of receptivity and openness where new knowledge can be built on or replace prior knowledge (the ‘teachable moment’).Notes for the facilitator (optional to include)
22Ways of Learning – VAKVisual-auditory-kinaesthetic (VAK) is a shorthand version of Multiple Intelligences.VAK is useful to open up a discussion with a learner about how they learn best.Conducting a short survey of VAK is useful with any group of learners.
23Ways of learning – Multiple Intelligences There are many ways of learning and knowing, everyone is capable of using all these each way but each person has their own unique preference pattern and each person has the ability to develop increased capacity in the other areas.– Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind, 1993
251. Verbal-linguistic The student in your class who likes: reading writing – often good at spellinglisteningtelling storiesspeaking to groups.
262. Mathematical-logical A preference for :mathematical/science subjectsgood at patterns and ordernumberslogical, likes to reasonorganisation of factslikes to play games like chess.
273. Visual-spatial A preference for images: drawing, pictures, movies, puzzlesart, charts, diagrams, maps, concept mapsoften the daydreamer. can see things from different perspectives, helicopter and 3D.
284. Body-kinaesthetic A preference for : things that are ‘hands-on’ movementsport, drama, role-playsgood at tool usetouching and feelingoften the student who can’t sit still.
295. Musical/rhythmic A preference for: music, singing, instrument playingrhythms, beatsthe DJoften the student who taps on the desk.
306. Social/interpersonal A preference for:being and working with othersgroup discussion, debates, team work, cooperative learning, collaboration, problem solving in a grouplikes harmonycan be manipulativeempathetic (cries while watching movies!)often popular, with many friends.
317. Intrapersonal A preference for : working independently prefers to be left alone and to do things in their own wayself-directed, self -confidentwriting personal journals,problem solving alonereflective and has self-knowledge; is metacognitive.
328. Naturalistic A preference for: nature and being outdoors working with plants and animalsgardening, growing thingswalking in nature, collecting shellsoften knows all about insects, snakes, birds, etc.
33Activity: Your MI Profile Birmingham Test Group profile – Your Top 3 What are your key Multiple intelligences?Activity: Your MI ProfileBirmingham TestGroup profile – Your Top 3The previous session has shown us the importance of prior knowledge, experiences and worldviews in facilitating effective learning. We will now discuss a range of learning theories that are important for effective facilitation and design of relevant and appropriate learning and assessment.- Indicate your most dominant Multiple Intelligences (MIs) on a table drawn on whiteboard or flip chart.- Your facilitator will display the range of MIs and summarise the data.- Reflect on your preferred learning style. Has this influenced your preferred teaching style? In what ways?- Discuss which MIs are focussed on in most education situations?
34The Implications of the MIs Birmingham TestThe Implications of the MIsReflect on your preferred Multiple Intelligences and the way you like to teach:Which MIs are focused on in most education situations?What are the risks to your students of delivering learning and assessment using only one or two approaches?What is the importance of designing a range of learning and assessment approaches for your students?Facilitator notes (optional slide)
35Using Multiple Intelligences in designing teaching The topic is ‘making a cup of coffee’.Each group will be given one or two MIs.You have five minutes to come up with a way of teaching this topic using your given MI.Present your work to the group.Facilitator slide (optional to include)
36What we call ‘best practice’ in teaching and learning comes a number of key educational theorists who have researched different aspects of learning.
40What do we know about effective learning and teaching? Learners are not a ‘blank slate on which the teacher writes’. They bring knowledge, skills and experiences that influence how new ideas are received and interpreted, and how skills are learned (called ‘prior knowledge’).New learning builds on prior knowledge.Prior knowledge depends on learners’ backgrounds - gender, culture, age, biases, motivations, experiences, educational background, socio-economic status and interests.Prior knowledge is of particular importance for EfS, and also strongly depends on values, attitudes, worldviews and beliefs.
41Education in the 21st century … Life-long, requiring:high level of creativitycritical thinkingdecision-making skillsadaptability and flexibilityeffective information retrieval and evaluationholistic/systemic learning, i.e. seeing the connectionseducation for a sustainable future.
43Worldviews, values, and beliefs in education Values are intrinsically important or valuable to us in our lives.Values do not operate alone, but in combination with our attitudes and beliefs that collectively predispose how we think and behave in different situations.We are not born with our values, attitudes and beliefs but acquire them during our lives. They can change throughout life.
44Values activity Activity - What are your values? What do you value most highly in your life?Think briefly about what is most important to you in your life. Use the values prompt list to write down single words to represent what you believe to be your key values.You will, of course, be given the choice about whether to keep this list private or share with others.
45Discussion – Values and worldviews in VET What values does your industry or organisation hold?How do the industry or organisation values relate to your personal values?How do the industry or organisation values relate to sustainability?What are some values in education:In VET programs? In VET policy and guidelines?
46Discussion – Values and worldviews in VET Let’s explore the links between ‘enabling’ effective learning and teaching and VET institutional policies and programs.Working in small groups, consider your own RTOs and document and discuss institutional policies and programs that support effective learning and teaching.
47Teaching Effectively to Create the Change we Need
48Reflection and discussion Sustainability implications for VET?Reflection and discussionHow do we create an enabling environment for transformational learning?How might we teach differently to create change?
49Let’s revisit some effective learning tools (Topic 1) exploring prior knowledgeuse of MIsexperiential / participatory learningexploring valuesbloom’s levelstransformational learning.Can you think of any others?
50Let’s revisit principles of EfS (Topic 2) Transformation and changeEnvisioning a better futureCritical thinking and reflectionParticipationPartnerships for changeSystems thinkingEducation for all and lifelong learningSource: Living Sustainably: The Australian Government’s National Action Plan for Education for SustainabilityRemind learners about the important distinction between EaS and EfS.
51Applying EfS principles and tools: Of the seven EfS principles, three in particular provide a range of useful tools for EfS ‘classrooms’’:Envisioning a better futureCritical thinking and reflectionSystems Thinking.Facilitator Notes (optional to include)Envisioning an better future- ‘The inability to envision dynamic images of the future will lead to the death of society’Elise Boulding- ‘A sustainable world can never come into being if it cannot be envisioned’Donella Meadows
53Discussion: EfS and VET – exploring potential synergies and challenges Sustainability implications for VET?Discussion: EfS and VET – exploring potential synergies and challengesWhat potential synergies and challenges exist for embedding sustainability education principles and practice to existing training, programs and policies in your own organisations?
54Embedding Sustainability Education Principles and Practice into Learning Programs
55Applying effective learning and teaching and sustainability education principles to redesigning a unit of competencyTeaching topic:Changes to be made: Exploring prior knowledgeUse of MIsExperiential learningExploring valuesBloom’s levelsTransformational learningOpportunities to include EaSEfS principlesOptional. Template in Appendices