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Unit 2 品 牌 Brands.

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1 Unit 2 Brands

2 Teaching & Learning Objectives
To enable Ss to talk about “brands” To familiarize Ss with vocabulary related to “brands” To develop Ss’ listening and reading skills To improve Ss’ meeting techniques To cultivate Ss’ problem-solving ability To enhance Ss business writing techniques by writing a memo

3 OVERVIEW Starting up: Favorite Brands Vocabulary: Brand Management
Listening: What is branding? Reading: Fashion Piracy Discussion: Three Promotions Skills: Taking part in Meetings Case Study: Caferoma

4 What is brand? A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept. Branding is the process of creating and disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.

5 What is brand? Brands are usually protected from use by others by securing a trademark or service mark from an authorized agency, usually a government agency. Before applying for a trademark or service mark, you need to establish that someone else hasn’t already obtained one for your name. Although you can do the searching yourself, it is common to hire a law firm that specializes in doing trademark searches and managing the application process, which, in the United States, takes about a year. Once you’ve learned that no one else is using it, you can begin to use your brand name as a trademark simply by stating it is a trademark. After you receive the trademark, you can use the registered symbol after your trademark.

6 What is brand? Brands are often expressed in the form of logos, graphic representations of the brand. In computers, a recent example of widespread brand application was the “Intel Inside” label provided to manufacturers that use Intel’s microchips. A company’s brands and the public’s awareness of them is often used as a factor in evaluating a company. Corporations sometimes hire market research firms to study public recognition of brand names as well as attitudes toward the brands.

7 What is brand? Here is the famous advertising copywriter and ad agency founder David Ogilvy’s definition of a brand: The intangible sum of a product’s attributes: its name, packaging, and price, its history, its reputation, and the way it’s advertised.

8 David Ogilvy David MacKenzie Ogilvy
(June 23, 1911– July 21, 1999), was a notable advertising executive. He has often been called “The Father of Advertising.” In 1962, Time called him “the most sought-after wizard in today’s advertising industry.” He was known for a career of expanding the bounds of both creativity and morality.

9 Quotation ‘The most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create, maintain, protect and enhance brands.’ P. Kotler, American marketing guru

10 Philip Kotler Philip Kotler (born 27 May 1931 in Chicago) is the S.G. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He received his master’s degree at the University of Chicago and his Ph D at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, both in economics. He did postdoctoral work in mathematics at Harvard University and in behavioral science at the University of Chicago.

11 Philip Kotler He was selected in 2001 as the #4 major management guru by the Financial Times (behind Jack Welch, Bill Gates, and Peter Drucker,) and has been hailed by the Management Centre Europe as “the world’s foremost expert on the strategic practice of marketing.” In 2008, the Wall Street Journal listed him as the 6th most influential person on business thinking.

12 Philip Kotler Kotler has consulted many major U.S. and foreign companies, including IBM, Michelin, Bank of America, Merck, General Electric, Honeywell, and Motorola - in the areas of marketing strategy, planning and organization, and international marketing. He presents seminars in major international cities around the world on the latest marketing developments to companies and other organizations.

13 Starting up A. List some of your favorite brands and answer the following questions: Are they international or national brands? What image and qualities does each one have? Do the products have anything in common? How loyal are you to the brands you have chosen? If you don’t buy branded goods, explain why.


15 Starting up B. What are the advantages of branded goods for:
a) the manufacturer b) the consumer

16 Advantages for the manufacturer
Having a product which is instantly recognisable and thus more likely to be bought Being able to associate specific qualities with the brand, e.g. value for money, safety, prestige The possibility of launching related products under the same (established) brand Greater customer loyalty

17 Advantages for the consumer
A reliable product—you know what you’re getting for your money High prestige brands give you an opportunity to enhance your standing


19 Starting up C. The world’s top ten brands: Which do you think is number one? Rank the others in order. Marlboro AT & T Ford General Electric Intel IBM Microsoft Coca-Cola McDonald’s Disney

20 Top 10 Global Brands Source: Interbrand/Citibank 1999
1. Coca-Cola Microsoft 3. IBM General Electric 5. Ford Disney 7. Intel McDonald’s 9. AT & T Marlboro Companies ranked according to: Weight (market share) % Breadth (cross section of society reached) 30% Depth (brand loyalty) % Length (brand-stretching ability) %

The influence or dominance that a brand has over its category or market (more than just market share) BRAND WEIGHT Interbrand

The stretch or extension that the brand has achieved in the past or is likely to achieve in the future (especially outside its original category). BRAND LENGTH Interbrand

The breadth of franchise that the brand has achieved both in terms of age spread, consumer types and international appeal. BRAND BREADTH Interbrand

The degree of commitment that the brand has achieved among its customer base and beyond. The proximity, the intimacy and the loyalty felt for the brand. Interbrand


26 Best Global Brands 2008

27 Vocabulary: Brand Management
brand awareness 品牌意识 brand image 品牌形象 brand stretching 品牌延伸 brand loyalty 品牌忠诚 brand leader 最畅销品牌 brand manager 品牌经理 luxury brand 高级品牌,奢华品牌 classic brand 历史悠久的品 牌

28 Vocabulary: Brand Management
A. Match the definitions to the word partnerships with the word brand. A brand associated with expensive, high quality products The person responsible for planning and managing a branded product The brand with the largest market share A famous brand with a long history luxury brand brand manager brand leader classic brand

29 Vocabulary: Brand Management
5. The ideas and beliefs which consumers have about a brand 6. The tendency of a customer to continue buying a particular product 7. Using a successful brand name to launch a product in a new category 8. The knowledge which consumers have of a brand brand image brand loyalty brand stretching brand awareness

30 Listening: What is branding?
Branding is the activity of giving brand names to products, developing people’s awareness of them etc. 品牌宣传,品牌活动 Listen to an authentic interview with Lynne Fielding, a marketing specialist, and do the exercises.

31 Listening: What is branding?
A. Listen to the first part of the interview and complete the extract with the words below. money name differentiate synergy quality competitors’ ‘What is branding and why do we need brands?’ ‘A brand can be a _______, a term or a symbol. It is used to ____________ a product from ____________ products. The brands guarantee a certain __________ level. Brands should add value to products. It’s a _________ effect whereby one plus one equals three. But customers must believe they get extra value for _________.’ name differentiate competitors’ quality synergy money

32 differentiate v. to recognize or express the difference between things or people
辨别,区别 differentiate between…(and)… differentiate sth/sb from synergy n. the extra energy, power, success, etc that is achieved by two or more people or companies working together, instead of on their own 协同作用,协同增效作用

33 Listening: What is branding?
B. Listen to the second part of the interview and complete the chart.

34 individual family Haagen Daz Virgin Direct Line Insurance
Malboro Virgin Marks and Spencer Levis

35 Listening: What is branding?
C. Listen to the last part and complete the summary. 1. Customers want: a) _____________ b) ____________ c) ____________________ 2. Customers like to: a) rely on the _____________ guaranteed by the company b) __________ products. c) __________ with brands. new brands choice different products quality levels trust identify

36 Reading: Fashion Piracy
A. Pre-reading: Before you read, discuss these questions. Do you own a product which is an illegal copy of a well known brand? If so, what is it? Where did you buy it? How much does it cost? How can manufacturers protect their brands from piracy (illegal copying)?

37 B. Match the words and phrases with the definitions.
a) plans of a company to achieve its objectives b) agreements which allow a company to make and sell a registered product locally c) taking strong action all over the world d) a person who copies goods in order to trick people e) copy someone else’s work, e.g. their designs, without permission f) a large amount of people or organisations working together as a system g) goods for sale f) change the way something is organised g) the symbol of a company or other organisation h) sell illegal copies of a brand as if they are the real thing 1. global offensive 2. counterfeiter 3. copyright abuse 4. a network 5. merchandise 6. corporate strategy 7. logo 8. licensing rights 9. rip off 10. restructure

38 Reading: Fashion Piracy
global offensive c 全球性攻势 counterfeiter d 伪造者 copyright abuse e 盗用版权 a network f 网络 merchandise g 商品 corporate strategy a 公司策略 logo i 商标;专用标识 licensing rights b 准许权 rip off j 盗用 restructure h 重组;重构

39 Reading: Fashion Piracy
C. Read the article quickly to find out: 1. which Calvin Klein products are commonly copied. 2. why the problem is getting worse. 3. how the company is dealing with it.

40 Reading: Fashion Piracy
Which Calvin Klein products are commonly copied? T-shirts, jeans and baseball caps.

41 Reading: Fashion Piracy
2. Why is the problem getting worse? Because Calvin Klein has become a more well-known brand, and is therefore more profitable to copy.

42 Reading: Fashion Piracy
3. How is the company dealing with it? By establishing a network of employees and external specialists.

43 Reading: Fashion Piracy
D. Read the article and answer the questions. What was Calvin Klein’s attitude to counterfeiting in the past? Why has the company changed its way of dealing with counterfeiters? What has the company done to change the way its business operates and to increase its size?

44 Reading: Fashion Piracy
What was Calvin Klein’s attitude to counterfeiting in the past? It took a passive approach.

45 Reading: Fashion Piracy
2. Why has the company changed its way of dealing with counterfeiters? Because of the increase in counterfeiting and because it reduces the company’s sales and damages its brand image.

46 Reading: Fashion Piracy
3. What has the company done to change the way its business operates and to increase its size? It has expanded its business outside North America, increased spending on advertising and signed licensing deals with partners for whole regions rather than individual countries, the previous practice.

47 Language review: Past simple and present perfect
A. Memo completion. 1. launched increased 3. have fallen have copied 5. has become organised 7. have found have seized 9. contacted informed 11. have had have lost

48 Discussion: Three Promotions
Case 1 Macdonald’s Why do you think this promotion was unpopular with Macdonald’s customers? How do you think Macdonald’s dealt with the situation?

49 Case 1 Macdonald’s The promotion was unpopular because it gave a misleading impression of the price. When the price of the french fries and drink at the full price were taken into account, the discount on the whole meal amounted to only about 5%. McDonald’s withdrew the promotion and cancelled the campaign. It also announced a major reorganisation in its management structure, scrapping the 40-year-old tradition of centralised management in Illinois, USA, and appointing local managers instead.

50 Discussion: Three Promotions
Case 2 Pepsi What prize do you think John Leonard is claiming from Pepsi Cola? What did he do to claim the prize? What do you think Pepsi Cola have described his claim as frivolous?

51 Case 2 Pepsi John Leonard claimed a Harrier Jump Jet by buying 7,000,000 Pepsi Stuff Points at l0¢ each: a cost of $700,000 or about £400,000 for a machine that normally costs several million dollars. Pepsi described his claim as ‘frivolous’ because the advertisement was meant as a joke. However, when they later screened the advertisement on national TV in the USA, the number of points needed to claim the Harrier Jet was increased from 7 million to 700 million.

52 Discussion: Three Promotions
Case 3 Irish Tourist Board Why do you think the Irish people disliked the logo so much? Was the minister right to get rid of the logo? Which logo do you prefer?

53 Case 3 Irish Tourist Board
Many people felt there was no need to get rid of the shamrock, which has been the symbol of Irish tourism for the past 30 years. They also found it difficult to work out what the new symbol was and interpreted it in hundreds of ways, for example: two sumo wrestlers preparing to fight; two crabs meeting; two monsters; a viking ship.

54 Skills: Taking part in Meetings
Build up a profile of a company, hold a meeting to speculate about what may be causing it to lose sales and brainstorm possible solutions (to improve its sales and its brand awareness amongst its target consumers).

55 Product characteristics
Case Study: Caferoma Background Brand Caferoma Owned by Pan European Food and Drink (PEFD) Image exclusive, Italian style, coffee for gourmets Pricing high Product characteristics strong full-bodied flavour, slight bitter taste

56 Case Study: Caferoma Problems
Caferoma’s share of the European quality ground coffee market has declined by almost 25%, reasons are: Brand loyalty: consumers becoming less loyal to brands and prefer low-priced coffee products Price: supermarkets selling similar products under their own label at much lower prices ‘Copycat’ products: at prices 30% to 40% lower than Caferoma’s price; having cut into Caferoma’s market share Brand image: no longer conveying feeling of excitement and enthusiasm, not giving the impression of up-to-date and contemporary

57 Case Study: Caferoma Possible Solutions Repositioning the product
Pricing Advertising Multiple brands Own label products A new product Stretching the brand

58 Case Study: Caferoma Task
You are members of PEFD’s European marketing team. Hold an informal meeting to discuss Caferoma’s problems and decide on some actions to halt the decline in the market share and to increase profits.

59 Assignment Writing Write a memo for the attention of Caferoma’s Managing Director, summarising what action you agreed to take at the meeting to solve Caferoma’s problems and explaining your reasons.

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