2Teaching & Learning Objectives To enable Ss to talk about “brands”To familiarize Ss with vocabulary related to “brands”To develop Ss’ listening and reading skillsTo improve Ss’ meeting techniquesTo cultivate Ss’ problem-solving abilityTo enhance Ss business writing techniques by writing a memo
3OVERVIEW Starting up: Favorite Brands Vocabulary: Brand Management Listening: What is branding?Reading: Fashion PiracyDiscussion: Three PromotionsSkills: Taking part in MeetingsCase Study: Caferoma
4What is brand?A brand is a product, service, or concept that is publicly distinguished from other products, services, or concepts so that it can be easily communicated and usually marketed. A brand name is the name of the distinctive product, service, or concept. Branding is the process of creating and disseminating the brand name. Branding can be applied to the entire corporate identity as well as to individual product and service names.
5What is brand?Brands are usually protected from use by others by securing a trademark or service mark from an authorized agency, usually a government agency. Before applying for a trademark or service mark, you need to establish that someone else hasn’t already obtained one for your name. Although you can do the searching yourself, it is common to hire a law firm that specializes in doing trademark searches and managing the application process, which, in the United States, takes about a year. Once you’ve learned that no one else is using it, you can begin to use your brand name as a trademark simply by stating it is a trademark. After you receive the trademark, you can use the registered symbol after your trademark.
6What is brand?Brands are often expressed in the form of logos, graphic representations of the brand. In computers, a recent example of widespread brand application was the “Intel Inside” label provided to manufacturers that use Intel’s microchips.A company’s brands and the public’s awareness of them is often used as a factor in evaluating a company. Corporations sometimes hire market research firms to study public recognition of brand names as well as attitudes toward the brands.
7What is brand?Here is the famous advertising copywriter and ad agency founder David Ogilvy’s definition of a brand:The intangible sum of a product’s attributes: its name, packaging, and price, its history, its reputation, and the wayit’s advertised.
8David Ogilvy David MacKenzie Ogilvy (June 23, 1911– July 21, 1999), was a notable advertising executive. He has often been called “The Father of Advertising.” In 1962, Time called him “the most sought-after wizard in today’s advertising industry.” He was known for a career of expanding the bounds of both creativity and morality.
9Quotation‘The most distinctive skill of professional marketers is their ability to create, maintain, protect and enhance brands.’P. Kotler, American marketing guru
10Philip KotlerPhilip Kotler (born 27 May 1931 in Chicago) is the S.G. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University. He received his master’s degree at the University of Chicago and his Ph D at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, both in economics. He did postdoctoral work in mathematics at Harvard University and in behavioral science at the University of Chicago.
11Philip KotlerHe was selected in 2001 as the #4 major management guru by the Financial Times (behind Jack Welch, Bill Gates, and Peter Drucker,) and has been hailed by the Management Centre Europe as “the world’s foremost expert on the strategic practice of marketing.” In 2008, the Wall Street Journal listed him as the 6th most influential person on business thinking.
12Philip KotlerKotler has consulted many major U.S. and foreign companies, including IBM, Michelin, Bank of America, Merck, General Electric, Honeywell, and Motorola - in the areas of marketing strategy, planning and organization, and international marketing.He presents seminars in major international cities around the world on the latest marketing developments to companies and other organizations.
13Starting upA. List some of your favorite brands and answer the following questions:Are they international or national brands?What image and qualities does each one have?Do the products have anything in common?How loyal are you to the brands you have chosen?If you don’t buy branded goods, explain why.
15Starting up B. What are the advantages of branded goods for： a) the manufacturerb) the consumer
16Advantages for the manufacturer Having a product which is instantly recognisable and thus more likely to be boughtBeing able to associate specific qualities with the brand, e.g. value for money, safety, prestigeThe possibility of launching related products under the same (established) brandGreater customer loyalty
17Advantages for the consumer A reliable product—you know what you’re getting for your moneyHigh prestige brands give you an opportunity to enhance your standing
19Starting upC. The world’s top ten brands: Which do you think is number one? Rank the others in order.Marlboro AT & T FordGeneral Electric Intel IBMMicrosoft Coca-ColaMcDonald’s Disney
20Top 10 Global Brands Source: Interbrand/Citibank 1999 1. Coca-Cola Microsoft3. IBM General Electric5. Ford Disney7. Intel McDonald’s9. AT & T MarlboroCompanies ranked according to:Weight (market share) %Breadth (cross section of society reached) 30%Depth (brand loyalty) %Length (brand-stretching ability) %
21POWER BRANDS Assessing BRAND POWER BRAND WEIGHT The influence or dominance that a brand has over its category or market (more than just market share)BRANDWEIGHTInterbrand
22POWER BRANDS Assessing BRAND POWER BRAND LENGTH The stretch or extension that the brand has achieved in the past or is likely to achieve in the future (especially outside its original category).BRANDLENGTHInterbrand
23POWER BRANDS Assessing BRAND POWER BRAND BREADTH The breadth of franchise that the brand has achieved both in terms of age spread, consumer types and international appeal.BRANDBREADTHInterbrand
24POWER BRANDS Assessing BRAND POWER BRAND DEPTH The degree of commitment that the brand has achieved among its customer base and beyond. The proximity, the intimacy and the loyalty felt for the brand.Interbrand
28Vocabulary: Brand Management A. Match the definitions to the word partnerships with the word brand.A brand associated with expensive, high quality productsThe person responsible for planning and managing a branded productThe brand with the largest market shareA famous brand with a long historyluxury brandbrand managerbrand leaderclassic brand
29Vocabulary: Brand Management 5. The ideas and beliefs which consumers have about a brand6. The tendency of a customer to continue buying a particular product7. Using a successful brand name to launch a product in a new category8. The knowledge which consumers have of a brandbrand imagebrand loyaltybrand stretchingbrand awareness
30Listening: What is branding? Branding is the activity of giving brand names to products, developing people’s awareness of them etc.品牌宣传，品牌活动Listen to an authentic interview with Lynne Fielding, a marketing specialist, and do the exercises.
31Listening: What is branding? A. Listen to the first part of the interview and complete the extract with the words below.money name differentiate synergy quality competitors’‘What is branding and why do we need brands?’‘A brand can be a _______, a term or a symbol. It is used to ____________ a product from ____________ products. The brands guarantee a certain __________ level. Brands should add value to products. It’s a _________ effect whereby one plus one equals three. But customers must believe they get extra value for _________.’namedifferentiatecompetitors’qualitysynergymoney
32differentiate v. to recognize or express the difference between things or people 辨别，区别differentiate between…(and)…differentiate sth/sb fromsynergy n. the extra energy, power, success, etc that is achieved by two or more people or companies working together, instead of on their own 协同作用，协同增效作用
33Listening: What is branding? B. Listen to the second part of the interview and complete the chart.
34individual family Haagen Daz Virgin Direct Line Insurance MalboroVirginMarks and SpencerLevis
35Listening: What is branding? C. Listen to the last part and complete the summary.1. Customers want:a) _____________ b) ____________c) ____________________2. Customers like to:a) rely on the _____________ guaranteed by the companyb) __________ products.c) __________ with brands.new brandschoicedifferent productsquality levelstrustidentify
36Reading: Fashion Piracy A. Pre-reading:Before you read, discuss these questions.Do you own a product which is an illegal copy of a well known brand? If so, what is it? Where did you buy it? How much does it cost?How can manufacturers protect their brands from piracy (illegal copying)?
37B. Match the words and phrases with the definitions. a) plans of a company to achieve its objectivesb) agreements which allow a company to make and sell a registered product locallyc) taking strong action all over the worldd) a person who copies goods in order to trick peoplee) copy someone else’s work, e.g. their designs, without permissionf) a large amount of people or organisations working together as a systemg) goods for salef) change the way something is organisedg) the symbol of a company or other organisationh) sell illegal copies of a brand as if they are the real thing1. global offensive2. counterfeiter3. copyright abuse4. a network5. merchandise6. corporate strategy7. logo8. licensing rights9. rip off10. restructure
38Reading: Fashion Piracy global offensive c 全球性攻势counterfeiter d 伪造者copyright abuse e 盗用版权a network f 网络merchandise g 商品corporate strategy a 公司策略logo i 商标；专用标识licensing rights b 准许权rip off j 盗用restructure h 重组；重构
39Reading: Fashion Piracy C. Read the article quickly to find out:1. which Calvin Klein products are commonlycopied.2. why the problem is getting worse.3. how the company is dealing with it.
40Reading: Fashion Piracy Which Calvin Klein products are commonly copied？T-shirts, jeans and baseball caps.
41Reading: Fashion Piracy 2. Why is the problem getting worse？Because Calvin Klein has become a more well-known brand, and is therefore more profitable to copy.
42Reading: Fashion Piracy 3. How is the company dealing with it？By establishing a network of employees and external specialists.
43Reading: Fashion Piracy D. Read the article and answer the questions.What was Calvin Klein’s attitude to counterfeiting in the past?Why has the company changed its way of dealing with counterfeiters?What has the company done to change the way its business operates and to increase its size?
44Reading: Fashion Piracy What was Calvin Klein’s attitude to counterfeiting in the past?It took a passive approach.
45Reading: Fashion Piracy 2. Why has the company changed its way of dealing with counterfeiters?Because of the increase in counterfeiting and because it reduces the company’s sales and damages its brand image.
46Reading: Fashion Piracy 3. What has the company done to change the way its business operates and to increase its size?It has expanded its business outside North America, increased spending on advertising and signed licensing deals with partners for whole regions rather than individual countries, the previous practice.
47Language review: Past simple and present perfect A. Memo completion.1. launched increased3. have fallen have copied5. has become organised7. have found have seized9. contacted informed11. have had have lost
48Discussion: Three Promotions Case 1 Macdonald’sWhy do you think this promotion was unpopular with Macdonald’s customers?How do you think Macdonald’s dealt with the situation?
49Case 1 Macdonald’sThe promotion was unpopular because it gave a misleading impression of the price. When the price of the french fries and drink at the full price were taken into account, the discount on the whole meal amounted to only about 5%.McDonald’s withdrew the promotion and cancelled the campaign. It also announced a major reorganisation in its management structure, scrapping the 40-year-old tradition of centralised management in Illinois, USA, and appointing local managers instead.
50Discussion: Three Promotions Case 2 PepsiWhat prize do you think John Leonard is claiming from Pepsi Cola?What did he do to claim the prize?What do you think Pepsi Cola have described his claim as frivolous?
51Case 2 PepsiJohn Leonard claimed a Harrier Jump Jet by buying 7,000,000 Pepsi Stuff Points at l0¢ each: a cost of $700,000 or about £400,000 for a machine that normally costs several million dollars.Pepsi described his claim as ‘frivolous’ because the advertisement was meant as a joke. However, when they later screened the advertisement on national TV in the USA, the number of points needed to claim the Harrier Jet was increased from 7 million to 700 million.
52Discussion: Three Promotions Case 3 Irish Tourist BoardWhy do you think the Irish people disliked the logo so much?Was the minister right to get rid of the logo?Which logo do you prefer?
53Case 3 Irish Tourist Board Many people felt there was no need to get rid of the shamrock, which has been the symbol of Irish tourism for the past 30 years. They also found it difficult to work out what the new symbol was and interpreted it in hundreds of ways, for example: two sumo wrestlers preparing to fight; two crabs meeting; two monsters; a viking ship.
54Skills: Taking part in Meetings Build up a profile of a company, hold a meeting to speculate about what may be causing it to lose sales and brainstorm possible solutions (to improve its sales and its brand awareness amongst its target consumers).
55Product characteristics Case Study: CaferomaBackgroundBrandCaferomaOwned byPan European Food and Drink (PEFD)Imageexclusive, Italian style, coffee for gourmetsPricinghighProduct characteristicsstrong full-bodied flavour, slight bitter taste
56Case Study: Caferoma Problems Caferoma’s share of the European quality ground coffee market has declined by almost 25%, reasons are:Brand loyalty: consumers becoming less loyal to brands and prefer low-priced coffee productsPrice: supermarkets selling similar products under their own label at much lower prices‘Copycat’ products: at prices 30% to 40% lower than Caferoma’s price; having cut into Caferoma’s market shareBrand image: no longer conveying feeling of excitement and enthusiasm, not giving the impression of up-to-date and contemporary
57Case Study: Caferoma Possible Solutions Repositioning the product PricingAdvertisingMultiple brandsOwn label productsA new productStretching the brand
58Case Study: Caferoma Task You are members of PEFD’s European marketing team. Hold an informal meeting to discuss Caferoma’s problems and decide on some actions to halt the decline in the market share and to increase profits.
59AssignmentWritingWrite a memo for the attention of Caferoma’s Managing Director, summarising what action you agreed to take at the meeting to solve Caferoma’s problems and explaining your reasons.