Presentation on theme: "Fertilization The practice by which essential plant nutrients are supplied as part of the turfgrass cultural program. Its inexpensive and rapid, and provides."— Presentation transcript:
Fertilization The practice by which essential plant nutrients are supplied as part of the turfgrass cultural program. Its inexpensive and rapid, and provides tremendous bang for the buck.
Extra Credit Presentations u 8 minute presentation u Any turf topic - Must OK with me u Must inform me by Friday, Oct. 13 u Must attend all presentations u Must use audiovisuals (slides, computer, etc) u Do not wait until the week before!
Fertilizers: Any material which supplies one or more of the essential plant nutrients
Essential Nutrients CHOPKNS CaFe ClZn MoB CuMn Mg See Hopkins Cafe Closin Mob comin with machine gun
u C,H,O - from air and water u N,P,K - macronutrients, most often supplied from fertilizers u Ca,Mg,S - macronutrients usually adequate in the soil u Fe,Mn,Cu,Zn,B,Mo,Cl - micronutrients, usually adequate in soil, except for Fe
Nutrient Balance Concept Available Nutrient Pool Input Output Mineralization Organic matter Fertilizers Atmospheric deposition Losses Plant uptake Microbes
Fertilizer Analysis u Minimum guaranteed composition of the fertilizer u Defines how much N, P and K are present u Gives the information as three percentages, eg or
Actual vs. Stated Composition u N-P-K on the bag, expressed as a percent, doesnt really mean the amount of N, P and K!
Analysis u N is presented as N. If the bag says 21% N, then there is 21% by weight of actual N. A 50# bag contains 50X0.21, or 10.5# of actual N. No conversion is necessary for N.
Analysis u P is not presented as percent actual P! The number on the bag is really the percent of P 2 O 5 in the bag. P 2 O 5 is heavier than P, so the percentage on the bag looks bigger! It really overestimates the amount of actual P in the bag.
Conversion u To convert from P 2 O 5 to P, multiply by For example, a 50# bag of (N-P-K) contains 10% P 2 O 5, or 5# of P 2 O 5. How much actual P is in the bag? 5# P 2 O 5 X 0.44 = 2.2# actual P This is really important to understand for calculations
Analysis u K also is not presented as percent actual K! The number on the bag is really the percent of K 2 O in the bag. K 2 O is also heavier than K, so the percentage on the bag looks bigger! It really overestimates the amount of actual K in the bag.
Conversion u To convert from K 2 O to K, multiply by For example, a 50# bag of (N-P-K) contains 10% K 2 O, or 5# of K 2 O. How much actual K is in the bag? 5# K 2 O X 0.83 = 4.15# actual K
Nitrogen u Required in greatest amounts for plant growth u Tool to control growth u Normal range in tissue is 3-5% by dry weight. In other words, 100 grams of dry tissue contains 3-5% N. This will depend on species
Excess Nitrogen u Excess shoot growth u Reduced root growth u Increased disease u Decreased carbohydrates u Decreased stress tolerance u Population shifts
Nitrogen Deficiency u The most common deficiency u Growth slows dramatically u Oldest leaves first become chlorotic (lose their dark green color, become yellowish), while newest leaves stay green. This is because the N is transferred from the oldest, expendable leaves to the newest, most valuable leaves
Functions of N in the Plant u Component of amino acids, proteins, enzymes, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) u Component of chlorophyll and some hormones u Component of secondary products: nicotine, defense compounds, osmotic agents (help regulate plant water relations) u Mobile within the plant - old leaves transfer N to young leaves. Old leaves become chlorotic first
Nitrogen Carriers u Plants absorb and utilize N in several different forms, including NH 4, NO 3, and urea. u Which is the best form? Which does the plant prefer? Turf seems to like them all. u Other forms must be converted to NH 4, NO 3 to be absorbed.
Quickly Available N u Very soluble u Tendency to burn u Rapid response u Short response u Cheap u Minimal temperature dependency u High leaching potential
Quickly Available N u Ammonium nitrate u Ammonium sulfate u Ammonium phosphates u mono-ammonium phosphate u di-ammonium phosphate u Potassium nitrate u Urea (organic?)
Slowly Available N u Slow initial response u Longer response than quick release u Some, but not all, are dependent on temperature for N release u Low burn potential u Moderately expensive to expensive u Less N leaching
Types of Slow-Release N Fertilizers u Ureaformaldehyde, UF u Methylene Urea, MU u Isobutylidinediurea, IBDU u Sulfur coated urea, SCU u Polymer coated urea, Reactive layer coated urea, RLC
Salt and pH Effects of Fertilizers
Go to slowrel.ppt
Phosphorus u Component of nucleic acids, ATP u ATP transfers energy in reactions u Required for meristem activity u Involved in conversion of carbohydrates u Stored in seeds as phytin u Mobile within plant - older parts can transfer to meristems u Tissue levels = %
Soil Nutrient Levels (for all but Nitrogen) Amount of Nutrient in Soil Plant Growth DeficientSufficientSuperoptimal
Phosphorus Deficiency u Growth is dramatically slowed u Leaves turn very dark blue/green or even somewhat purple u Rare because turf is very efficient at extracting P from the soil. Over time, turf can actually increase the amount of P that is available by storing it in the organic matter
Soil Phosphorus u Many soils contain considerable P, but most is unavailable to the plant. Plants absorb the anion phosphate, HPO 4 2- u P forms insoluble molecules when it binds with Fe or Al. This is especially a problem with low pH soils. Thus, P is not very mobile in the soil u Soil solution contains very small amounts of P, yet the turf usually obtains adequate amounts. How?
Phosphorus Buffering Soil Solution Clay Al-P Fe-P P P Root Clay Al-P Fe-P
Phosphorus Buffering Soil Solution Clay Al-P Fe-P P P Root Clay Al-P Fe-P P P
Turfgrasses Mine Phosphorus u Roots are continuously absorbing P from the soil solution. The P is continuously being replaced from the buffering system. P is transferred to the canopy, and is ultimately deposited back on the surface when leaves die. It is released to the soil, but being immobile, it binds near the surface.
Soil Depth Amount of P Soil Depth Amount of P Turfgrasses Concentrates Phosphorus at Surface
Sources of Phosphorus u Rock phosphate ores, mined, and processed with acid u superphosphate - 20% P 2 O 5 u triple superphosphate - 45% P 2 O 5 u monoammonium phosphate - 48% P 2 O 5, 11% N u diammonium phosphate - 50% P 2 O 5, 20% N
Potassium u Unique because it isnt incorporated into some molecule in the plant. It exists in its ionic, K + form, in solution in cytoplasm u Tissue levels of % u Functions as a catalyst for biochemical reactions u Functions in maintaining turgor u Functions in carbohydrate synthesis u Deficiencies hard to diagnose
Adequate Potassium u Increases root growth u Increases disease and environmental stress tolerance (?) u Increases wear tolerance u It sounds like a magic elixir! But the beneficial effects are realized only when compared to K deficient conditions. There is little benefit from adding K to an already sufficient soil!
Potassium Sources u KCl, muriate of potash u K 2 SO 4, potassium sulfate u KNO 3, potassium nitrate u Sulfur coated potassium u Polymer coated potassium u Potassium binds to cation exchange sites, but may leach from sandy soils
Calcium u Available as the cation Ca 2+ u Constituent of cell walls u Not mobile in the plant u Supplied with lime (CaCO 3 ) or gypsum (CaSO 4 ) u Rarely deficient, except under extreme acid soil conditions
Magnesium u Available as the cation, Mg 2+ u Involved in energy transformations u Important component of the chlorophyll molecule u Supplied using dolomitic lime (CaCO 3 + MgCO 3 ) or MagAmP, (magnesium ammonium phosphate) u Rarely deficient, except under extreme acid soil conditions
Sulfur u Available as the anion SO 4 2- u Component of amino acids, proteins u Supplied in: u ammonium sulfate, (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 u potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 u superphosphate u gypsum, CaSO 4 u elemental sulfur - used to acidify soils
Sulfur Deficiency u Rare u Similar to N deficiency, with older leaves turning chlorotic yellow, newer leaves remaining green. This is because S is mobile in the plant, and can be transported out of older leaves and into newer leaves if the need arises. Thus the older leaves become yellow.
Micronutrients u Most are involved as catalysts in enzyme reactions u Most are basically insoluble at high pH u Solubility increases as the soil becomes more acidic
Iron u The one micronutrient that is likely to be deficient, or at least the turf is likely to exhibit deficiency symptoms u Symptoms are chlorosis, sometimes severe, of the youngest leaves. Fe is not mobile in the plant, so it is not transferred from old to young leaves.
Causes of Iron Chlorosis u alkaline soils, pH > 7.5 u too much P in soil u too much lime applied u wet soils u cold soils u roots are inactive or damaged
Correcting Iron Chlorosis u Fast acting Fe salts - ferrous sulfate is often spray applied to turf foliage at a rate of 2-4 grams of fs per 1000 sq. ft. This is quick but short lived u Iron chelates (claws) are organic compounds that bind Fe and keep it available to the plant for extended periods. Theyre expensive, slower acting, but last longer.
Fertilizer Programs u Most are based on several to many granular applications each year u Timed to the major growth periods for each grass u Applied using drop spreaders or rotary (centrifugal) spreaders u Pick the right spreader for the job. Avoid applying material too close to water features or on hardscape
Fertigation u Fertigation is newer concept, in which nutrients are injected into the irrigation line at every irrigation (usually) and delivered with the water. Spoon-feeding a little every day u Can also inject acid or lime to help control pH problems u Burning is not usually a problem because of the low amounts, but for safety, good idea to irrigate just enough to wash the fertilizer off the foliage
Fertigation Problems u Requires new hardware - pumps, storage tanks, controllers u Fertilize only when irrigating - what about a rainy period? u Fertilizer coverage is only as good as the water coverage, only as good as the irrigation system. This is not a problem with most new systems, but can be with some of the older designs
Foliar Feeding u Liquid fertilizers spray-applied to the foliage at higher rates #N/1000 sq ft. u Commonly used in home lawn care industry u Increased potential for burn - cant use the soluble fast release forms u Uptake by foliage is fairly inefficient, so material should be watered in, clippings returned
Calculations u How many pounds of N, P and K are there in one ton of a fertilizer? (give answer as actual P and K!)
Calculations u A 20 pound bag of ammonium sulfate (21-0-0) costs $1.99. A 50 pound bag of urea (46-0-0) costs $9.99. Which would you recommend to a homeowner who wants to save money? How much money would they save using your recommendation if they fertilized a 6000 square foot lawn with 1pound of N per thousand square feet?
Calculations u Your golf course has 95,000 square feet of putting greens. Your boss told you to calculate how much fertilizer she should budget for. You are going to apply a total of 3 pounds N per thousand as IBDU, and three pounds N per thousand from a fertilizer having an analysis of Calculate how much of each you will need to order. You also want to supply a yearly total of 2 pounds actual P and 5 pounds actual K to your greens. How much additional triple superphosphate and muriate of potash do you need to order?
Calculations u A starter fertilizer ( ) is applied to a 4000 square foot tee. A total of 2 pounds actual P per thousand is applied. How much N and actual K is applied as part of this complete fertilizer?
A B C D ? ?
Total Area u A= 3500 ft 2 u B= 2000 ft 2 u C= 3200 ft 2 u D= 6000 ft 2 u Total = 14,700 ft 2 (round up to 15,000 ft 2 )
Calculations u Based on the home yard just discussed: Assume the entire yard is bermudagrass turf. How much Coron (28-0-0) would you need to apply to provide the turf with 2 pounds of N per thousand? Assume Coron weighs 9 pounds per gallon, and give your answer in gallons.