Presentation on theme: "NSS Enriching Knowledge for the Tourism and Hospitality Studies Curriculum Series (10): Compulsory Part II – Introduction to Hospitality - Food and Beverage."— Presentation transcript:
1NSS Enriching Knowledge for the Tourism and Hospitality Studies Curriculum Series (10): Compulsory Part II – Introduction to Hospitality - Food and Beverage Sector (New)
2Objectives Introduction to the food and beverage sector Sectors of the foodservice industryFood and beverage operationsClassifications of food service establishmentsTypes of food and beverage services
3F & B industryIt is usually defined by the output of products. But it doesn’t include the manufacturing of food & drink and its retailing.The basic function: serve food & drink to people and to satisfy their various types of needs.The main aim is to achieve Customer Satisfaction. The needs that customer might be seeking to satisfy are:Physiological: the need of special food itemsEconomic: the need for good value for the price paidSocial: a friendly atmospherePsychological: the need for enhancement of self‐esteemConvenience : the desire for someone else to do the work
4Characteristics of the F & B operations: Following are the main characteristics:A vital part of everyday lifeMajor contributor to the Hong Kong economyHighly fragmented & complexCreates employmentEncourages entrepreneurshipPromotes diversity through many different food concepts & cuisinesInnovativeConsumer ledHigh competitionFulfils basic needs
5The foodservice operation/cycle (a) Consumer and market(b) Formulation of policy(c) Interpretation of demand(d) Planning and design of facilities(e) Provisioning(f) Production and service(g) Control of costs and revenues(h) Monitoring of consumer satisfactionThe foodservice cycle can be used as a basis to analyze how different foodservice operations work.
6Target the consumer needs and market potential. (a) Consumer and marketTarget the consumer needs and market potential.(b) Formulation of policyThe formulation of policy and business objectives: guide the choice of operational methods that will be used.(c) Interpretation of demandThe interpretation and design of facilities required for the food and beverage operations and the plant, equipment required.(d) Planning and design of facilitiesThe planning and design of facilities required for the food and beverage operations and the plant and equipment required.(e) ProvisioningThe organization of provisioning for food and beverage and other purchasing requirements to meet the needs of the food production, beverage provision and the service methods being used.(f) Production and serviceKnowledge of the operational and management requirements for the food production. Together with the management and staffing needs in order to meet the requirement of the operation.(g) Control of costs and revenuesControl of cost of material and other costs, such as labor and overheads, associated with the operation of food production, beverage provision and other services, and the control or revenue.(h) Monitoring of consumer satisfactionThe monitoring of customer satisfaction to continually check on the extent to which the operation is meeting customer needs and achieving customer satisfaction.
7Performance measure in foodservice operation Performance measure variablesSeat turnoverCustomer spend/ average checkRevenue per member of staffProductivity indexRatio of food and beverage sales to total salesSales/ profit per seatSales analysisDepartmental profitStock turnoverComplaint levelsLevel of repeat business
9Sectors of the foodservice industry Industry sector – HK terminologyPurpose of the foodservice operationHistorical SummaryHotel, motel and other tourist accommodationProvision of food and drink together with accommodation serviceSupported by developments in transport and business and leisure-related tourismRestaurants including conventional and specialist operationsProvision of food and drink, generally at high price with high levels of serviceGrew out of hotel restaurants (which were originally highly formal) through chefs wishing to start their own businessPopular catering including cafés, pizza, grills and steak houseProvision of food and drink generally at low/ medium price with limited levels of service and often high customer throughputHas gone through various phases.
10Sectors of the foodservice industry Industry sector – HK terminologyPurpose of the foodservice operationHistorical SummaryFast food including McDonalds and Burger King, KFC etc.Provision of and drink in highly specialized environment, characterized by high investment, high labor costs and vast customer throughputHeavily influenced by USA concepts; highly sophisticated meal packaging and marketingTakeaway including ethnic, snacks, fish and chips, sandwich barsFast provision of food and drinkDeveloped from a variety of concepts.Outdoor catering (ODC)(or ‘off-premises catering’ or ‘event catering’)Provision of food and drink away from home base; suppliers usually associated with a major eventDeveloped through the need to provide services at special events. The term ODC is misleading as little of this catering actually takes place outside
11Sectors of the foodservice industry Industry sector – HK terminologyPurpose of the foodservice operationHistorical SummaryRetail storesFast provision of food and drinkDeveloped originally from prestigious stores wishing to provide food and drink as part of the retailing experienceEvents/ banqueting/ conferencing/ exhibitionsProvision of large scale food and drink for eventsOriginally associated with hotels but has now become major sector in its own rightLeisure attractions such as theme park, museums, galleries, cinemas and theatresProvision of food and drink to people engaged in another pursuitIncrease in leisure have made profit from food and drink
12Sectors of the foodservice industry Industry sector – HK terminologyPurpose of the foodservice operationHistorical SummaryIndustrial catering either in-house operations or through catering/ foodservice contractorsProvision of food and drink to people at workDeveloped out or recognition that better fed workers work better.Motorway service stationsProvision of food and drink, together with petrol and other retail services, often in isolated locationsDeveloped in the 1960s with the advent of motorway building.Transport catering including railways, airline and marineProvision of food and drink to people on the moveGrew out of the need to meet the demands of the travelling public. Originally service were of high levels, reflecting the type of traveler. Eventually changed to meet the needs of a wide range of traveler.
13Sectors of the foodservice industry Industry sector – HK terminologyPurpose of the foodservice operationHistorical SummaryWelfare catering orSocial caterer/ foodservice (student, healthcare. Institutional and military)Provision of food and drink to people in colleges, universities, the armed forces and to people through established social needHighly regulated and maintainedLicensed trade including wine bars, licensed clubs and member’ clubProvision of food and drink in an environment dominated by licensing requirementsDeveloped from bars and other drinking places with increased regulation and liquor licensing requirements
14Classification of F & B Industry Extremely diverse & fragmented that the size & scope of the industry creates a challenge when attempting to organize & classify it.Classification approaches & options:Commercial (market oriented) & non-commercial (cost oriented)Customer type: general market or restricted marketOwnershipPrimary function or secondary functionStar rating or qualityType of cuisineService methodThemeLocation
16Commercial (market oriented) & non-commercial (cost oriented) Market oriented business characteristics:High % in fixed cost, for example rent, management salaries, depreciation of buildings and equipmentReliance on sales rather than decreases in costsAn unstable market demand for the productFlexible pricing policyCost oriented business characteristics:Lower % of fixed costs, but a higher percentage of variable costs such as F & B costsReliance on decreases in cost rather than increases in salesA relatively stable market demand for the productFixed pricing policy
18Ownership of F & B operations Management options
19Self-operated Franchise agreement The owner or organization manages the operation themselves. It could be a small, large or a franchised situation.Franchise agreement‘ With a franchise, the franchisee (the owner of the facility) pays fees to the franchisor (or franchise company) in exchange for the right to use the name, building design, and business methods of the franchisor. Furthermore, the franchisee must agree to maintain the franchisor’s business & quality standards’.
20Management contracting When an owner or operator of an establishment employs or contracts specialized hospitality or food & beverage service company to manage the whole or part of the operation. This could be either in a hotel or in a non-commercial institution, for example a university.OutsourcingIncreasingly, hotels are realizing that hotel-run restaurants are in some cases unprofitable due to many residents opting to dine at known branded outlets.Therefore, a new & emerging trend is where the hotel forms a partnership with a restaurant/coffee chain/bar brand that would operate from a designated area within the hotel.
21Popular F & B Services in Hong Kong Types of operationDescriptionFirst ClassOffering a high level of table (silver, Guéridon and/or plated) service. Often associated with classic or haute cuisine.EthnicEstablishments tending to reflect ethnic origin.ThemedWith a concept, which make it takes priority over everything else. The concept can be represented by architecture, food, music, and overall 'feel' of the restaurant.Bistro, BrasserieNormally serving one-plate items rather than formal meals.
22Popular F & B Services in Hong Kong Types of operationDescriptionCoffee shop or caféA small social gathering place which sells varieties of coffee and tea. Some snack, light food and portioned dessert as supplement.CafeteriaPrimarily self-service with customer choosing selection from a counter or counters in varying designs and layouts.Fast Food OutletSubstantial sector in the catering industry. Meeting the needs of all-day meal taking and also the need for ‘grab and go’ service.Wine barsCommonly wine themed. A typical feature of many wine bars is a wide selection of wines available by the glass.
23Partial list of restaurants in Hong Kong Company NameType of FoodNo. of OutletsMaximsChinese Restaurants/Chinese fast food/ Lunch Boxes376McDonaldsFast FoodMcCafeCafé de CoralChinese fast food/ Lunch Boxes151Fairwood107KFC62Burger King15StarbucksCoffee & Snacks115Pacific Coffee110Outback SteakhouseAmerican style dining7Deli FranceFast Food sandwiches34Oliver’s Super SandwichFast Food Sandwiches/ Salads18Pret a Manger12California Pizza KitchenAmerican style pizza4TGI’s Fridays1Dan Ryan’s3
24F & B services in hotelsMost hotels operate multiple F & B outlets. Outlets, products and services offered are subject to change from property to property. The outlets could be:1. Employee dining2. Mini Bar3. Fine dining4. Restaurant5. Coffee Shop6. Conferencing & Banqueting7. Outside catering8. Room service9. Bar10. Lounge
25F & B in accommodation 5-star hotels Coffee shop, Fine dining restaurant, Specialty restaurant, Bar, Coffee lounge, Banqueting, Outside catering, 24hrs full room service menu, Executive lounge, In room guest amenities, Mini bar, Pool café, Employee dining4-star hotelsCoffee shop, Specialty restaurant, Bar & lounge, Guest amenities, Conference & banqueting, Mini bar, Employee diningBudget hotelsBreakfast buffet, Bar, Vending machines, Employee diningBed & breakfastBreakfast, limited set menu available at set times on requestHostelSnack bar, Vending
26Definition of meal experience The meal experience may be defined as series of events both tangible and intangible that a customer experiences when eating out.Tangible- which can be feel by touching, seeing like restaurant tables, chairs etc.Intangible- which can be only sensed/felt like restaurant atmosphere etc.It is difficult to define exactly where a meal / drink experience actually starts and ends, although it is usually assumed that the main part of the experience begins when a customer enters a restaurant and ends when he leaves the restaurant.
27F & B services attributes in meal experience Material ProductQuality of F & BPortion sizeVariety of menu choicesFood and beverageConsistencyRange of tastes, textures, aromas, color, temperature, appearancePrice of meal/serviceAvailability of menu itemsEnvironmentCleanlinessLocation and accessibilitySize and shape of roomFurniture and fittingAtmosphere (color, lighting, temperature, noise level)Spaciousness of restaurantEmployee’s appearanceAvailability of parkingBehaviour and attitudeFriendlinessCompetenceCourtesyEfficiency and speedHelpfulnessProfessionalismResponsiveness to special requestsResponsiveness to complaints
29Food and beverage service personnel Different terminology can be used for the various job roles in differing types of establishment.Structure will depend on the level of service, style of service, size of establishment, restaurant capacity etc.
31Food and beverage manager The food and beverage manager is responsible for the implementation and setting of the food and beverage policies.In general, food and beverage managers are responsible for:Ensuring that the required profit marginsUpdating and complete new wine listsCompiling, in liaison with the kitchen, menuPurchasing of all materialsEnsuring that quality/quantity in relation to the price paid is maintainedEnsuring staff training in maintaining highest professional standardsEmploying and dismissing staffHolding regular meetings with section headsMarketing and sale promotion
32Restaurant manager/ supervisor Responsibility for the organization and administration of particular food and beverage service areas. These may include the lounges, room service (in hotels), restaurants and possibly some of the private function suites.Job duties consist of:managing employees,regulating business operations,resolving customer issues,create work schedules,monitor and evaluate employee performances,motivate staff members,monitoring inventory (ordering/ delivery),meeting health and safety regulations,
33Reception headwaiterThe reception headwaiter is responsible for accepting any bookings diary up to date.They will reserve tables and allocate these reservations to particular stations.Greet guests on arrival and takes them to the table and seats them.
34Headwaiter/ maître d’ hôtel/ supervisor Overall in charge of the staffIs responsible for seeing that all the pre-preparation duties necessary for service are efficiently carried outHeadwaiter will aid the reception headwaiter during the service and will possibly take some orders if the station waiter is busyHelp with the compilation of duty roster and holiday lists, and may relieve the restaurant manager or reception headwaiter on their days off.
35Station headwaiter/ section supervisor For large establishments the restaurant area is broken down into Sections.Each of the sets of tables (which may be anything from four to eight in number) within the section of the restaurant area is called a Station.Responsibility for a team of staff serving a number of stations within a section of the restaurant area.They take the food and beverage orders (usually from the host) and carry out service at the table with the help of the chef de rang.
36Restaurant Team Station waiter/ chef de rang Provides service to one set of table (between about four and eight)Usually less experience than a station headwaiter.Assistant station waiter/ demi-chef de rangThe person next in seniority to the station waiter and assists as directed by the station waiter.Waiter/ commis de rangThis person mainly fetches and carries.Pre-preparation task, such as cleaning and prepare equipmentTrainee commis/ apprenticeApprentice or learner, having just joined the food and beverage service staffDuring the service this person will keep the sideboard well stocked with equipment and may help to fetch and carry items as required.
38“Partie system”“Partie system” is a method of kitchen organization which is formal, structured brigade and in most cases, only found in high quality kitchens and restaurants.The way a kitchen is organized depends on several factors:The MenuThe type of establishmentThe size of the operationThe number of customersThe volume of food serviceThe physical facilities, e.g. equipment
40Classical Kitchen Brigade At the top of the kitchen brigade is Executive Chef or Chef De CuisineHis/her duties are:Responsible for entire kitchen operationsMenu planningDirect the kitchen staff trainingPlanning work scheduleSafety and sanitation standardsDesign of the menu, dining room and kitchenPurchasing and costingPrepared by Gabriel Choy
41Classical Kitchen Brigade The second in command is the Sous chef which literally translates as under the executive chefHis/her duties are:Directly in charge of productionCoordinate the preparation of menu itemsSupervising the kitchenAccept order and give command (e.g. Aboyeur)Controlling position for the whole cooking linePrepared by Gabriel Choy
42Classical Kitchen Brigade Station Chef (Chefs de Partie) Sometimes called Chef de Partie (Station Chef, or line chefs)In charge of particular areas of production, but under the supervision of chef and Sous chefDepending on the size of the kitchen, the number of stations will varyIt can be divided into 8 categoriesPrepared by Gabriel Choy
43Classical Kitchen Brigade Station Chef (Chefs de Partie) Saucier/ Sauce chefResponsibilities include the sauté station and preparation of most of the saucesGrillardin/ Grill chefResponsibilities for all grilled/broiled foods and their accompanying saucesRotisseur/ Roast chefResponsible for all roasted itemsPoissonier/ Fish chefResponsible for all fish and shellfish itemsEntremetier/ Vegetable chefResponsible for all hot appetizers, soup and vegetable/starch/pastaGarde manger/ Pantry chefResponsible for cold appetizers, canapés and saladsTournant/Relief ChefLiterally the “turning” chef, this chef fills in at any positionPatissier/ Pastry chefResponsible for all baked items and sweetsPrepared by Gabriel Choy
44Pros and cons of “Partie” system Advantages:Disadvantages:Chefs specilaize in a particular sectionClear route for progressionHigher quality mealsBetter allocate responsibility and accountabilityDetect and monitor problems more easilyStaff can be ideal when particular section of the kitchen are not busyExpensiveChefs become boredMore depend on staffs
45Success in food and beverage service Increasing pressures for improved professionalism in food and beverage service staff.The server is the main point of contact between the customer and the establishment and plays an important role in a profession.To be successful in food and beverage service requires members of staff to have:Sound product knowledgeWell developed interpersonal skillsA range of technical skills, andTeamwork
46Positive attribute of F & B service personnel Product knowledgesufficient knowledge and servicing procedure of all the items on the menuLocal knowledgeAble to advise the guest on the various forms of entertainment offeredPersonalityStaff must be courteous and good temper. Pleasing and well-spoken mannerAttitude to customersPositive attitude all the time and should be able to anticipate the customer’s need and wishes.Good memoryIt may help if they know the likes and dislikes of customers: where they like to sit in the food service area, what are their favourite drinks.HonestyTrust and respect that encourages efficiency and a good team spirit among the operators.
47Positive attribute of F & B service personnel PunctualityPunctuality is all-important.LoyaltyThe staff’s obligations and loyalty are firstly to the establishment.ConductThe rules and regulations of an establishment must be followed, especially in front of customers.Sale abilityAble to contribute to personal selling and merchandisingSense of urgencyTo generate the maximum amount of business over the service period, with as high a net profit as possible.Contribution to the teamAbove all, staff should be able to work as part of a team within and between departments.
48Food and beverage service It is also now recognized that food and beverage service itself actually consist of two separate sub-system, operating at the same time. These are:The service sequence – which is primarily concerned with the delivery of the food and beverage to the customer.The customer process – which is concerned with the experience the customer undertakes to be able to order, be served, consume and have the area cleared.Food and beverage service
50Food production methods As costs of space, equipment, fuel, maintenance and labor continue to rise, more thought and time have to be given to the planning of a production system and to kitchen design.MethodDescriptionConventionalTerm used to describe production utilizing mainly fresh foods and traditional cooking methodsConvenienceMethod of production utilizing mainly convenience foodsCentralizedProduction not directly linked to service. Food are ‘held’ and distributed to separate service areaCook-chillFood production storage and regeneration method utilizing principle of low temperature control to preserve qualities of processed foodsCook-freezeProduction, storage and regeneration method utilizing principle of sealed vacuum to control and preserve the quality of processed foodsSous-videMethod of production, storage and regeneration utilizing principle of sealed vacuum to control and preserve the quality of processed foods
51MethodExplanationBakingCooked in dry heat, in the ovenBlanchingDipping the food in to boiling water or oil for a short timeBoilingCooked in a boiling or rapidly simmering liquidBraisingBrowned in small amount of fat, then cooked slowly in a small amountCooked by direct heat from above or belowFriedCooked in fat or oilDeep friedCooked in enough fat to cover the foodGrilledCooked grill, over direct heatPoachingCooked in a liquid, just below boiling point (simmering)RoastingCooked uncovered, usually by in oven by dry heatSautéingBrowned or cooked in a small amount hot fat or oilSteamingCooked in steam with or without pressureStewingSimmering slowly in enough liquid to cover the food
52The service sequenceIt is essentially the bridge between the production system, beverage provision and the customer process. The service sequence may consist of eleven or more stage as summarized in the table below.Preparation for serviceTaking bookingGreeting and seating/ directingTaking food and beverage ordersServing of foodServing beveragesClearing during serviceBillingDealing with paymentDishwashingClearing following service
53Food production and beverage service Food production and beverage provisionCustomer ProcessService SequenceOutline of the relationship between the different operating system within a foodservice operation
54Five F & B service methods All modern food and beverage service methods can be grouped or categorized under the customer process:Table serviceSelf-serviceAssisted serviceSingle point serviceSpecialized service (or service in situ)In group A – D of the customer processes, the service is provided in areas primarily designed for that purpose, such as a restaurant or takeaway.In customer process E, the service is provided in another location, where the area is not primarily designed for the purpose, for example, in a guest room, lounge or hospital ward.
55Table service: the customer is served at a laid table Table service: the customer is served at a laid table. This type of service, which includes plated service or silver service, is found in many types of restaurant, cafes and in banqueting.Self-service: the customer is required to help him or herself from a buffet or counter. This type of service can be found in cafeterias and canteens.Assisted service: the customer is served part of the meal at a table and is required to obtain part through self-service from some form of display or buffet. This type of service is found in carvery type operations and may also be used for functions.Single point service: the customer orders, pays and receives the food and beverage, for instance at a counter, at a bar in licensed premises, in a fast food operation or at a vending machine.Specialized service (or service in situ): the food and drink is taken to where the customer is. This includes tray service in hospitals or aircraft, trolley service, home delivery, lounge and room service.
56Group A: Table serviceService to customer at a laid overWaiterSilver/ EnglishPresentation and service of food by waiting staff, using a spoon and fork, onto a customer’s plate, from food flats or dishesFamilyMain courses plated (but may be sliver served) with vegetables placed in multi-portion dishes on tables for customers to help themselves; sauces offered separatelyPlate/ AmericanService of pre-plated foods to customers. Now also widely used for banquetingFrenchPresentation of food service dishes individually to customers by food service staff for customers to serve themselvesRussianTable laid with food for customers to helpGuéridonFood served onto customer’s plate at a side table or trolley may also include carving and fish filleting, the preparation of foods such as flambageBar counterService to customers seated at bar counter (often U-shaped) on stools
57Group B: Assisted service Combination of table service and self-serviceAssistedCarverySome parts of meal are served to seated customers; other parts are collected by the customers from a buffet.BuffetsCustomers select food and drink from displays or passed trays; consumption is either at tables, standing or in lounge areaGroup C: self-serviceSelf-service of customersCafeteriaCounterCustomers queue in line formation past a service counter and choose their menu requirement in stages before loading them onto a trayFree-flowSelection as in counter to random service points; customers usually exit area via a till pointSometimes food is displayed behind the counter and the guests may indicate their choice to the counter attendant. The food is served pre‐plated and the cutlery is handed directly to the guest. Guest will pay at the cashier or have to buy coupons in advance.Note: some ‘call order’ production may be included in cafeterias.
58Group D: Single point service Service of customers at single point – consumed on premises or taken away5. TakeawayCustomer orders and is served from single point, at a counter, hatch or snack stand; customer consumes off the premises; some takeaway establishments provide dining area6. Drive-thruForm of takeaway where customer drives vehicle past order, payment and collection points7. Fast foodCommonly used nowadays to describe type of establishment offering limited range menu, fast service with dining area, and takeaway facility8. VendingProvision of food service and beverage service by means of automatic retailing9. KiosksOutstation used to provide service for peak demand or in specific location; may be open for customers to order and served, or used for dispensing to staff only10. Food courtCustomers may either order and eat or buy from a number of counters and eat in separate eating area, or takeaway11. BarTerm used to describe order, service and payment point and consumption area in licensed premises
59Group E: Specialized (or in situ) Service to customers in area not primarily designed for service12. TrayMethod of service of whole or [art of meal on tray to customer in situ, e.g. at hospital beds; at aircraft seats; at train seats; also used in ODC13. TrolleyService of food and beverages from a trolley, away from dining areas, e.g. for office workers at their desk; for customers at aircraft seats; at train seats14. Home deliveryFood delivered to customer’s home or place of work, e.g. ‘meal on wheels’, pizza home delivery. Or sandwiches to offices15. LoungeService of variety of foods and beverages in lounge area, e.g. hotel lounge16. RoomService of variety of foods and beverages in guest bedrooms or in meeting rooms17. Drive-inCustomer park their motor vehicle and are served at their vehicles