Presentation on theme: "Topic 2: Reference Introduction to Semantics. Referring expression Definition An expression used to refer to a specific referent (something or someone)"— Presentation transcript:
Referring expression Definition An expression used to refer to a specific referent (something or someone) in mind.
The same expression can be a referring reference or not, depending on the context. The indefinite NP A café in the neighborhood is giving away free coffee today. (+R) The popular image of Paris today is a café. (-R)
The definite NP Proper names, pronouns, the- expressions Tom wants to be a coffee barista. He opened a café last week. The girl who looks like Nicole Kidman is the new waitress. Ambiguous case If anyone can read ancient Egyptian, he must be a genius.
Opaque context Part of an expression can be substituted and the substitution produces different meanings in a given situation. Imagine that its a blank check. The check is an opaque context. You can cash in the amount of money you write. John believes that _______ is the best café in town. John believes that Starbukcs is the best café in town. John believes that Seattle is the best café in town.
An equative sentence Two referring expressions have the same referent. Starbucks is my favorite café. Starbucks= my favorite café.