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Glasgow Caledonian University

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Presentation on theme: "Glasgow Caledonian University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Glasgow Caledonian University
An International Scottish University Professor Caroline Parker Associate Dean International

2 Where are we? 1 hour from London by air

3 Scotland?? One of the 4 countries that make up the UK
Population of 5.1 million, 9% of UK total Own parliament since July 1999 with power over areas such as education and health Temperate climate (-5° to 25° C) Things we are famous for …….. Nanjing population 7 million Yangzhou 4 million

4 Scottish landscape Glimpse of the countryside

5 Scottish history

6 Scottish snow

7 Fun!

8 Scottish food & drink

9 Bagpipes & kilts

10 Hogmanay (New Year)

11 Loch Ness Monster

12 Glasgow? Top tourist destination Great shopping! Safest city in the UK
Top 10 City of the World 12th in New York Times world ‘Places to Go in 2012’ Great shopping! 2nd biggest shopping destination in the UK Safest city in the UK (Mercer Consultancy, 2011) Lively & friendly Largest student population in Scotland Beautiful countryside less than 1 hour from the city centre Commonwealth games 2014 How many people have heard of Glasgow? Did you know ……

13 Glasgow Caledonian University?
Modern university Founded 1875 as college University status 1996 Research Excellence in 3 areas in 2008 1st UK - Rehabilitative Health Sciences 1st in Scotland, top 10 UK - allied health 1st in Scotland, top 20 UK - built environment 17,000 students in Glasgow All courses professionally accredited 96.4% graduate employment Top for International student satisfaction 5 years in a row

14 MSc campus City centre London

15 City centre campus in New York - 2013

16 Academic Schools Glasgow School for Business & Society
Glasgow Caledonian University Glasgow School for Business & Society Engineering & Built Environment Health & Life Sciences MBA Accounting Banking, Finance & Risk Human Resource Management International Business Fashion Marketing Media & Communication Tourism … Network engineering Computer Games development Digital Forensics 3D Animation Mechanical Engineering Civil Engineering Environmental Management International Project Management….. Nursing Biomolecular & Biomedical Science Clinical Nutrition & Health Diagnostic Imaging Physiotherapy Vision Science … State of the art facilities Supported by global brands Morgan Stanley, Ralph Lauren and Marks & Spencer. The School has created more building and surveying graduates than anywhere else in the UK Unique, innovative, highly reputable programmes The UK’s only Honours degree in Risk Management GCU’s Financial Services suite of programmes is the first and only in the UK to have the backing of the Chartered Banker Institute, the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment and the Institute of Operational Risk Innovative computer game development and multimedia courses Major provider of health, social care and life sciences graduates for the health sector and NHS Business School signed to UN’s Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), Facilities-fashion factory, audio/video studio and the Communications and Media laboratory. e-motion lab ;networking labs ; Purpose built eye clinic ; nursing clinical simulation laboratory

17 Interaction Design Why should you consider the human component in the development of engineering & computing systems? Why you as engineers should consider the human in the development of engineering and computing systems

18 Lecture overview What do I mean by engineering
Human as ‘critical component’ Some interesting things about this ‘component’ Consequences of leaving people out Engineering disciplines – whether they are electrical, electronic, mechanical, computer or civil are greatly concerned with the properties and behaviours of the materials & mechanisms used to design and develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes. Students of these disciplines would therefore understandably not expect to find courses on psychology or biology appearing in their programme. However, with few exceptions everything that is created by engineers or computer scientists will end up being used by human beings. The machines, software, buildings and structures that emerge from the creative minds of future engineering graduates will be driven, operated, moved and lived in by ‘components’ whose properties and behaviours most engineers will know very little about. This lecture will argue the importance of understanding something about the end users of our systems; outlining the key characteristics of the human animal (e.g. memory, perception, attention, motivation) that impact on design; and highlighting the consequences when engineers have failed to do so.

19 Engineering Disciplines
Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Computer, Software, Civil, Games, Multimedia ….. Lets see how many engineers we have in the audience– I’m using the broad definition of Engineering here – Show of hands – how many **** are there - welcome Other disciplines? Broad focus of engineering disciplines is on properties and bevaviours of the things we use to design and develop

20 Behaviour under different physical conditions
Design Develop/build Maintain Materials/languages Mechanisms Properties Composition Structures Behaviour Behaviour under different physical conditions Behaviour in combination with other materials Limits/boundaries Best working conditions All areas of engineering learn how to design, build and hopefully maintain the things they create To do this you have to know about the materials or languages, structures and mechanisms you’re using to do so You learn about properties of things, their optimal operating characteristics and the boundaries for useful or safe performance. You learn how things behave, what happens when you change the things they interact with or the characteristics of the environment Can I just check you’ve all learned something about these things?! Good you should pass your exams then

21 One thing in common Interacted with Driven Played with Sat on
Worked with Lived in Assembled Watched Manipulated Operated Learned One thing in common But it doesn’t matter what that thing is you end up working to design or develop from computer networks to award winning films* – most of them have one thing in common – people. everything you are going to be involved in will be interacted with by a human being at some point, directly or indirectly. Understanding people or the end users of your systems might be seen as important then…. But how important is it to understand them? (“Bakekok Productions” which consists of Multimedia University students from the Faculty of Creative Multimedia has won 2nd place for the Malaysian leg to the TBS DigiCon6 competition with ‘KITIK’.)

22 Exercise 2 minutes What functions on a mobile phone are important to make a user happy? Talk to person sitting next to you Write down notes Ok – lets deviate for a moment – I’d like you to do a little exercise for me Imagine you’re designing a mobile phone – I want you to list the top 5 functions for a mobile phone that would make the user happy

23 Who did you imagine when you thought about the user?
What did they look like? What age were they? Male/Female? What brand of phone were they using? Where? Would your list have been different if I told you the phone would be used by 70 year olds? 14 year old girls? 6 year old boys? For use in the polar regions, in the dark Did I tell you who the user would be? Where it would be used?

24 One problem of not understanding user
Use own experience as a guide for design Engineers tend to be Male Between 18-50 Able-bodied Very comfortable with technology….. What do you know about other users characteristics, needs, requirements? Did you use your own needs as a basis for the design?

25 Poor understanding = poor design
Lets look at products from another direction for a minute Have you ever felt like this? Or this? Wondered how to operate something because its not obvious? Have you ever wondered, like the user of this oven did, why on earth someone designed it the way they did? Just close your eyes for a minute and think about the last thing you used that made you cross – why was that?

26 The user as a key component
As engineers you learn about Tolerances, metal fatigue characteristics As computer & network engineers you learn about Cache, jitter, throughput, RAM, As media engineers you learn about Formats, storage, display speed Do you think you could design, build good systems/structures without knowing about these things? So to summarise….. So what do you know about the human component?

27 So what do you know about the human ‘component’?
E.g. Storage characteristics (memory) Information processing & mental loading capacity (attention & perception) Change in physical characteristics of hardware and software over time (ageing) No two people are exactly the same Like the other things you might study the human part of the system has certain basic characteristics – but these vary between individuals, over time, and under different environmental conditions The next part of the talk will take a look at the essentials – start with a couple of physical characteristics then some mental ones

28 Some human characteristics Storage Processing Performance
Memory Learning Attention Perception Vision Energy

29 Memory Two well known types of human memory *
Short term or working memory Long term memory Short term/working memory RAM Conscious processing, short storage Check they have a pen and paper! Those who have can take part * Generally speaking

30 Time for 30 seconds

31 Short Term Memory Very limited! 7 plus or minus 2
The short-term memory capacity of most people is 5-9 items, some people have less, others have more. 7 plus or minus 2 Check they have a pen and paper! Those who have can take part

32 Long term memory - limitless
Stores learning Creation of pathways, synaptic links Well learned = well trodden pathways Chance of recall increases with number of links Strength of learning increases with frequency of access Routines, patterns of behaviour Unlimited but…. Forgetting/loss of skill Change in strength of links Weaken over time Long term memory however is apparently limitless. Because the recovering information from memory relies on the strength of pathways we can forget, or stronger pathways can prevent us accessing less well trodden ones

33 Learning Long term memory
We store patterns & use them to reduce cognitive load Swimming, initially difficult, then store procedures and don’t think about it Finding way around a new place Learning takes effort People prefer to stick to known things Qwerty keyboard

34 Affordance Concept – Donald Norman
Expectation of the way things should work Push Pull Turn Because of our learning we expect somethings to behave in specific ways – like door fittings Apple – pinch, flick, interface

35 So its not surprising that we get confused and annoyed when designers break conventions

36 Perception affected by learing
You see what you know E.g. Cultural expectation & learning Save failed Save succeeded The light coming in to your eyes hits the back of your retina and sends signals to your brain. These signals show light and dark, colours and tone, they don’t show tables, people, mother, dinner, enemy – these are concepts you have learned over time to associate with the patterns of light and shade, shape and colour In most cultures red is associated with danger and green with safety. Save failed Save succeeded

37 So what did you see happening in the above picture
So what did you see happening in the above picture? Tests were done with similar picture in Africa, the majority of the participants saw a family sitting on the ground by a tree and a girl balancing a box on her head.  On the other hand Western cultures placed the family indoors and the post behind the man the corner of the room and the box above the girls head a window with some vegetation outside.

38 Human Attention Exercise – Imagine
You’re designing a warning system to let operators know a very dangerous problem has occurred in a nuclear plant What would it do? How would you ensure you attracted their attention and then directed it to the problem area? Lights? Sound? OK – lets do another little exercise to keep you awake. Take a couple of minutes to think about this one Got an idea? Hold that in your head while I tell you something about human attention Hold that idea in your head while I tell you something about human attention

39 Human Attention Two parts Originally good for survival
Powerful scanner (parallel processing) Very limited focused attention We only perceive what we pay attention to Crowded room – pick out our name being spoken Originally good for survival Focus on task Be aware of danger OK – now I’ll tell you something about attention

40 Attention - Mixed channel
Hard to do two things at once Watch film and listen to parent! but can do some things at same time different types of activity (sound, sight, balance etc) Summary – human attention broad background filter system (parallel) focused attention, powerful but serial Can do more if inputs are different Now you know this would you design your alarm system differently? In what way?

41 Your nuclear alarm warning system?
Different design?

42 Visual characteristics
Just a quick look at some physical characteristics

43 Visual characteristics
Ageing Click here Contrast: The amount of light that passes through the eye of a sixty year old is only one third of that passing through the eye of a twenty year old. Individual differences Going to use computer interfaces to illustrate as we’re all very familiar with them Put in pic of eyeball and how we see Colour: 6.39 percent of individuals (mostly male) confuse greens, yellows and reds (Fowler & Stanwick, 1995). Click here

44 Levels of energy Human performance is highly variable
Tiredness is a major problem Effects Mood and motivation differences Thinking, decision making, multitasking and situational awareness Basic reaction times and vigilance The brain’s awake state also becomes unstable: lapses and microsleeps interrupt performance. . How do mental characteristics change with fatigue

45 Energy through the day Different energy levels Alertness High Low
Graph illustrates that we have alertness peaks and valleys (troughs) throughout the day. The troughs are the time of day when we are supposed to sleep, especially the nighttime trough. The afternoon trough or post-prandial dip affects individuals differently. However, a person who is sleep deprived will have a very hard time staying awake at this time of the day (can anyone say Siesta!). Thus, over the course of a day we experience ups and downs in our alertness level, EVEN if we had adequate nocturnal sleep. Low Time of day

46 Why is it important to know about the Human component?
Increase safety Increase usability Increase the success of products & services

47 Safety - Human Component failure
Human error is most frequently blamed by the media and official reports for major accidents Operator or other human errors blamed for 60-80% of all accidents in technology systems (Perrow, 1999). Costs in terms of human life and money are high

48 Memory limitation Pressurised chamber accident
Release pressure before opening Very experienced operator Failed to release pressure and died instantly Memory, attention – just 1 hour before his holiday Memory limitation We’ve seen that human memory, particularly the bit up front where we do the here and now thinking, is limited Also that attention is limited and that energy levels can affect both In this example a very experienced operator of a pressurised chamber – operated it successfully for years One day – thinking about his holiday probably didn’t depressurise before opening and bang Problem then designed out – but someone had to die first

49 Learned pattern Cash machine Europe design change Card then cash Stop people leaving card!

50 Human error is inevitable
Serial focused attention, parallel unfocused Limited short term memory Reliance on learned patterns Fatigue, distraction, cognitive differences Accidents are not

51 Usability & success Technical innovation? Large range of functions? Speed, efficiency? Offers a unique solution? Meets need Fits task Enjoyable Intuitive Desirable Technically Aesthetically Despite being sole manufacturer, intense competition – and pricey… iPhone very popular device Why? Technical reasons? Partially but not whole story Apple focused on understanding human characteristics Mental and physical characteristics -> usability Desires and aspirations

52 ….and the rest have followed and built on this success

53 Summary Engineers and engineering teams need to include knowledge of the properties and behaviours of the human ‘component’ in addition to traditional knowledge in order to support the safety, reliability, usability & commercial success of the products and processes they produce

54 Thank you for listening
Any Questions?

55 Interaction design research at
Three research themes Interactive and Communications Engineering Energy and Engineering Systems Sustainability in the Built Environment Three research themes Interactive and Communications Engineering Energy and Engineering Systems Sustainability in the Built Environment

56 eMotion lab emotion capture interaction recording studio
physiological evaluation emotional analysis software play testing focus groups depth interviewing body movement capture

57 3D/VR lab Design and evaluation of Head-Up Display (HUD) Interfaces
Driving simulator development Driver behaviour 3D visualisation Virtual Prototyping.

58 User testing Development & testing Game & entertainments
E.g. BBC, STV, Denki Mobile phones e.g. Orange, Vodafone Development & testing Health e.g. NHS, Ambulance service Automotive e.g. BMW, Strathclyde Police

59 Our Undergraduate Programmes Building & Surveying
Construction Management Civil Engineering Environmental Management Fire Risk Engineering Property Management and Valuation Quantity Surveying Building Services Engineering School of Engineering & Built Environment

60 Our Undergraduate Programmes Energy Systems Engineering MEng/BEng
Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Electrical Power Engineering Power Electronic Systems Mechanical Electronic Systems Engineering Mechanical and Power Plant Systems Engineering

61 Our Undergraduate Programmes Computer, Communications & Electronic Systems
Web systems Development Information Systems Development Games Programming Digital Systems Instrumentation Systems Network and Communication Engineering Robotic and Mechatronic Systems Engineering Audio Technology with Electronics

62 Undergraduate Programmes Creative Technologies (BA or BSc)
3D Computer Animation Audio technology with Electronics Computer Games Design Computer Games Art Graphic Design for Digital Media

63 Our Postgraduate Programmes Building & Surveying
Building Services Engineering Quantity Surveying Construction Management Real Estate Management International Project Management (Oil & Gas)

64 Our Postgraduate Programmes Computer, Communication & Interactive Systems
Information Technology Computer Science Digital Forensics IT Security Wireless Communication Advanced Computer Networking Wireless Networking Voice over IP and Unified Communication 3D Design for Virtual Environments Design Practice & Management Web Systems Development (.Net)

65 Our Postgraduate Programmes Mechanical, Electrical & Environmental Engineering
Energy & Environment Management Waste Management Sustainable Energy Technology Maintenance Management Mechanical Engineering (Design) Mechanical Engineering (Control) Applied Instrumentation and Control Electrical Power Power Electronic Systems Particulate Solids Handling

66 Thank you

67 Tuition Fees and Living Costs
GCU Glasgow Undergraduate £10,200 to £11,000 Postgraduate £10,400 to £14,500 GCU London MSc courses £12,000 MBA programmes £16,000 Up to £2000 discount £1000 guaranteed Student Bursary Merit based discount up to £1000 further information can be found at Living Expenses Glasgow: Approx £7,500 for 12 months London: Approx £10,200 for 12 months Tuition Fees and Living Costs Approx costs of Accommodation Standard Room £83 per week * En-suite Room £96 per week* Private sector Room £70 per week (approx)** * Inclusive of electricity and heating costs ** Excluding bills

68 How to apply Undergraduate applications Via UCAS
undergraduate documents to Postgraduate Applications to Or via

69 Research excellence 1st in the UK for Rehabilitative Health Sciences*
1st in Scotland and top ten in the UK for its research in allied health* 1st in Scotland and in the top twenty in the UK for research in the built and natural environment* Awarded UK Times Higher Education Award 2010 for Outstanding Support for Early Career Researchers. * In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise


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