3Scotland?? One of the 4 countries that make up the UK Population of 5.1 million, 9% of UK totalOwn parliament since July 1999 with power over areas such as education and healthTemperate climate (-5° to 25° C)Things we are famous for ……..Nanjing population 7 millionYangzhou 4 million
12Glasgow? Top tourist destination Great shopping! Safest city in the UK Top 10 City of the World12th in New York Times world ‘Places to Go in 2012’Great shopping!2nd biggest shopping destination in the UKSafest city in the UK(Mercer Consultancy, 2011)Lively & friendlyLargest student population in ScotlandBeautiful countryside less than 1 hour from the city centreCommonwealth games 2014How many people have heard of Glasgow? Did you know ……
13Glasgow Caledonian University? Modern universityFounded 1875 as collegeUniversity status 1996Research Excellence in 3 areas in 20081st UK - Rehabilitative Health Sciences1st in Scotland, top 10 UK - allied health1st in Scotland, top 20 UK - built environment17,000 students in GlasgowAll courses professionally accredited96.4% graduate employmentTop for International student satisfaction 5 years in a row
16Academic Schools Glasgow School for Business & Society Glasgow Caledonian UniversityGlasgow School for Business & SocietyEngineering & Built EnvironmentHealth & Life SciencesMBAAccountingBanking, Finance & RiskHuman Resource ManagementInternational BusinessFashion MarketingMedia & CommunicationTourism …Network engineeringComputer Games developmentDigital Forensics3D AnimationMechanical EngineeringCivil EngineeringEnvironmental ManagementInternational Project Management…..NursingBiomolecular & Biomedical ScienceClinical Nutrition & HealthDiagnostic ImagingPhysiotherapyVision Science …State of the art facilitiesSupported by global brands Morgan Stanley, Ralph Lauren and Marks & Spencer.The School has created more building and surveying graduates than anywhere else in the UKUnique, innovative, highly reputable programmesThe UK’s only Honours degree in Risk ManagementGCU’s Financial Services suite of programmes is the first and only in the UK to have the backing of the Chartered Banker Institute, the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment and the Institute of Operational RiskInnovative computer game development and multimedia coursesMajor provider of health, social care and life sciences graduates forthe health sector and NHSBusiness School signed to UN’s Principles for ResponsibleManagement Education (PRME),Facilities-fashion factory, audio/video studio and the Communications and Media laboratory. e-motion lab ;networking labs ; Purpose built eye clinic ; nursing clinical simulation laboratory
17Interaction DesignWhy should you consider the human component in the development of engineering & computing systems?Why you as engineers should consider the human in the development of engineering and computing systems
18Lecture overview What do I mean by engineering Human as ‘critical component’Some interesting things about this ‘component’Consequences of leaving people outEngineering disciplines – whether they are electrical, electronic, mechanical, computer or civil are greatly concerned with the properties and behaviours of the materials & mechanisms used to design and develop structures, machines, apparatus, or manufacturing processes. Students of these disciplines would therefore understandably not expect to find courses on psychology or biology appearing in their programme. However, with few exceptions everything that is created by engineers or computer scientists will end up being used by human beings. The machines, software, buildings and structures that emerge from the creative minds of future engineering graduates will be driven, operated, moved and lived in by ‘components’ whose properties and behaviours most engineers will know very little about. This lecture will argue the importance of understanding something about the end users of our systems; outlining the key characteristics of the human animal (e.g. memory, perception, attention, motivation) that impact on design; and highlighting the consequences when engineers have failed to do so.
19Engineering Disciplines Mechanical, Electrical, Electronic, Computer, Software, Civil, Games, Multimedia …..Lets see how many engineers we have in the audience– I’m using the broad definition of Engineering here – Show of hands – how many **** are there - welcomeOther disciplines?Broad focus of engineering disciplines is on properties and bevaviours of the things we use to design and develop
20Behaviour under different physical conditions DesignDevelop/buildMaintainMaterials/languagesMechanismsPropertiesCompositionStructuresBehaviourBehaviour under different physical conditionsBehaviour in combination with other materialsLimits/boundariesBest working conditionsAll areas of engineering learn how to design, build and hopefully maintain the things they createTo do this you have to know about the materials or languages, structures and mechanisms you’re using to do soYou learn about properties of things, their optimal operating characteristics and the boundaries for useful or safe performance.You learn how things behave, what happens when you change the things they interact with or the characteristics of the environmentCan I just check you’ve all learned something about these things?!Good you should pass your exams then
21One thing in common Interacted with Driven Played with Sat on Worked withLived inAssembledWatchedManipulatedOperatedLearnedOne thingin commonBut it doesn’t matter what that thing is you end up working to design or develop from computer networks to award winning films* – most of them have one thing in common – people. everything you are going to be involved in will be interacted with by a human being at some point, directly or indirectly.Understanding people or the end users of your systems might be seen as important then…. But how important is it to understand them?(“Bakekok Productions” which consists of Multimedia University students from the Faculty of Creative Multimedia has won 2nd place for the Malaysian leg to the TBS DigiCon6 competition with ‘KITIK’.)
22Exercise2 minutesWhat functions on a mobile phone are important to make a user happy?Talk to person sitting next to youWrite down notesOk – lets deviate for a moment – I’d like you to do a little exercise for meImagine you’re designing a mobile phone – I want you to list the top 5 functions for a mobile phone that would make the user happy
23Who did you imagine when you thought about the user? What did they look like?What age were they? Male/Female? What brand of phone were they using? Where?Would your list have been different if I told you the phone would be used by 70 year olds? 14 year old girls? 6 year old boys?For use in the polar regions, in the darkDid I tell you who the user would be?Where it would be used?
24One problem of not understanding user Use own experience as a guide for designEngineers tend to beMaleBetween 18-50Able-bodiedVery comfortable with technology…..What do you know about other users characteristics, needs, requirements?Did you use your own needs as a basis for the design?
25Poor understanding = poor design Lets look at products from another direction for a minuteHave you ever felt like this? Or this? Wondered how to operate something because its not obvious?Have you ever wondered, like the user of this oven did, why on earth someone designed it the way they did?Just close your eyes for a minute and think about the last thing you used that made you cross – why was that?
26The user as a key component As engineers you learn aboutTolerances, metal fatigue characteristicsAs computer & network engineers you learn aboutCache, jitter, throughput, RAM,As media engineers you learn aboutFormats, storage, display speedDo you think you could design, build good systems/structures without knowing about these things?So to summarise…..So what do you know about the human component?
27So what do you know about the human ‘component’? E.g.Storage characteristics (memory)Information processing & mental loading capacity (attention & perception)Change in physical characteristics of hardware and software over time (ageing)No two people are exactly the sameLike the other things you might study the human part of the system has certain basic characteristics – but these vary between individuals, over time, and under different environmental conditionsThe next part of the talk will take a look at the essentials – start with a couple of physical characteristics then some mental ones
28Some human characteristics Storage Processing Performance MemoryLearningAttentionPerceptionVisionEnergy
29Memory Two well known types of human memory * Short term or working memoryLong term memoryShort term/working memoryRAMConscious processing, short storageCheck they have a pen and paper! Those who have can take part* Generally speaking
31Short Term Memory Very limited! 7 plus or minus 2 The short-term memory capacity of most people is 5-9 items, some people have less, others have more.7 plus or minus 2Check they have a pen and paper! Those who have can take part
32Long term memory - limitless Stores learningCreation of pathways, synaptic linksWell learned = well trodden pathwaysChance of recall increases with number of linksStrength of learning increases with frequency of accessRoutines, patterns of behaviourUnlimited but….Forgetting/loss of skillChange in strength of linksWeaken over timeLong term memory however is apparently limitless.Because the recovering information from memory relies on the strength of pathways we can forget, or stronger pathways can prevent us accessing less well trodden ones
33Learning Long term memory We store patterns & use them to reduce cognitive loadSwimming, initially difficult, then store procedures and don’t think about itFinding way around a new placeLearning takes effortPeople prefer to stick to known thingsQwerty keyboard
34Affordance Concept – Donald Norman Expectation of the way things should workPushPullTurnBecause of our learning we expect somethings to behave in specific ways – like door fittingsApple – pinch, flick, interface
35So its not surprising that we get confused and annoyed when designers break conventions
36Perception affected by learing You see what you knowE.g. Cultural expectation & learningSave failedSave succeededThe light coming in to your eyes hits the back of your retina and sends signals to your brain. These signals show light and dark, colours and tone, they don’t show tables, people, mother, dinner, enemy – these are concepts you have learned over time to associate with the patterns of light and shade, shape and colourIn most cultures red is associated with danger and green with safety.Save failedSave succeeded
37So what did you see happening in the above picture So what did you see happening in the above picture? Tests were done with similar picture in Africa, the majority of the participants saw a family sitting on the ground by a tree and a girl balancing a box on her head. On the other hand Western cultures placed the family indoors and the post behind the man the corner of the room and the box above the girls head a window with some vegetation outside.
38Human Attention Exercise – Imagine You’re designing a warning system to let operators know a very dangerous problem has occurred in a nuclear plantWhat would it do? How would you ensure you attracted their attention and then directed it to the problem area?Lights? Sound?OK – lets do another little exercise to keep you awake.Take a couple of minutes to think about this oneGot an idea? Hold that in your head while I tell you something about human attentionHold that idea in your head while I tell you something about human attention
39Human Attention Two parts Originally good for survival Powerful scanner (parallel processing)Very limited focused attentionWe only perceive what we pay attention toCrowded room – pick out our name being spokenOriginally good for survivalFocus on taskBe aware of dangerOK – now I’ll tell you something about attention
40Attention - Mixed channel Hard to do two things at onceWatch film and listen to parent!but can do some things at same timedifferent types of activity (sound, sight, balance etc)Summary – human attentionbroad background filter system (parallel)focused attention, powerful but serialCan do more if inputs are differentNow you know this would you design your alarm system differently?In what way?
41Your nuclear alarm warning system? Different design?
42Visual characteristics Just a quick look at some physical characteristics
43Visual characteristics AgeingClick hereContrast: The amount of light that passes through the eye of a sixty year old is only one third of that passing through the eye of a twenty year old.Individual differencesGoing to use computer interfaces to illustrate as we’re all very familiar with themPut in pic of eyeball and how we seeColour: 6.39 percent of individuals (mostly male) confuse greens, yellows and reds (Fowler & Stanwick, 1995).Click here
44Levels of energy Human performance is highly variable Tiredness is a major problemEffectsMood and motivation differencesThinking, decision making, multitasking and situational awarenessBasic reaction times and vigilanceThe brain’s awake state also becomes unstable: lapses and microsleeps interrupt performance..How do mental characteristics change with fatigue
45Energy through the day Different energy levels Alertness High Low Graph illustrates that we have alertness peaks and valleys (troughs) throughout the day. The troughs are the time of day when we are supposed to sleep, especially the nighttime trough. The afternoon trough or post-prandial dip affects individuals differently. However, a person who is sleep deprived will have a very hard time staying awake at this time of the day (can anyone say Siesta!). Thus, over the course of a day we experience ups and downs in our alertness level, EVEN if we had adequate nocturnal sleep.LowTime of day
46Why is it important to know about the Human component? Increase safetyIncrease usabilityIncrease the success of products & services
47Safety - Human Component failure Human error is most frequently blamed by the media and official reports for major accidentsOperator or other human errors blamed for 60-80% of all accidents in technology systems (Perrow, 1999).Costs in terms of human life and money are high
48Memory limitation Pressurised chamber accident Release pressure before openingVery experienced operatorFailed to release pressure and died instantlyMemory, attention – just 1 hour before his holidayMemory limitationWe’ve seen that human memory, particularly the bit up front where we do the here and now thinking, is limitedAlso that attention is limited and that energy levels can affect bothIn this example a very experienced operator of a pressurised chamber – operated it successfully for yearsOne day – thinking about his holiday probably didn’t depressurise before opening and bangProblem then designed out – but someone had to die first
49Learned patternCash machineEurope design changeCard then cashStop people leaving card!
50Human error is inevitable Serial focused attention, parallel unfocusedLimited short term memoryReliance on learned patternsFatigue, distraction, cognitive differencesAccidents are not
51Usability & successTechnical innovation?Large range of functions?Speed, efficiency?Offers a unique solution?Meets needFits taskEnjoyableIntuitiveDesirableTechnicallyAestheticallyDespite being sole manufacturer, intense competition – and pricey… iPhone very popular deviceWhy?Technical reasons?Partially but not whole storyApple focused on understanding human characteristicsMental and physical characteristics -> usabilityDesires and aspirations
52….and the rest have followed and built on this success
53SummaryEngineers and engineering teams need to include knowledge of the properties and behaviours of the human ‘component’ in addition to traditional knowledge in order to support the safety, reliability, usability & commercial success of the products and processes they produce
55Interaction design research at Three research themesInteractive and Communications EngineeringEnergy and Engineering SystemsSustainability in the Built EnvironmentThree research themesInteractive and Communications EngineeringEnergy and Engineering SystemsSustainability in the Built Environment
56eMotion lab emotion capture interaction recording studio physiological evaluationemotional analysis softwareplay testingfocus groupsdepth interviewingbody movement capture
573D/VR lab Design and evaluation of Head-Up Display (HUD) Interfaces Driving simulator developmentDriver behaviour3D visualisationVirtual Prototyping.
58User testing Development & testing Game & entertainments E.g. BBC, STV, DenkiMobile phonese.g. Orange, VodafoneDevelopment & testingHealthe.g. NHS, Ambulance serviceAutomotivee.g. BMW, Strathclyde Police
59Our Undergraduate Programmes Building & Surveying Construction ManagementCivil EngineeringEnvironmental ManagementFire Risk EngineeringProperty Management and ValuationQuantity SurveyingBuilding Services EngineeringSchool of Engineering & Built Environment
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69Research excellence 1st in the UK for Rehabilitative Health Sciences* 1st in Scotland and top ten in the UK for its research in allied health*1st in Scotland and in the top twenty in the UK for research in the built and natural environment*Awarded UK Times Higher Education Award 2010 for Outstanding Support for Early Career Researchers.* In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise