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DEAF REAL UTOPIAS: Deconstructing the “Logic” of Audism

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1 DEAF REAL UTOPIAS: Deconstructing the “Logic” of Audism
Dr. Richard Clark Eckert Good Afternoon. Thank you for attending this presentation. I am Dr. Richard Clark Eckert. I am the founder and president of a new company called Diversity Dialogues that will be offering consulting services, training seminars, and workshops starting in January This presentation is a heavily abridged version of a seminar that is being developed. A working paper draft that includes slide numbers will be available August 1 on the Diversity Dialogues website. Anyone feeling like a radical critic of social arrangements and institutions that perpetuate inequalities? Trying to make hotel reservations --- what a nightmare!!!! Any Deaf folks in the audience? Diversity Dialogues

2 Interpreting the Deaf Medical Cultural Political
Clarifying the meaning of Deaf. What is Deaf? Foster (1995), Eckert (2005), Snipp (1987) Linguistic goes where? For reasons to be explained further on in the presentation it is being temporarily assigned to the political cell with emphasis in the intersection with cultural cell. Some Semantics Defining Deaf identity and culture by using the word hearing or any focus on bodily differences makes Deaf identity ambiguous. That is because bodily differences are ambiguous.

3 “isms” Ableism Audism Linguicism
As part of a paper delivered to the Canadian Hearing society Bauman et al used a linear Venn with ableism, audism, and linguicism. The linearity of their diagram is by itself problematic, but the locations of the cell labels all the more so. We want to be able to make the venn diagram comparable to the interpretations of Deaf, aligned with social evolutionary thoughts of the progressive era AND consistent with three prerequisites of Deaf ethnos. Radial diagrams facilitate the comparisons. What is Ableism? Linguicism? Audis?

4 Social Evolutionism Eugenics Eudemics Euthenics
Examining social evolutionary thought leads to an unending journey down the rabbit hole. Social evolutionsim is an ism. It took years, if not centuries to develop. From a Marxist perspective, the social evolutionism was a schema that facilitated the great transformations of the 19th century. Specifically, the emergence of social evolutionism parallels the formation and growth of the modern nation-state. A word of caution – don’t use the term Social Darwinism to describe eugenics. Hauser, Peter C. Amanda O’Hearn, Michael McKee, and Ann Steider “Deaf Epistemology: Deafhood and Deafness.” American Annals of the Deaf 154(5): Holcomb, Thomas K “Deaf Epistemology: The Deaf Way of Knowing.” American Annals of the Deaf 154(5): Moores, Donald F. and Peter V. Paul “Summary and Prologue on Deaf Epistemologies.” American Annals of the Deaf 154(5): Paul, Peter V. and Donald F. Moores “Perspectives on Deaf Epistemologies.” American Annals of the Deaf 154(5): Wang, Ye “Without Boundaries: An Inquiry into Deaf Epistemologies Through a Metaparadigm.” American Annals of the Deaf 154(5):

5 Deaf Ethnos Ethnos H3 H1 H2 H1 - Hόmaenon H2 - Homόglosson
H3 - Homόthreshkon Eckert (2010) The concept of Deaf ethnos rests at the heart of understanding discrimination against the Deaf as not being about bodily differences. The key is COMMUNITES.

6 Intersections Deaf Ethnos 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 - Medicalized
2 - Linguicized 3 - Nationalized 4 - Classed 5 - Sexualized 6 - Gendered 7 - Politicized 8 - Cultured (religion) The intersections that occur at the borderlands of Deaf ethnos are primarily 1-3, but 4-8 also lurk at the boundaries of Deaf identities. There are some assumptions of heteronormitivity in most ethnic populations and that can. be a point of exclusion. I am not sure if the Deaf community exhibits more, less, or the same degree assumptions and attitudes of heteronormitity that the remainder of society expresses. I can on a personal level observe both. I would be prefer to see some empirically verifiable data. What can be pointed out with this diagram is that it is probable that multiple regressions would not work well. Structural equation modeling MIGHT facilitate this and was part of the formula of Deaf ethnos I included in 2010 article.

7 Deaf Ethnosexuality Deaf Ethnos A B C D A – Settlers B - Sojourners
C – Adventurers D - Invaders Nagel (2000a, 2000b, 2003) introduced a concept of ethnosexuality to describe the sexualized boundaries of ethnicity. She addressed many of the intersections discussed in the previous slide. Eckert (2010b, n.d.) To best of my knowledge I am the only one in Deaf Studies to mention the concept of Deaf ethnosexuality in any peer reviewed publication. I think John Walker in the United Kingdom may have sought my permission to use the term in a presentation of his but am not aware of any other scholar even using the term. More recently I submitted a detailed article and am awaiting the results of the peer review. As such much of what is expressed in this slide is relatively new and has not undergone the same level of scrutiny as Deaf ethnos has.

8 Auditory Industrial Complex
Medical Industries Specialists Pedagogy Legislative Eberwein (2007) was looking for a way to describe the collaborative efforts of medical industries, government, and health care specialists. He came up with the idea of an AIC that is comparable to the military industrial complex or what C Wright Mills called the Power Elite which is comprised of big business, government, and the military. In the case of the AIC, the government emphasis on legislating Deaf educational policies that benefit the medical industries is key. Audiologists and speech pathologists are foot soldiers. CI surgeons are in this diagram probably located at the intersection of medical, pedagogy, and specialists.

9 Deaf Real Utopias Evaluate desirability, viability, and achievability.
Do not let achievability dictate discussion of viability. Clarify the problem of winners and losers in structural transformation. Wright (2012, 2010, 2007, 2006). Erik Olin Wright has spent decades developing what he calls “real utopias” These are not lofty ideals of the imagination. The focus is on the practical. Wright was coming from a perspective of what to do with socialism now that capitalism seems to have no competing economic system. Rather than focus on a grand theory, Wright was attempting to open the door for social change in increments and manifested in a variety of ways. At the core was an idea of who is a radical critic.

10 DRU Identify normative trade-offs in institutional design (including costs). Analyze alternatives in terms of waystations and intermediary forms as well as destination. Wright noted, “To be a radical critic of existing institutions and social arrangements is to identify harms that are generated by the existing arrangements, to formulate alternatives which might mitigate those harms, and to propose transformative strategies for realizing those alternatives” (2007:26). Wright doesn’t deny class struggles, but he does question the capacity of class struggles as a basis of praxis when trying to transform capitalism. The exploration of alternatives is what Wright calls “envisioning real utopias”.

11 Transformative Justice
Ruptural : Interstatial: Symbiotic:  Smash the State  Ignore the State  Use the State From Wright (2006: )

12 An Emancipated Future An integral framework of social justice that combines the ruptural, interstatical, and symbiotic strategies of Deafhood begins with Deaf Ethnos. 1. Disrupt assimilatory logic of audism 2. Create small Deaf administered organization with specialized missions to disrupt logic of audism in numerous niches in literature, arts, and sciences. 3. Use the state to make individuals, organizations, and institutions accountable. 4. Approach the rhetorical wars differently. Instead of seeing the popular mind as a vessel to be filled recognize the popular mind as a fire to be kindled. 5. Advocates of Deaf ethnos that fire. Trade Offs?

13 QUESTIONS? Deaf same you and me – painted by Nancy Rourke. Image used by permission of artist. Please do not circulate the image without contacting her. You can find other images and contact information at or at her facebook page Nancy Rourke – Expressionist Paintings

LAISSEZ-FAIRE OVERT Never Mind Killing by Police College Admissions AVT No Sign on Bus Animals Culturally deficient COVERT I’d like to hire more Deaf, but I can’t find any who are qualified. IDEA, ADA, Hollywood Images Childlike, I’m sorry Hulk My Valentine Deficient leadership AVERSIVE Your speech is beautiful, how deaf are you. Disability Services, TV ads with sign used Extreme Make Over 10/2010 Do you read lips? Were you born deaf? Post-deafness Ethnic Identity is outdated HANDOUT Eckert introduced a matrix of audism at the Wisconsin Sociological Association 2010 conference. A similar matrix was used by Rowley when presenting at the ASLTA conference in Together, Eckert and Rowley (under review) paired up to further define each cell in the matrix. I have recently added a few examples based on some happenings in the press.

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